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Orbitofrontal epilepsy

Amir M Arain, Nabil J Azar, Andre H Lagrange, Michael McLean, Pradumna Singh, Hasan Sonmezturk, Peter Konrad, Joseph Neimat, Bassel Abou-Khalil
RATIONALE: Hypermotor seizures are most often reported from the frontal lobe but may also have temporal, parietal, or insular origin. We noted a higher proportion of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy in our surgical cohort who had hypermotor seizures. We evaluated the anatomic localization and surgical outcome in patient with refractory hypermotor seizures who had epilepsy surgery in our center. METHODS: We identified twenty three patients with refractory hypermotor seizures from our epilepsy surgery database...
October 9, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Simon Wostyn, Willeke Staljanssens, Leen De Taeye, Gregor Strobbe, Stefanie Gadeyne, Dirk Van Roost, Robrecht Raedt, Kristl Vonck, Pieter van Mierlo
The mechanism of action of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is yet to be elucidated. To that end, the effects of VNS on the brain of epileptic patients were studied. Both when VNS was switched "On" and "Off", the brain activity of responders (R, seizure frequency reduction of over 50%) was compared to the brain activity of nonresponders (NR, seizure frequency reduction of less than 50%). Using EEG recordings, a significant increase in P300 amplitude for R and a significant decrease in P300 amplitude for NR were found...
July 11, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
Vibhangini S Wasade, Indranil Balki, Susan M Bowyer, Shaila Gaddam, Ali-Reza Mohammadi-Nejad, Mohammad-Reza Nazem-Zadeh, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh, Andrew Zillgitt, Marianna Spanaki-Varelas
Excessive yawning was described in some neurological conditions as part of periictal or ictal manifestations of epilepsy, most commonly temporal lobe. We present the first case of controllable yawning as a primary seizure semiology with dominant frontal lobe involvement in a 20-year-old man. Video electroencephalography recorded 8 yawning episodes accompanied with right arm movement correlating with rhythmic diffuse theta range activity with left hemispheric predominance. Magnetoencephalography coherence source imaging was consistent with persistent neuronal networks with areas of high coherence reliably present over the left lateral orbitofrontal region...
2016: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
C Ákos Szabó, Felipe S Salinas
The epileptic baboon represents a natural model for genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE), closely resembling juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Due to functional neuroimaging and pathological differences between epileptic (SZ+) and asymptomatic control (CTL) baboons, we expected structural differences in gray matter concentration (GMC) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Standard anatomical (MP-RAGE) MRI scans using a 3T Siemens TIM Trio (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) were available in 107 baboons (67 females; mean age 16±6years) with documented clinical histories and scalp-electroencephalography (EEG) results...
August 2016: Epilepsy Research
Andreu Massot-Tarrús, Seyed Reza Mousavi, Carin Dove, Susan Hayman-Abello S, Brent Hayman-Abello, Paul A Derry, David C Diosy, Richard S McLachlan, Jorge G Burneo, David A Steven, Seyed M Mirsattari
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the lateralizing and localizing value of ictal coprolalia and brain areas involved in its production. METHODS: A retrospective search for patients manifesting ictal coprolalia was conducted in our EMU database. Continuous video-EEG recordings were reviewed, and EEG activity before and during coprolalia was analyzed using independent component analysis (ICA) technique and was compared to the seizures without coprolalia among the same patients...
July 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Mohammad-Reza Nazem-Zadeh, Susan M Bowyer, John E Moran, Esmaeil Davoodi-Bojd, Andrew Zillgitt, Barbara J Weiland, Hassan Bagher-Ebadian, Fariborz Mahmoudi, Kost Elisevich, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a noninvasive imaging method for localization of focal epileptiform activity in patients with epilepsy. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a noninvasive imaging method for measuring the diffusion properties of the underlying white matter tracts through which epileptiform activity is propagated. This study investigates the relationship between the cerebral functional abnormalities quantified by MEG coherence and structural abnormalities quantified by DTI in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE)...
July 2016: Brain Topography
Ying Hu, Yubao Jiang, Panpan Hu, Huijuan Ma, Kai Wang
BACKGROUND: Patients with epilepsy frequently experience cognitive impairments, including impairments in social cognition. However, there is a lack of direct examinations of the affective and cognitive aspects of social cognition in such patients. The neural correlates remain to be identified. The present study was designed to examine the degree of impairments in different aspects of social cognition including empathy, emotion recognition, and Theory of Mind (ToM) in patients with epilepsy...
April 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Hanlin Tang, Hsiang-Yu Yu, Chien-Chen Chou, Nathan E Crone, Joseph R Madsen, William S Anderson, Gabriel Kreiman
Rapid and flexible interpretation of conflicting sensory inputs in the context of current goals is a critical component of cognitive control that is orchestrated by frontal cortex. The relative roles of distinct subregions within frontal cortex are poorly understood. To examine the dynamics underlying cognitive control across frontal regions, we took advantage of the spatiotemporal resolution of intracranial recordings in epilepsy patients while subjects resolved color-word conflict. We observed differential activity preceding the behavioral responses to conflict trials throughout frontal cortex; this activity was correlated with behavioral reaction times...
2016: ELife
Marina K M Alvim, Ana C Coan, Brunno M Campos, Clarissa L Yasuda, Mariana C Oliveira, Marcia E Morita, Fernando Cendes
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the presence and progression of gray matter (GM) reduction in seizure-free patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHODS: We enrolled 39 consecutive TLE patients, seizure-free for at least 2 years--20 with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signs of hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS), 19 with normal MRI (TLE-NL), and 74 healthy controls. For longitudinal analysis, we included individuals who had a second MRI with minimum interval of 18 months: 21 patients (10 TLE-HS, 11 TLE-NL) and 11 controls...
April 2016: Epilepsia
Yansong Li, Giovanna Vanni-Mercier, Jean Isnard, François Mauguière, Jean-Claude Dreher
The orbitofrontal cortex is known to carry information regarding expected reward, risk and experienced outcome. Yet, due to inherent limitations in lesion and neuroimaging methods, the neural dynamics of these computations has remained elusive in humans. Here, taking advantage of the high temporal definition of intracranial recordings, we characterize the neurophysiological signatures of the intact orbitofrontal cortex in processing information relevant for risky decisions. Local field potentials were recorded from the intact orbitofrontal cortex of patients suffering from drug-refractory partial epilepsy with implanted depth electrodes as they performed a probabilistic reward learning task that required them to associate visual cues with distinct reward probabilities...
April 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Lihua Sun, Jari Peräkylä, Markus Polvivaara, Juha Öhman, Jukka Peltola, Kai Lehtimäki, Heini Huhtala, Kaisa M Hartikainen
Patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) provide an opportunity to study affective processes in humans with "lesion on demand" at key nodes in the limbic circuitries, such as at the anterior thalamic nuclei (ANT). ANT has been suggested to play a role in emotional control with its connection to the orbitofrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. However, direct evidence for its role in emotional function in human subjects is lacking. Reported side effects of ANT-DBS in the treatment of refractory epilepsy include depression related symptoms...
November 2015: Neuropsychologia
Dario J Englot, Robert C Knowlton, Edward F Chang, Heidi E Kirsch, Srikantan S Nagarajan
INTRODUCTION: Intractable focal epilepsy is a devastating disorder with profound effects on cognition and quality of life. Epilepsy surgery can lead to seizure freedom in patients with focal epilepsy; however, sometimes it fails owing to an incomplete delineation of the epileptogenic zone (EZ). Brain networks in epilepsy can be studied with resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analysis, yet previous investigations using functional MRI or electrocorticography have produced inconsistent results...
August 2015: Neurosurgery
Vladimir Karlov
AIM: The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to explore mechanisms that counteract epileptogenesis and provide antiepileptic protection in the life-threatening condition of status epilepticus; and (2) to access functional state of adaptation system and identify the roles of biochemical, humoral, and neurophysiologic factors in the antiepileptic protective system. METHODS: The experimental part of this research included a series of experiments using animal models which studied the influence of apnea (hypoxia and hypercapnia) on seizure activity; in addition, the role of the prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex in epileptogenesis and antiepileptogenesis was explored...
August 2015: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Zanna Voysey, David Martín-López, Diego Jiménez-Jiménez, Richard P Selway, Gonzalo Alarcón, Antonio Valentín
BACKGROUND: The brain region responsible for the initiation of K-complexes has not been identified to date. OBJECTIVE: To determine the brain region responsible for originating K-complexes. METHODS: We reviewed all 269 patients assessed for epilepsy surgery with intracranial electrodes and single pulse electrical stimulation (SPES) at King's College Hospital between 1999 and 2013. Intracranial EEG responses to electrical stimulation at orbitofrontal, frontal, cingulate, temporal and parietal loci were compared visually with each patient's K-complexes and the degree of resemblance was quantified...
September 2015: Brain Stimulation
Dario J Englot, Leighton B Hinkley, Naomi S Kort, Brandon S Imber, Danielle Mizuiri, Susanne M Honma, Anne M Findlay, Coleman Garrett, Paige L Cheung, Mary Mantle, Phiroz E Tarapore, Robert C Knowlton, Edward F Chang, Heidi E Kirsch, Srikantan S Nagarajan
Intractable focal epilepsy is a devastating disorder with profound effects on cognition and quality of life. Epilepsy surgery can lead to seizure freedom in patients with focal epilepsy; however, sometimes it fails due to an incomplete delineation of the epileptogenic zone. Brain networks in epilepsy can be studied with resting-state functional connectivity analysis, yet previous investigations using functional magnetic resonance imaging or electrocorticography have produced inconsistent results. Magnetoencephalography allows non-invasive whole-brain recordings, and can be used to study both long-range network disturbances in focal epilepsy and regional connectivity at the epileptogenic zone...
August 2015: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
K M Park, T H Kim, Y H Han, C W Mun, K J Shin, S Y Ha, J S Park, S E Kim
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the differences in brain morphology among patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy according to the occurrence of absence seizures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one juvenile myoclonic epilepsy patients with (n = 6) and without (n = 15) absence seizures were enrolled. We analyzed whole-brain T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging using FreeSurfer 5.1. Measures of cortical morphology, such as thickness, surface area, volume, and curvature, and the volumes of subcortical structures, the cerebellum, and cerebrum, were compared between the groups...
May 7, 2015: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Eun-Hee Kim, Mi-Sun Yum, Woo-Hyun Shim, Hye-Kyung Yoon, Yun-Jeong Lee, Tae-Sung Ko
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate cortical thickness and gray matter volume abnormalities in benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS). We additionally assessed the effects of comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) on these abnormalities. METHODS: Surface and volumetric MR imaging data of children with newly diagnosed BCECTS (n = 20, 14 males) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 20) were analyzed using FreeSurfer (version 5...
April 2015: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Leonardo Bonilha, Jens H Jensen, Nathaniel Baker, Jesse Breedlove, Travis Nesland, Jack J Lin, Daniel L Drane, Amit M Saindane, Jeffrey R Binder, Ruben I Kuzniecky
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether individual neuronal architecture obtained from the brain connectome can be used to estimate the surgical success of anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHODS: We retrospectively studied 35 consecutive patients with TLE who underwent ATL. The structural brain connectome was reconstructed from all patients using presurgical diffusion MRI. Network links in patients were standardized as Z scores based on connectomes reconstructed from healthy controls...
May 5, 2015: Neurology
Negar Memarian, Sarah K Madsen, Paul M Macey, Itzhak Fried, Jerome Engel, Paul M Thompson, Richard J Staba
Hypersynchronous (HYP) and low voltage fast (LVF) activity are two separate ictal depth EEG onsets patterns often recorded in presurgical patients with MTLE. Evidence suggests the mechanisms generating HYP and LVF onset seizures are distinct, including differential involvement of hippocampal and extra-hippocampal sites. Yet the extent of extra-hippocampal structural alterations, which could support these two common seizures, is not known. In the current study, preoperative MRI from 24 patients with HYP or LVF onset seizures were analyzed to determine changes in cortical thickness and relate structural changes to spatiotemporal properties of the ictal EEG...
2015: PloS One
Peng Fang, Jie An, Ling-Li Zeng, Hui Shen, Fanglin Chen, Wensheng Wang, Shijun Qiu, Dewen Hu
Previous studies have demonstrated differences of clinical signs and functional brain network organizations between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), but the anatomical connectivity differences underlying functional variance between the left and right mTLE remain uncharacterized. We examined 43 (22 left, 21 right) mTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis and 39 healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging. After the whole-brain anatomical networks were constructed for each subject, multivariate pattern analysis was applied to classify the left mTLE from the right mTLE and extract the anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mTLE patients...
2015: NeuroImage: Clinical
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