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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646033/implementing-a-reference-measurement-system-for-c-peptide-successes-and-lessons-learned
#1
Randie R Little, Robert I Wielgosz, Ralf Josephs, Tomoya Kinumi, Akiko Takatsu, Hongmei Li, Daniel Stein, Chris Burns
BACKGROUND: Assessment of endogenous insulin secretion by measuring C-peptide concentrations is widely accepted. Recent studies have shown that preservation of even small amounts of endogenous C-peptide production in patients with type 1 diabetes reduces risks for diabetic complications. Harmonization of C-peptide results will facilitate comparison of data from different research studies and later among clinical laboratory results at different sites using different assay methods. CONTENT: This review provides an overview of the general process of harmonization and standardization and the challenges encountered with implementing a reference measurement system for C-peptide...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641780/associations-of-maternal-prenatal-smoking-with-umbilical-cord-blood-hormones-the-project-viva-cohort
#2
Abby F Fleisch, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Lisa B Rokoff, Marie-France Hivert, Christos S Mantzoros, Emily Oken
BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with low fetal growth and adverse cardiometabolic health in offspring. However, hormonal pathways underlying these associations are unclear. Therefore, we examined maternal smoking habits and umbilical cord blood hormone profiles in a large, prospective cohort. METHODS: We studied 978 mother/infant pairs in Project Viva, a Boston-area cohort recruited 1999-2002. We categorized mothers as early pregnancy smokers, former smokers, or never smokers...
July 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634815/autoimmune-diabetes-induced-by-pd-1-inhibitor-retrospective-analysis-and-pathogenesis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#3
Marie-Léa Gauci, Pauline Laly, Tiphaine Vidal-Trecan, Barouyr Baroudjian, Jérémy Gottlieb, Nika Madjlessi-Ezra, Laetitia Da Meda, Isabelle Madelaine-Chambrin, Martine Bagot, Nicole Basset-Seguin, Cécile Pages, Samia Mourah, Philippe Boudou, Céleste Lebbé, Jean-François Gautier
Anti-PD-1 antibody treatment is approved in advanced melanoma and provides median overall survival over 24 months. The main treatment-related side effects are immune-related adverse events, which include rash, pruritus, vitiligo, thyroiditis, diarrhoea, hepatitis and pneumonitis. We report a case of autoimmune diabetes related to nivolumab treatment. A 73-year-old man was treated in second line with nivolumab at 3 mg/kg every two weeks for metastatic melanoma. At 6 weeks of treatment, he displayed diabetic ketoacidosis...
June 20, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632818/benefits-of-islet-transplantation-as-an-alternative-to-pancreas-transplantation-retrospective-study-of-more-than-10-ten-years-of-experience-in-a-single-center
#4
Barbora Voglová, Martina Zahradnická, Peter Girman, Jan Kríž, Zuzana Berková, Tomáš Koblas, Ema Vávrová, Lenka Németová, Lucie Kosinová, David Habart, Eva Fábryová, Eva Dovolilová, Ivan Leontovyc, Tomáš Neškudla, Jan Peregrin, Jozef Kovác, Kvetoslav Lipár, Matej Kocík, Tomáš Marada, Jirí Svoboda, František Saudek
BACKGROUND: Pancreas transplantation (PTx) represents the method of choice in type 1 diabetic patients with conservatively intractable hypoglycemia unawareness syndrome. In 2005, the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine (IKEM) launched a program to investigate the safety potential of islet transplantation (ITx) in comparison to PTx. AIM: This study aims to compare the results of PTx and ITx regarding severe hypoglycemia elimination, metabolic control, and complication rate...
2017: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629856/ethnic-differences-in-glucose-effectiveness-and-disposition-index-in-overweight-obese-african-american-and-white-women-with-prediabetes-a-study-of-compensatory-mechanisms
#5
Kwame Osei, Trudy Gaillard
OBJECTIVE: Prediabetes, a major precursor of type 2 diabetes, varies among ethnic populations. Therefore, we compared the pathophysiologic mechanisms of prediabetes in overweight/obese African American (AA) and White American (WA) women. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We recruited 95 women (67 AA, 28 WA) with prediabetes. Standard OGTT and FSIVGTT were performed in each subject. Insulin sensitivity (Si), glucose effectiveness (Sg), beta cell function (acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg) and disposition index (DI: Si×AIRg) were calculated using Bergman's Minmod...
March 14, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626948/racial-and-ethnic-differences-among-children-with-new-onset-autoimmune-type-1-diabetes
#6
K Gandhi, M Tosur, R Schaub, M W Haymond, M J Redondo
AIM: To compare demographic and clinical characteristics among children from ethnic minorities and non-Hispanic white children with new-onset autoimmune Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We analysed a single-centre series of 712 children with new-onset autoimmune Type 1 diabetes between January 2008 and March 2011. The median (range) age was 9.7 (0.3-18.1) years, the mean (sd) BMI percentile was 69.7 (25.4) and 48.3% of the cohort were girls. The cohort comprised 57.3% non-Hispanic white, 20...
June 19, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626170/investigating-the-relationship-between-morning-glycemic-variability-and-patient-characteristics-using-continuous-glucose-monitoring-data-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#7
Soichi Takeishi, Akihiro Mori, Miyuka Kawai, Yohei Yoshida, Hiroki Hachiya, Takayuki Yumura, Shun Ito, Takashi Shibuya, Nobutoshi Fushimi, Noritsugu Ohashi, Hiromi Kawai
Objective To investigate the relationship between patient characteristics and morning glycemic variability. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 106 patients with type 2 diabetes who underwent continuous glucose monitoring during admission. The highest postprandial glucose level (within 3 hours after breakfast; 'highest level'), the time from the start of breakfast to the highest postprandial glucose level ('highest time'), the difference between the pre-breakfast and highest postprandial breakfast glucose level ('increase'), the area under the curve (AUC; ≥180 mg/dL) for the glycemic variability within 3 hours after breakfast ('morning AUC'), and the post-breakfast glucose gradient ('gradient') were calculated...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625360/hypoxia-primed-placental-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-wound-healing
#8
Suja Ann Mathew, Bhawna Chandravanshi, Ramesh Bhonde
AIMS: To investigate how Placental Mesenchymal Stem Cells (P-MSCs) would adapt themselves and survive under hypoxic conditions which are prevalent in most injury sites. MAIN METHODS: P-MSCs were isolated from term placenta and characterised under normoxia and hypoxia (2-2.5% O2). Cells were examined for morphology and surface marker variations by flow cytometry analysis. Glucose stimulated insulin secretion was assayed by Insulin ELISA Kit. Gene expression levels were estimated using Real Time PCR for hypoxia inducible factor1 alpha, Insulin (INS), Glucose transporters (GLUT-1, GLUT-2 and GLUT-3), Adhesion Proteins- Integrins, Fibronectin1 (FN1), E-Cadherin (CDH1), and N-Cadherin (CDH2) and angiogenesis marker VEGFA...
June 15, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621148/association-between-cognitive-vulnerability-to-depression%C3%A2-%C3%A2-dysfunctional-attitudes-and-glycaemic-control-among-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-in-a-hospital-in-beijing-a-multivariate-regression-analysis
#9
Yue Ma, Xun Li, Dandan Zhao, Rui Wu, Hongfeng Sun, Shibo Chen, Linyun Wang, Xue Fang, Jin Huang, Xia Li, Ying Zhang, Guangjian Jiang, Dongwei Zhang, Yanyun Pan, Tian An, Yue Shi, Jiacheng Zuo, Na Yu, Sihua Gao
This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and cognitive vulnerability to depression (dysfunctional attitudes) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 245 valid records from June 2016 to December 2016 were collected from a hospital in Beijing. Participants were asked to complete four questionnaires (Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, Zung Self-rating Depression Scale, and World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument-Short Form) to assess mental health and quality of life...
June 16, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620093/increased-interleukin-35-levels-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-with-remaining-c-peptide
#10
Daniel Espes, Kailash Singh, Stellan Sandler, Per-Ola Carlsson
OBJECTIVE: Many patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes have remaining functional β-cells. This study investigated immunological differences between patients with or without measurable remaining endogenous insulin production after ≥10 years duration of disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients (n = 113; ≥18 years of age) with type 1 diabetes and with disease duration of ≥10 years were recruited at Uppsala University Hospital. Residual β-cell function was determined with an ultrasensitive C-peptide ELISA...
June 15, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614004/anthropometric-features-are-not-predictive-of-72-hour-fast-duration-in-insulinomas
#11
Diane Donegan, Iva Jakubikova, Adrian Vella
BACKGROUND: The 72 hour fast is used to document Whipple's triad and understand the mechanism of hypoglycemia. Although hypoglycaemia develops within 24 hours in the majority of fasts, identifying possible determinants of fast duration may help to predict the need for admission. Therefore we determined the relation between anthropometric features on fast duration and assessed end of fast parameters on maximal tumor size, extent of disease or tumor recurrence. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients with insulinoma in the past 25 years who underwent a 72 hour fast conducted...
June 14, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611037/inhibition-of-renal-sodium-glucose-co-transport-with-empagliflozin-lowers-fasting-plasma-glucose-and-improves-beta-cell-function-in-subjects-with-impaired-fasting-glucose
#12
Muhammad Abdul-Ghani, Hussein Al Jobori, Giuseppe Daniele, John Adams, Eugenio Cersosimo, Curtis Triplitt, Ralph A DeFronzo
To examine the effect of renal sodium glucose co-transporter inhibition with empagliflozin on the fasting plasma glucose concentration and beta cell function in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG).8 subjects with normal fasting glucose and 8 subjects with IFG received empagliflozin (25 mg/day) for 2 weeks. Fasting plasma glucose concentration and beta cell function was measured with a 9-step hyperglycemic clamp before and 48 hours and 14 days after the start of empagliflozin.Empagliflozin caused 50±4 and 45±4 grams glucosuria on day 2 in IFG and NFG subjects, respectively, and the glucosuria was maintained for 2 weeks in both groups...
June 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610906/a-walnut-containing-meal-had-similar-effects-on-early-satiety-cck-and-pyy-but-attenuated-the-postprandial-glp-1-and-insulin-response-compared-to-a-nut-free-control-meal
#13
Cheryl L Rock, Shirley W Flatt, Hava-Shoshana Barkai, Bilge Pakiz, Dennis D Heath
Regular nut consumption is associated with lower adiposity and reduced weight gain in adulthood. Walnut feeding studies have observed minimal effect on body weight despite potential additional energy intake. Several mechanisms may explain why consuming nuts promotes weight control, including increased early phase satiety, possibly reflected in postprandial response of gastrointestinal and pancreatic peptides hypothesized to affect appetite. The purpose of this study was to compare postprandial insulin, glucagon and gastrointestinal peptide response and satiety following a meal with ∼54% of energy from walnuts or cream cheese, using a within-subject crossover study design in overweight/obese adults (N = 28)...
June 10, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606215/high-intake-of-fatty-fish-but-not-of-lean-fish-improved-postprandial-glucose-regulation-and-increased-the-n-3-pufa-content-in-the-leucocyte-membrane-in-healthy-overweight-adults-a-randomised-trial
#14
Anita Helland, Marianne Bratlie, Ingrid V Hagen, Svein A Mjøs, Steinar Sørnes, Alfred Ingvar Halstensen, Karl A Brokstad, Harald Sveier, Grethe Rosenlund, Gunnar Mellgren, Oddrun A Gudbrandsen
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is low in populations with a high fish intake; however prospective studies with fish intake have shown positive, negative or no association between fish intake and the risk for T2D. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high intake of lean or fatty fish on glucose tolerance, leucocyte membrane fatty acid composition and leucocyte function in overweight/obese adults. In this randomised clinical trial, sixty-eight healthy overweight/obese participants consumed 750 g/week of either lean or fatty fish as dinners, or were instructed to continue their normal eating habits but to avoid fish intake (control group), for 8 weeks...
June 13, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596690/continuing-episodes-of-pain-in-recurrent-acute-pancreatitis-prospective-follow-up-on-a-standardised-protocol-with-drugs-and-pancreatic-endotherapy
#15
C Ganesh Pai, M Ganesh Kamath, Mamatha V Shetty, Annamma Kurien
AIM: To assess the outcomes of drug therapy (DT) followed by pancreatic endotherapy for continuing painful episodes in recurrent acute pancreatitis. METHODS: DT comprised of pancreatic enzymes and anti-oxidants failing which, endotherapy (ET; pancreatic sphincterotomy and stent placement) was done. The frequency of pain, its visual analogue score (VAS), quality of life (QoL), serum C peptide and faecal elastase were compared between baseline and after 1 year of follow up in all patients and in the two subgroups on DT and ET...
May 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595189/increased-incretin-but-not-insulin-response-after-oral-versus-intravenous-branched-chain-amino-acids
#16
Jan Gojda, Radka Straková, Andrea Plíhalová, Petr Tůma, Jana Potočková, Jan Polák, Michal Anděl
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are known to exert an insulinotropic effect. Whether this effect is mediated by incretins (glucagon like peptide 1 [GLP-1] or glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide [GIP]) is not known. The aim of this study was to show whether an equivalent dose of BCAA elicits a greater insulin and incretin response when administered orally than intravenously (IV). METHODS: Eighteen healthy, male subjects participated in 3 tests: IV application of BCAA solution, oral ingestion of BCAA and placebo in an equivalent dose (30...
June 9, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593916/preparation-calibration-and-evaluation-of-the-first-international-standard-for-human-c-peptide
#17
Melanie Moore, Thomas Dougall, Jackie Ferguson, Peter Rigsby, Chris Burns
BACKGROUND: Measurement of C-peptide by immunoassay contributes to the diagnosis of a number of disorders related to β cell function. Stocks of the current international reference reagent (IRR) for C-peptide, used to calibrate these immunoassays, are exhausted, and this report summarises the international study to establish a replacement World Health Organization (WHO) international standard (IS) to maintain the availability of a globally available reference material and support efforts to standardise C-peptide assays...
May 24, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592518/zinc-supplementation-does-not-alter-indicators-of-insulin-secretion-and-sensitivity-in-black-and-white-female-adolescents
#18
Andrea J Lobene, Joseph M Kindler, Nathan T Jenkins, Norman K Pollock, Emma M Laing, Arthur Grider, Richard D Lewis
Background: Zinc is a micronutrient involved in the production of, and peripheral sensitivity to, pancreatic β cell-derived insulin. To our knowledge, the effect of zinc supplementation on insulin outcomes, and potential risk of diabetes, in otherwise healthy children in the United States has not been investigated.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the influence of zinc supplementation on insulin outcomes in black and white girls in the early stages of adolescence. A secondary objective was to determine relations between baseline zinc concentrations and insulin outcomes...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591651/transplantation-of-human-pancreatic-endoderm-cells-reverses-diabetes-post-transplantation-in-a-prevascularized-subcutaneous-site
#19
Andrew R Pepper, Rena Pawlick, Antonio Bruni, John Wink, Yasmin Rafiei, Doug O'Gorman, Richard Yan-Do, Boris Gala-Lopez, Tatsuya Kin, Patrick E MacDonald, A M James Shapiro
Beta-cell replacement therapy is an effective means to restore glucose homeostasis in select humans with autoimmune diabetes. The scarcity of "healthy" human donor pancreata restricts the broader application of this effective curative therapy. "β-Like" cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC), with the capacity to secrete insulin in a glucose-regulated manner, have been developed in vitro, with limitless capacity for expansion. Here we report long-term diabetes correction in mice transplanted with hESC-derived pancreatic endoderm cells (PECs) in a prevascularized subcutaneous site...
June 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584815/from-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-insulin-producing-cells-comparison-between-bone-marrow-and-adipose-tissue-derived-cells
#20
Mahmoud M Gabr, Mahmoud M Zakaria, Ayman F Refaie, Engy A Abdel-Rahman, Asmaa M Reda, Sameh S Ali, Sherry M Khater, Sylvia A Ashamallah, Amani M Ismail, Hossam El-Din A Ismail, Nagwa El-Badri, Mohamed A Ghoneim
The aim of this study is to compare human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs), for their differentiation potentials to form insulin-producing cells. BM-MSCs were obtained during elective orthotopic surgery and AT-MSCs from fatty aspirates during elective cosmetics procedures. Following their expansion, cells were characterized by phenotyping, trilineage differentiation ability, and basal gene expression of pluripotency genes and for their metabolic characteristics...
2017: BioMed Research International
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