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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351487/contribution-of-parasympathetic-muscarinic-augmentation-of-insulin-secretion-to-olanzapine-induced-hyperinsulinemia
#1
Michael R Rickels, Elys M Perez, Amy J Peleckis, Erica Alshehabi, Huong-Lan Nguyen, Darko Stefanovski, Karl Rickels, Karen L Teff
Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been associated with the development of obesity and diabetes. In particular, olanzapine can induce peripheral insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia independent of weight gain or psychiatric disease. To determine if this compensatory increase in insulin is mediated by parasympathetic muscarinic stimulation, we randomized fifteen healthy subjects 2:1 to receive double-blind olanzapine or placebo for 9 days under diet and activity controlled inpatient conditions...
December 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351421/increased-insulin-clearance-in-mice-with-double-deletion-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-receptors
#2
Andrea Tura, Roberto Bizzotto, Yuichiro Yamada, Yutaka Seino, Giovanni Pacini, Bo Ahren
To establish whether incretin hormones affect insulin clearance, the aim of this study was to assess insulin clearance in mice with genetic deletion of receptors for both glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), so called double incretin receptor knockout mice (DIRKO). DIRKO (n=31) and wild-type (WT) C57BL6J mice (n=45) were intravenously injected with D-glucose (0.35 g/kg). Blood was sampled for 50 minutes and assayed for glucose, insulin and C-peptide. Data were modeled to calculate insulin clearance; C-peptide kinetics was established after human C-peptide injection...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351386/protective-effect-of-c-peptide-on-experimentally-induced-diabetic-nephropathy-and-the-possible-link-between-c-peptide-and-nitric-oxide
#3
Eman A Elbassuoni, Neven M Aziz, Nashwa F El-Tahawy
Diabetic nephropathy one of the major microvascular diabetic complications. Besides hyperglycemia, other factors contribute to the development of diabetic complications as the proinsulin connecting peptide, C-peptide. We described the role of C-peptide replacement therapy on experimentally induced diabetic nephropathy, and its potential mechanisms of action by studying the role of Nitric oxide (NO) as a mediator of C-peptide effects by in vivo modulating its production by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)...
January 19, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342295/empagliflozin-treatment-is-associated-with-improved-beta-cell-function-in-t2dm
#4
Hussein Al Jobori, Giuseppe Daniele, John Adams, Eugenio Cersosimo, Carolina Solis-Herrera, Curtis Triplitt, Ralph A DeFronzo, Muhammad Abdul-Ghani
Objective: To examine whether lowering the plasma glucose concentration with empagliflozin (SGLT2 inhibitor) improves beta cell function in T2DM. Research Design and Methods: 15 T2DM patients received empagliflozin (25 mg/day) for 2 weeks, and beta cell function was measured with 9-step hyperglycemic clamp (each step = +40 mg/dl) before and 48 hours and 14 days after empagliflozin. Results: Empagliflozin caused 101±10 and 117±11 grams glucosuria on days 1 and 14 and produced 25±6 and 38±8 mg/dl reduction (p<0...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340167/subcutaneous-glucagon-infusion-and-continuous-glucose-monitoring-enable-effective-management-of-hypoglycemia-in-a-patient-with-igf-2-producing-hemangiopericytoma
#5
Eric D Buras, Emily Weatherup, Jennifer Wyckoff
Background: Ectopic insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-2 production is a rare complication of an array of epithelial and mesenchymal tumors, and can clinically manifest as life-threatening hypoglycemia. Case presentation: A 49-year-old woman with 13-year history of metastatic hemangiopericytoma, previously treated with multiple rounds of chemotherapy and palliative radiation, presented to the emergency department after a hypoglycemic seizure. On arrival, glucose was 18 mg/dL (1...
2018: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338714/the-effects-of-metformin-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Selvihan Beysel, Ilknur Ozturk Unsal, Muhammed Kizilgul, Mustafa Caliskan, Bekir Ucan, Erman Cakal
BACKGROUND: This retrospective study investigated the effect of adding metformin to pharmacologic insulin dosing in type 1 diabetics on insulin therapy 1 year after treatment compared with patients on insulin therapy alone. METHODS: Twenty-nine adults with type 1 diabetes who had metformin added to their insulin therapy for 12 months were compared with 29 adults with type 1 diabetes who remained on insulin-alone therapy. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients with C peptide negative-type 1 diabetics (26 females, mean age: 29...
January 16, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335934/the-predictive-factors-for-diabetic-remission-in-chinese-patients-with-bmi-%C3%A2-30%C3%A2-kg-m2-and-bmi-%C3%A2-30%C3%A2-kg-m2-are-different
#7
Hui Liang, Qing Cao, Huan Liu, Wei Guan, Claudia Wong, Daniel Tong
INTRODUCTION: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass has been proven to be beneficial for patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In less-obese patient (BMI 30-35 kg/m2), surgical treatment is indicated when medication fails to control the T2DM. Asian develops diabetes at a lower BMI. For lower-BMI patients, the rate of diabetes amelioration varies significantly with patients of higher BMI after surgical treatment. The factors that contribute to the post-operative diabetes response rate in lower-BMI patients have not been elucidated...
January 15, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331269/clinical-benefits-of-autologous-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-type-1-diabetes-patients
#8
B Gu, H Miao, J Zhang, J Hu, W Zhou, W Gu, W Wang, G Ning
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by severe damage to pancreas islet function through immunological attack; therefore, it is also called 'insulin-dependent diabetes'. The present study aimed to evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) in adolescent patients with newly diagnosed T1D. A phase-II prospective, parallel-assignment, non-randomized trial was conducted from March 2008 to December 2011 with 40 T1D patients, of whom 20 received AHSCT therapy and 20 were treated only with insulin injections...
December 22, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329189/beta-cell-death-by-cell-free-dna-and-outcome-after-clinical-islet-transplantation
#9
Boris L Gala-Lopez, Daniel Neiman, Tatsuya Kin, Doug O'Gorman, Andrew R Pepper, Andrew J Malcolm, Sheina Pianzin, Peter A Senior, Patricia Campbell, Benjamin Glaser, Yuval Dor, Ruth Shemer, A M James Shapiro
BACKGROUND: Optimizing engraftment and early survival after clinical islet transplantation is critical to long-term function, but there are no reliable, quantifiable measures to assess beta cell death. Circulating cell free DNA (cfDNA) derived from beta cells has been identified as a novel biomarker to detect cell loss, and was recently validated in new-onset type 1 diabetes and in islet transplant patients. METHODS: Herein we report beta cell cfDNA measurements after allotransplantation in 37 subjects and the correlation with clinical outcomes...
January 11, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320773/association-between-antioxidant-enzyme-activities-and-enterovirus-infected-type-1-diabetic-children
#10
Adel Abdel-Moneim, Waled El-Senousy, Mahmoud Abdel-Latif, Rehab Khalil
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of infection with enterovirus (EV) in children with Type 1diabetes (T1D) on the activities of serum antioxidant enzymes in diabetic and non-diabetic controls. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Three hundred and eighty two diabetic and 100 non-diabetic children were tested for EV RNA using reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. Further, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) activities were estimated in diabetic patients (T1D-EV+ and T1D-EV¯) and non-diabetic controls...
January 10, 2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320718/adiposity-and-family-history-of-type-2-diabetes-in-an-admixed-population-of-adolescents-associations-with-insulin-sensitivity-beta-cell-function-and-hepatic-insulin-extraction-in-brams-study
#11
Daniella F Camilo, Ana Carolina J Vasques, Keila Hayashi, Andrea Tura, Cleliani de Cassia da Silva, Mariana P Zambon, Maria Ângela R de G Monteiro Antônio, Bruno Geloneze
AIMS: Insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction manifest differently across racial/ethnic groups, and there is a lack of knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for ethnically admixed adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the influence of adiposity and family history (FH) of T2DM on aspects of insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, and hepatic insulin extraction in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: A total of 82 normoglycemic adolescents were assessed...
January 7, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319810/the-second-phase-of-insulin-secretion-in-non-diabetic-islet-grafted-recipients-is-altered-and-can-predict-graft-outcome
#12
Orianne Villard, Jean Frédéric Brun, Lisa Bories, Nicolas Molinari, Pierre Yves Benhamou, Thierry Berney, Anne Wojtusciszyn
INTRODUCTION: Islet transplantation (IT) can treat patients with severely unstable type 1 diabetes. Pre-hepatic kinetics of insulin-secretion (ISec) in two phases can be calculated by C-peptide levels during meal tests. We propose to describe insulin secretion profile after a Mixed-Meal Tolerance Test (MMTT) in IT patients and to determine whether the calculated indexes of ISec can predict graft outcome. METHODS: We analyzed 34 MMTT among 11 patients who received an IT between 2011 and 2016 and compared them to healthy controls (C) and type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319794/an-observational-analysis-of-insulinoma-from-1-single-institution
#13
Zhixuan Zeng, Shuhong Hu, Shiying Shao
Background: Insulinoma is the commonest functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor causing hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. This study is aimed to evaluate the clinical features, preoperative laboratory and imaging diagnosis, and pathologic findings of insulinoma. Methods: Data of the patients from 2001 to 2016 diagnosed as insulinoma in Tongji Hospital, China were retrospectively extracted and analyzed. Results: A total of 40 patients were diagnosed as insulinoma with a male/female ratio of 0...
January 8, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308449/early-intensive-insulin-use-may-preserve-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-neonatal-diabetes-due-to-mutations-in-the-proinsulin-gene
#14
Lisa R Letourneau, David Carmody, Louis H Philipson, Siri Atma W Greeley
Although mutations in the proinsulin gene (INS) are the second most common cause of neonatal diabetes mellitus, the natural history of β-cell death and the most appropriate treatments remains unknown. We describe the management and outcome of two sisters with INS-mediated diabetes (S1 and S2) and suggest that more intensive insulin treatment of S2 may have resulted in better clinical outcomes. S1 was diagnosed with diabetes after presenting with serum glucose of 404 mg/dL (22.4 mmol/L) and started multiple daily insulin injections at age 4 months, followed by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) at age 42 months...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302932/hba1c-is-positively-associated-with-serum-carcinoembryonic-antigen-cea-in-patients-with-diabetes-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Jun Lu, Hongtao Wang, Xueli Zhang, Xuemei Yu
INTRODUCTION: To explore the influence of glycemic levels on the serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in patients with diabetes. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Patients with diabetes aged 18-75 years old were recruited. Those patients with carcinoma, abnormal renal function (serum creatinine ≥ 115 μmol/l), and abnormal hepatic function (serum alanine aminotransferase ≥ 97.5 U/l) were excluded in this study. Blood samples were obtained from every patient after an overnight fasting, and CEA was determined using a chemiluminescent particle immunoassay...
January 4, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301115/considerations-regarding-the-validation-of-chromatographic-mass-spectrometric-methods-for-the-quantification-of-endogenous-substances-in-forensics
#16
Cornelius Hess, Konrad Sydow, Theresa Kueting, Michael Kraemer, Alexandra Maas
The requirement for correct evaluation of forensic toxicological results in daily routine work and scientific studies is reliable analytical data based on validated methods. Validation of a method gives the analyst tools to estimate the efficacy and reliability of the analytical method. Without validation, data might be contested in court and lead to unjustified legal consequences for a defendant. Therefore, new analytical methods to be used in forensic toxicology require careful method development and validation of the final method...
December 18, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296240/sulfonylurea-for-the-treatment-of-neonatal-diabetes-owing-to-katp-channel-mutations-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Hongliang Zhang, Xiaobin Zhong, Zhenguang Huang, Chun Huang, Taotao Liu, Yue Qiu
The effect of sulfonylurea for the treatment of neonatal diabetes (NDM) is remain uncertain. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect of sulfonylurea for NDM and to provide the latest and most convincing evidence for developing clinical practice guidelines of NDM. A literature review was performed to identify all published studies reporting the sulfonylurea on the treatment of neonatal diabetes. The search included the following databases: PUBMED, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289464/kinetics-of-pancreatic-tissue-proliferation-in-a-polymeric-platform-in-mice
#18
Luciana Xavier Pereira, Celso Tarso Rodrigues Viana, Laura Alejandra Ariza Orellano, Simone Aparecida de Almeida, Marcela Guimarães Takahashi de Lazari, Letícia Chinait Couto, Anilton Cesar Vasconcelos, Silvia Passos Andrade, Paula Peixoto Campos
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pancreas regenerative capacity after injury is not always sufficient to comply with the body's requirement of digestive enzymes and hormones. We present an alternative system to induce pancreas parenchyma proliferation (exocrine and endocrine components), rather than regeneration or remodeling in normoglycemic mice. METHODS: Porous discs of polyether-polyurethane were surgically placed adjacent to the native pancreas and removed at days 15, 30 and 45 after implantation...
December 21, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288549/transplantation-of-macro-encapsulated-human-islets-within-the-bioartificial-pancreas-%C3%AE-air-to-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#19
Per-Ola Carlsson, Daniel Espes, Amir Sedigh, Avi Rotem, Baruch Zimermann, Helena Grinberg, Tali Goldman, Uriel Barkai, Yuval Avni, Gunilla T Westermark, Lina Carlbom, Håkan Ahlström, Olof Eriksson, Johan Olerud, Olle Korsgren
Macroencapsulation devices provide the dual possibility to immunoprotect transplanted cells while also being retrievable; the latter bearing importance for safety in future trials with stem-cell derived cells. However, macroencapsulation entails a problem with oxygen supply to the encapsulated cells. The βAir device solves this with an incorporated refillable oxygen tank. This phase 1 study evaluated the safety and efficacy of implanting the βAir device containing allogeneic human pancreatic islets to patients with type 1 diabetes...
December 29, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288524/insulin-deficiency-with-and-without-glucagon-a-comparative-study-between-total-pancreatectomy-and-type-1-diabetes
#20
Fumimaru Niwano, Yoshihisa Hiromine, Shinsuke Noso, Naru Babaya, Hiroyuki Ito, Sara Yasutake, Ippei Matsumoto, Yoshifumi Takeyama, Yumiko Kawabata, Hiroshi Ikegami
AIMS: Patients with total pancreatectomy and type 1 diabetes are similar in absolute insulin deficiency, but different in glucagon, providing unique opportunity to study the contribution of glucagon on glucose metabolism in insulin-dependent state. To investigate the contribution of glucagon to glucose homeostasis in complete insulin deficiency in vivo. METHODS: A total of 38 subjects with a complete lack of endogenous insulin (fasting C-peptide < 0.0066 nmol/L) and whose glycemic control was optimized with an insulin pump during hospitalization were retrospectively studied...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
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