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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202805/chenodeoxycholic-acid-stimulates-glucagon-like-peptide-1-secretion-in-patients-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#1
Signe Nielsen, Maria S Svane, Rune E Kuhre, Trine R Clausen, Viggo B Kristiansen, Jens F Rehfeld, Jens J Holst, Sten Madsbad, Kirstine N Bojsen-Moller
Postprandial secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is enhanced after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), but the precise molecular mechanisms explaining this remain poorly understood. Plasma concentrations of bile acids (BAs) increase after RYGB, and BAs may act as molecular enhancers of GLP-1 secretion through activation of TGR5-receptors. We aimed to evaluate GLP-1 secretion after oral administration of the primary bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and the secondary bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) (which are available for oral use) in RYGB-operated participants...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190890/c-peptide-baseline-and-postprandial-insulin-resistance-after-a-carbohydrate-rich-test-meal-evidence-for-an-increased-insulin-clearance-in-pcos-patients
#2
J Stassek, J Erdmann, F Ohnolz, F D Berg, M Kiechle, V Seifert-Klauss
Introduction Known characteristics of patients with PCOS include infertility, menstrual disorders, hirsutism and also often insulin resistance. These symptoms increase with increasing body weight. In the LIPCOS study (Lifestyle Intervention for Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome [PCOS]) long-term changes of the PCOS in dependence on pregnancy and parenthood were systematically assessed. In the framework of the LIPCOS study, PCOS patients were given a standardised carbohydrate-rich test meal in order to examine glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion...
January 2017: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190592/maternal-and-paternal-family-history-of-diabetes-in-second-degree-relatives-and-metabolic-outcomes-at-age-5-6-years-the-abcd-study
#3
A J J M Oostvogels, C P Landstra, L Britsemmer, R Lodewijkx, K Stronks, T J Roseboom, T G M Vrijkotte
AIM: To investigate whether children with a family history of diabetes (FHD) in second-degree relatives (grandparents, aunts/uncles) are at increased risk of developing obesity and diabetes, and whether the risk differs between maternal or paternal transmission. METHODS: In the multiethnic population-based cohort Amsterdam-Born Children and Their Development (ABCD) Study, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHR), fat percentage (fat%), fasting glucose and C-peptide in 5- or 6-year-old children with no second-degree FHD (n=2226) were compared with children with maternal-only (n=353), paternal-only (n=281) or both maternal and paternal (n=164) second-degree FHD...
February 10, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185837/insulin-promotes-her2-signaling-activation-during-barrett-s-esophagus-carcinogenesis
#4
Diletta Arcidiacono, Alessandro Antonello, Matteo Fassan, Daniele Nucci, Tiziana Morbin, Marco Agostini, Donato Nitti, Massimo Rugge, Alfredo Alberti, Giorgio Battaglia, Stefano Realdon
BACKGROUND: Insulin-resistance and hyperinsulinemia could have a role in the growing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and its pre-cancerous lesion Barrett's Esophagus (BE). HER2 activation has also a pivotal role in EAC carcinogenesis but no data correlate these two phenomena in this disease context. AIMS: To investigate the role of hyperinsulinemia in BE-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence and the possible relationship between insulin-mediated and HER2 signaling in EAC development...
January 22, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177187/efficacy-and-safety-of-canagliflozin-as-add-on-therapy-to-teneligliptin-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-results-of-a-24-week-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#5
Takashi Kadowaki, Nobuya Inagaki, Kazuoki Kondo, Kenichi Nishimura, Genki Kaneko, Nobuko Maruyama, Nobuhiro Nakanishi, Hiroaki Iijima, Yumi Watanabe, Maki Gouda
AIMS: To investigate efficacy and safety of the sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor canagliflozin administered as add-on therapy to the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor teneligliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 clinical trial in Japanese patients with T2DM who had inadequate glycaemic control with teneligliptin. Patients were randomised to receive teneligliptin 20 mg plus either canagliflozin 100 mg (T + C, n = 70) or placebo (T + P, n = 68) once daily...
February 8, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169284/long-term-glycemic-control-in-adult-patients-undergoing-remote-vs-local-total-pancreatectomy-with-islet-autotransplantation
#6
Samuel J Kesseli, Matthew Wagar, Min K Jung, Kerrington D Smith, Yu Kuei Lin, R Matthew Walsh, Betul Hatipoglu, Martin L Freeman, Timothy L Pruett, Gregory J Beilman, David E R Sutherland, Ty B Dunn, David A Axelrod, Sushela S Chaidarun, Tyler K Stevens, Melena Bellin, Timothy B Gardner
OBJECTIVES: Total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) is increasingly performed with remote islet cell processing and preparation, i.e., with islet cell isolation performed remotely from the primary surgical site at an appropriately equipped islet isolation facility. We aimed to determine whether TPIAT using remote islet isolation results in comparable long-term glycemic outcomes compared with TPIAT performed with standard local isolation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult patients who underwent TPIAT at three tertiary care centers from 2010 to 2013...
February 7, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164074/clinical-features-of-childhood-diabetes-mellitus-focusing-on-latent-autoimmune-diabetes
#7
Seung Ho Lee, Jeesuk Yu
PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of childhood diabetes mellitus (DM) according to its classification as well as the clinical course of latent autoimmune diabetes (LAD) that initially showed noninsulin dependence despite autoantibody positivity. METHODS: A total of 91 subjects diagnosed between 2001 and 2015 were enrolled in the study. They were classified into 3 groups: type 1 DM, LAD, and type 2 DM. Clinical features and laboratory findings were compared among groups...
December 2016: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161382/association-of-serum-pancreatic-derived-factor-pander-with-beta-cell-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Miral M Shehata, Mohamed M Kamal, Mohamed H El-Hefnawy, Hala O El-Mesallamy
AIM: Beta-cell dysfunction is the critical determinant for type 2 diabetes. The novel PANcreatic DERived factor (PANDER) has been identified as interesting islet-secreted cytokine that might be involved in beta-cell dysfunction, a role that has n"ot been clinically elucidated yet. Therefore, this study was designed to study the potential clinical association of this cytokine with beta-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Anthropometric parameters, routine biochemical markers and serum levels of PANDER were measured in 63 diabetic subjects including; recently diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients with duration of diabetes ≤6months and long-standing type 2 diabetic patients with duration of diabetes ≥5years then compared to 16 healthy control volunteers...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155915/age-but-not-anthelmintic-treatment-is-associated-with-urinary-neopterin-levels-in-semi-free-ranging-barbary-macaques
#9
Nadine Müller, Michael Heistermann, Christina Strube, Oliver Schülke, Julia Ostner
Studying host parasite interactions and their implications for evolution and ecology recently received increasing attention, particularly with regard to host physiology and immunity. Here we assess variation of urinary neopterin (uNEO), a marker of cellular immune activation and iummunosenescence, in response to age and anthelmintic treatment in semi-free ranging Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). Urinary NEO levels were measured via enzyme-immunoassay from 179 urine samples of 43 individuals between 5-29 years of age...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154279/acute-onset-type-1-diabetes-that-developed-during-the-administration-of-olanzapine
#10
Kenji Iwaku, Fumiko Otuka, Matsuo Taniyama
The patient was 32-year-old man, who received olanzapine for schizophrenia and developed polyuria and thirst without drinking soft-drinks after 4 months. Five months after the initiation of treatment, he developed diabetic ketoacidosis (blood glucose: 490 mg/dL, HbA1c: 15.5%). He was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-Ab: 5.6 U/mL, IA-2 Ab: 5.9 U/mL, fasting C-peptide: 0.12 ng/mL) and was put on intensive insulin therapy. At four months after the onset of 1A diabetes, he experienced a honeymoon phase that was sustained until the 40th month of treatment...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153010/targeting-muc1-c-inhibits-the-akt-s6k1-elf4a-pathway-regulating-tigar-translation-in-colorectal-cancer
#11
Rehan Ahmad, Maroof Alam, Masanori Hasegawa, Yasumitsu Uchida, Omar Al-Obaid, Surender Kharbanda, Donald Kufe
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is third most common malignancy and is the second most common cause of cancer-related death. The MUC1 heterodimeric protein is aberrantly overexpressed in colorectal cancer and has been linked to poor outcomes in this disease. Here, we investigate the effects of the MUC1-C subunit inhibitor (GO-203), which disrupts MUC1-C homo-oligomerization, on human colorectal cancer cells. METHODS: TIGAR mRNA level was determined using qRT-PCR. Western blotting was used to measure TIGAR protein level and AKT-mTOR-S6K1 pathways...
February 2, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134848/insulin-production-and-resistance-in-different-models-of-diet-induced-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome
#12
Salamah M Alwahsh, Benjamin J Dwyer, Shareen Forbes, David H van Thiel, Philip J Starkey Lewis, Giuliano Ramadori
The role of the liver and the endocrine pancreas in development of hyperinsulinemia in different types of obesity remains unclear. Sedentary rats (160 g) were fed a low-fat-diet (LFD, chow 13% kcal fat), high-fat-diet (HFD, 35% fat), or HFD+ 30% ethanol+ 30% fructose (HF-EFr, 22% fat). Overnight-fasted rats were culled after one, four or eight weeks. Pancreatic and hepatic mRNAs were isolated for subsequent RT-PCR analysis. After eight weeks, body weights increased three-fold in the LFD group, 2.8-fold in the HFD group, and 2...
January 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129999/long-term-risk-of-stroke-in-type-2-diabetes-patients-with-diabetic-ketoacidosis-a-population-based-propensity-score-matched-longitudinal-follow-up-study
#13
Y-L Chen, S-F Weng, C-Y Yang, J-J Wang, K-J Tien
AIM: To investigate the long-term risk of stroke in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients with previous episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). METHODS: This retrospective nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted using Taiwan's National Health Insurance database. Claims data from 2000 to 2002 were extracted for 3572 T2D patients with DKA and 7144 controls matched for age, gender, diabetes complications severity index, frequency of clinical visits and baseline comorbidities...
January 24, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129232/islet-cell-yield-following-remote-total-pancreatectomy-with-islet-autotransplant-is-independent-of-cold-ischemia-time
#14
Samuel J Kesseli, Kerrington D Smith, Min K Jung, Yu K Lin, R Matthew Walsh, Betul Hatipoglu, David A Axelrod, Sushela S Chaidarun, Tyler K Stevens, Timothy B Gardner
OBJECTIVES: Total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation is increasingly being performed remotely, that is, removing the pancreas in 1 location, isolating the islet cells in another location, then returning the islets to the original location for reimplantation into the patient. We determined the influence of extended cold ischemia time on key clinical outcomes in remote islet autotransplantation. METHODS: We evaluated patients who underwent remote islet autotransplantation at 2 centers from 2011 to 2014...
March 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128928/a-direct-in-vivo-comparison-of-the-melanocortin-monovalent-agonist-ac-his-dphe-arg-trp-nh2-versus-the-bivalent-agonist-ac-his-dphe-arg-trp-pedg20-his-dphe-arg-trp-nh2-a-bivalent-advantage
#15
Cody J Lensing, Danielle N Adank, Stacey L Wilber, Katie T Freeman, Sathya M Schnell, Robert Charles Speth, Adam T Zarth, Carrie Haskell-Luevano
Bivalent ligands targeting putative melanocortin receptor dimers have been developed and characterized in vitro, however studies of their functional in vivo effects have been limited. The current report compares the effects of homobivalent ligand CJL-1-87, Ac-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-PEDG20-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH2, to monovalent ligand CJL-1-14, Ac-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH2 on energy homeostasis in mice after central intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration into the lateral ventricle of the brain. Bivalent ligand CJL-1-87 had noteworthy advantages as an anti-obesity probe over CJL-1-14 in a fasting-refeeding in vivo paradigm...
January 27, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127851/impact-of-insulin-sensitivity-beta-cell-function-and-glycemic-control-on-initiation-of-second-line-glucose-lowering-treatment-in-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes
#16
Wolfgang Rathmann, Klaus Strassburger, Brenda Bongaerts, Pavel Bobrov, Oliver Kuss, Karsten Müssig, Daniel F Markgraf, Julia Szendroedi, Christian Herder, Michael Roden
AIMS: The aim was to investigate whether insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function or glycemic control at diagnosis predict initiation of second-line treatment in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Type 2 diabetes patients (n = 138) on initial metformin monotherapy (age [mean ± SD]: 52 ± 10 years; 67% males; BMI: 32 ± 6 kg/m(2) ) from the prospective German Diabetes Study cohort (n = 398) were included. Patients remained under treatment of their general practitioners, yet underwent detailed metabolic characterization after diabetes diagnosis for study purposes (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp: M value; i...
January 27, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127835/residual-beta-cell-function-in-diabetes-children-followed-and-diagnosed-in-the-teddy-study-compared-to-community-controls
#17
Andrea K Steck, Helena Elding Larsson, Xiang Liu, Riitta Veijola, Jorma Toppari, William A Hagopian, Michael J Haller, Simi Ahmed, Beena Akolkar, Åke Lernmark, Marian J Rewers, Jeffrey P Krischer
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes during islet autoantibody surveillance through The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study retain greater islet function than children diagnosed through the community. METHODS: TEDDY children identified at birth with high-risk human leukocyte antigen and followed every 3 months until diabetes diagnosis were compared to age-matched children diagnosed with diabetes in the community...
January 27, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127122/relation-between-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-and-directly-measured-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol
#18
Kristen M Tecson, Katherine S Panettiere-Kennedy, Jane I Won, Puja Garg, Oluseun Olugbode, Peter A McCullough
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a regulator of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) receptor (LDL-R) recycling and, thus, is a determinant of plasma LDL-C concentration. We sought to determine the relation between serum concentrations of PCSK9 and LDL-C while considering a variety of influential variables, including treatment for dyslipidemia. Using a prospective lipid clinic registry, we evaluated clinical variables, the results of advanced lipid testing, and PCSK9 concentrations determined by immunoassay...
January 2017: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125733/plasma-irisin-modestly-increases-during-moderate-and-high-intensity-afternoon-exercise-in-obese-females
#19
Nathan C Winn, Zachary I Grunewald, Ying Liu, Timothy D Heden, Lauren M Nyhoff, Jill A Kanaley
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Irisin is an exercise-responsive myokine that has been proposed to exert anti-obesity benefits; yet its response during exercise in obese women is not described. This study characterized plasma irisin levels during a single bout of afternoon isocaloric-exercise of different intensities (moderate- vs high-intensity) in obese females. METHODS: Eleven obese females participated in 3 randomized study days beginning at 1600h: 1) no exercise (NoEx), 2) moderate exercise (ModEx; 55%VO2max) and 3) high intensity interval exercise (IntEx; 4 min (80%VO2max)/3 min (50% VO2max)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124920/biomimetic-synthesis-of-insulin-enabled-by-oxime-ligation-and-traceless-c-peptide-chemical-excision
#20
Kishore Thalluri, Binbin Kou, Vasily Gelfanov, John P Mayer, Fa Liu, Richard D DiMarchi
For decades, insulin has represented a preeminent synthetic target. Recently introduced "biomimetic" strategies based on convertible single-chain precursors require incorporation of a chemical linker or a unique proteolytic site, which limits their practicality. In this approach the A- and B-chains are linked by two sequential oxime ligations followed by disulfide bond formation under redox conditions and linker excision by diketopiperazine (DKP) formation and ester hydrolysis, yielding native two-chain insulin...
January 26, 2017: Organic Letters
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