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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324988/estimation-of-second-phase-insulin-secretion-in-the-zucker-fatty-rat
#1
Micaela Morettini, Francesco Di Nardo, Carla E Cogo, Emanuela Faelli, Sandro Fioretti, Laura Burattini, Piero Ruggeri
The purpose of the present study was to test the efficacy of the empiric index SPIR (Second-phase Insulin Release) in the quantification of second-phase insulin secretion in the Zucker Fatty Rat. SPIR index is defined as the area under the curve of insulin between 8 and 90 min after an Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (IVGTT). The validation of such index was performed against the second-phase β-cell responsiveness index (Φ2) provided by C-peptide minimal model. To this aim, Φ2 and SPIR were simultaneously computed from IVGTT data, measured in six Zucker fatty rats (ZFR), 7-to-9week-old, and seven age-matched Zucker lean rats (ZLR)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323911/monogenic-diabetes-accounts-for-6-3-of-cases-referred-to-15-italian-pediatric-diabetes-centers-during-2007-2012
#2
Maurizio Delvecchio, Enza Mozzillo, Giuseppina Salzano, Dario Iafusco, Giulio Frontino, Patrizia I Patera, Ivana Rabbone, Valentino Cherubini, Valeria Grasso, Nadia Tinto, Sabrina Giglio, Giovanna Contreas, Rosa Di Paola, Alessandro Salina, Vittoria Cauvin, Stefano Tumini, Giuseppe d'Annunzio, Lorenzo Iughetti, Vilma Mantovani, Giulio Maltoni, Sonia Toni, Marco Marigliano, Fabrizio Barbetti
Context: Etiologic diagnosis of diabetes may impact on therapeutic strategy, and prognosis of chronic complications. Objective: The aim of the study was to establish the relative percentage of different diabetes subtypes in patients attending Italian pediatric diabetes centers, and the influence of etiologic diagnosis on therapy. Design, Setting and Patients: This was a retrospective study. Clinical records of 3781 consecutive patients (age: 0-18 years) referred to fifteen pediatric diabetes clinics and diagnosed with diabetes or IFG between Jan/1/2007 and Dec/31/2012 were examined...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319005/prediction-of-treatment-response-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-the-skaraborg-diabetes-register
#3
Miriam Pikkemaat, Olle Melander, Per Hjerpe, Kristina Bengtsson Boström
AIMS: Type 2 diabetes is associated with cardiovascular complications. It is largely unknown which patients have poor treatment response and high complication risk; biomarkers are studied for this purpose. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between clinical factors such as HbA1c, level of biomarkers (C-peptide, copeptin) at diagnosis and changes in HbA1c, blood pressure or body mass index (BMI) after five years. METHODS: Clinical data and blood samples from 460 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients from the Skaraborg diabetes register (SDR) at diagnosis and after 5years and were analyzed with linear and logistic regressions...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319003/insulin-resistance-and-cognitive-performance-in-type-2-diabetes-the-maastricht-study
#4
Stefan L C Geijselaers, Simone J S Sep, Miranda T Schram, Martin P J van Boxtel, Ronald M A Henry, Frans R J Verhey, Abraham A Kroon, Nicolaas C Schaper, Pieter C Dagnelie, Carla J H van der Kallen, Coen D A Stehouwer, Geert Jan Biessels
AIMS: Type 2 diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance are associated with cognitive impairment. Experimental studies indicate that insulin signaling in the brain is related to cognitive performance. Here we evaluated whether insulin-related variables contribute to the variance in cognitive performance among individuals with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 806 individuals with type 2 diabetes (mean age 62±8years, HbA1c 6.9±1.1%) completed a neuropsychological test battery...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317340/production-of-pancreatic-progenitor-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-using-a-three-dimensional-suspension-bioreactor-system
#5
Yuichiro Mihara, Katsuhisa Matsuura, Yoshihiro Sakamoto, Teruo Okano, Norihiro Kokudo, Tatsuya Shimizu
Islet replacement is a promising strategy for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes and patients who have undergone total pancreatectomy. Recent progress in cellular reprogramming technology may allow the transplantation of a patient's own pancreatic cells. Although many studies have reported the differentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells from mouse and human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), obtaining sufficient cell numbers for clinical applications remains problematic. Here, we describe the mass production of human pancreatic progenitor cells from human induced (i)PSCs using a three-dimensional suspension bioreactor system...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303247/effect-of-wnt-signaling-on-the-differentiation-of-islet-%C3%AE-cells-from-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#6
Hefei Wang, Yu Ren, Xiao Hu, Min Ma, Xiao Wang, Hao Liang, Dongjun Liu
The Wnt signaling is critical for pancreatic development and islet function; however, its precise effects on the development and function of the β-cells remain controversial. Here we examined mRNA and protein expression of components of the Wnt signaling throughout the differentiation of islet β-cells from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). After induction, ADSCs expressed markers of β-cells, including the insulin, PDX1, and glucagon genes, and the PDX1, CK19, nestin, insulin, and C-peptide proteins, indicating their successful differentiation...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300392/generation-and-characterization-of-virus-infection-enhancing-peptide-nanofibrils-functionalized-with-fluorescent-labels
#7
Sascha Rode, Manuel Hayn, Annika Röcker, Stefanie Sieste, Marcus Lamla, Daniel Markx, Christoph Meier, Frank Kirchhoff, Paul Walther, Marcus Fändrich, Tanja Weil, Jan Muench
Retroviral gene transfer is the method of choice for the stable introduction of genetic material into the cellular genome. However, efficient gene transfer is often limited by low transduction rates of the viral vectors. We have recently described a 12-mer peptide, termed EF-C that forms amyloid-like peptide nanofibrils (PNF) strongly increasing viral transduction efficiencies. These nanofibrils are polycationic and bind negatively charged membranes of virions and cells, thereby overcoming charge repulsions and resulting in increased rates of virion attachment and gene transfer...
March 16, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298900/the-impact-of-bariatric-surgery-on-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-the-management-of-hypoglycemic-events
#8
REVIEW
Mahmoud Attia Mohamed Kassem, Michael Andrew Durda, Nicoleta Stoicea, Omer Cavus, Levent Sahin, Barbara Rogers
Recent studies discussed the benefit of bariatric surgery on obese patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several factors play an essential role in predicting the impact of bariatric surgery on T2DM, such as ABCD score (age, BMI, C-peptide, and duration of the disease), HbA1c, and fasting blood glucose, incretins [glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)]. DiaRem score known to include factors such as age, HbA1c, medication, and insulin usage used to predict the remission of T2DM, but it has some limitations...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298252/reduced-circulating-stem-cells-associate-with-excess-fasting-and-post-load-nefa-exposure-in-healthy-adults-with-normal-glucose-tolerance
#9
Gian Paolo Fadini, Andrea Tura, Giovanni Pacini, Angelo Avogaro, Saula Vigili de Kreutzenberg
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Reduced levels of circulating stem cells (CSCs) predict cardiovascular events and death, but the factors underlying variability of CSCs in healthy adults are mostly unknown. Previous studies detected associations of CSCs with glucose tolerance or insulin resistance, while the role of fatty acids has been overlooked. We herein aimed to describe in better detail the metabolic abnormalities associated with a reduced CSC level. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on 94 healthy male and female individuals with normal glucose tolerance, aged 18-65 years...
March 6, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294581/plasma-soluble-leptin-receptor-levels-are-associated-with-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-dysfunction-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#10
Tomoaki Morioka, Masanori Emoto, Yuko Yamazaki, Masafumi Kurajoh, Koka Motoyama, Katsuhito Mori, Shinya Fukumoto, Atsushi Shioi, Tetsuo Shoji, Masaaki Inaba
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: A soluble form of the leptin receptor (soluble Ob-R) in circulation regulates leptin's bioactivity and is inversely associated with body adiposity and circulating leptin levels. However, no study has examined the clinical impact of soluble Ob-R on glucose metabolism in diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the association of plasma soluble Ob-R levels with insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and eighty nine Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes were included in this study...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293303/characteristics-of-glucose-metabolism-indexes-and-continuous-glucose-monitoring-system-cgms-in-patients-with-insulinoma
#11
Weijun Gu, Yixin Liu, Hongyan Liu, Guoqing Yang, Qinghua Guo, Jin Du, Nan Jin, Li Zang, Zhaohui Lv, Jianming Ba, Yiming Mu, Jingtao Dou
AIMS: Analyze the clinical applicability of glucose metabolism indexes and continuous glucose monitoring data on the qualitative diagnosis of insulinoma. METHODS: Involve 22 patients with insulinoma (insulinoma group), 11 patients with hypoglycemia (hypoglycemia group) and 31 people with normal glucose tolerance (control group). HbA1c, fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin (FINS) and C-peptide (FCP) was tested. Using CGMS to monitor the blood glucose for three consecutive days and selecting the monitoring data of 24 h thereof, figuring out, with the aid of EasyGV Version 9...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290272/strawberry-and-cranberry-polyphenols-improve-insulin-sensitivity-in-insulin-resistant-non-diabetic-adults-a-parallel-double-blind-controlled-and-randomised-clinical-trial
#12
Martine Paquette, Ana S Medina Larqué, S J Weisnagel, Yves Desjardins, Julie Marois, Geneviève Pilon, Stéphanie Dudonné, André Marette, Hélène Jacques
Plant-derived foods rich in polyphenols are associated with several cardiometabolic health benefits, such as reduced postprandial hyperglycaemia. However, their impact on whole-body insulin sensitivity using the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp technique remains under-studied. We aimed to determine the effects of strawberry and cranberry polyphenols (SCP) on insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, lipid profile, inflammation and oxidative stress markers in free-living insulin-resistant overweight or obese human subjects (n 41) in a parallel, double-blind, controlled and randomised clinical trial...
March 14, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286105/animal-models-in-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathies-how-to-overcome-a-translational-roadblock
#13
REVIEW
Ali Maisam Afzali, Tobias Ruck, Heinz Wiendl, Sven G Meuth
Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) encompass a heterogenic group of rare muscle diseases with common symptoms including muscle weakness and the presence of certain histological features. Since the pathogenesis remains unclear, therapeutic approaches in general comprise unspecific immunosuppression strategies that have been met with limited success. Therefore, a deeper understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms is critically required to assist in development of targeted therapies. Animal models have proven to be tremendously helpful in mechanistic studies and allow researchers to overcome the inevitable restrictions of human research...
March 7, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285650/plasma-hdl-cholesterol-and-triglycerides-but-not-ldl-cholesterol-are-associated-with-insulin-secretion-in-non-diabetic-subjects
#14
Andrea Natali, Simona Baldi, Fabrice Bonnet, John Petrie, Silvia Trifirò, Domenico Tricò, Andrea Mari
OBJECTIVE: Experimental data support the notion that lipoproteins might directly affect beta cell function, however clinical data are sparse and inconsistent. We aimed at verifying whether, independently of major confounders, serum lipids are associated with alterations in insulin secretion or clearance non-diabetic subjects. METHODS: Cross sectional and observational prospective (3.5yrs), multicentre study in which 1016 non-diabetic volunteers aged 30-60yrs. and with a wide range of BMI (20...
April 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285640/first-and-second-trimester-gestational-weight-gains-are-most-strongly-associated-with-cord-blood-levels-of-hormones-at-delivery-important-for-glycemic-control-and-somatic-growth
#15
Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Abby Fleisch, Marie-France Hivert, Christos Mantzoros, Matthew W Gillman, Emily Oken
BACKGROUND: Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes for mothers and offspring. Early, mid, and late pregnancy GWGs have different associations with fetal growth and later life adiposity, but associations with cord blood hormones, which might predict later health, are not well studied. METHODS: In 978 pregnant women from the pre-birth Project Viva cohort, we calculated trimester-specific GWG using clinically recorded prenatal weights...
April 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283590/proinsulin-c-peptide-regulates-ribosomal-rna-expression
#16
Emma Lindahl, Ulrika Nyman, Farasat Zaman, Carina Palmberg, Anna Cascante, Jawed Shafqat, Masaharu Takigawa, Lars Sävendahl, Hans Jörnvall, Bertrand Joseph
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281693/carnosine-attenuates-the-development-of-both-type-2-diabetes-and-diabetic-nephropathy-in-btbr-ob-ob-mice
#17
Thomas Albrecht, Maaike Schilperoort, Shiqi Zhang, Jana D Braun, Jiedong Qiu, Angelica Rodriguez, Diego O Pastene, Bernhard K Krämer, Hannes Köppel, Hans Baelde, Emile de Heer, Alessandra Anna Altomare, Luca Regazzoni, Alessandra Denisi, Giancarlo Aldini, Jacob van den Born, Benito A Yard, Sibylle J Hauske
We previously demonstrated that polymorphisms in the carnosinase-1 gene (CNDP1) determine the risk of nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. Carnosine, the substrate of the enzyme encoded by this gene, is considered renoprotective and could possibly be used to treat diabetic nephropathy (DN). In this study, we examined the effect of carnosine treatment in vivo in BTBR (Black and Tan, BRachyuric) ob/ob mice, a type 2 diabetes model which develops a phenotype that closely resembles advanced human DN. Treatment of BTBR ob/ob mice with 4 mM carnosine for 18 weeks reduced plasma glucose and HbA1c, concomitant with elevated insulin and C-peptide levels...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281456/insulin-resistance-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients-contributing-factors-and-relationship-with-subclinical-atherosclerosis
#18
Hiurma Sánchez-Pérez, Beatriz Tejera-Segura, Antonia de Vera-González, Alejandra González-Delgado, José Manuel Olmos, José Luis Hernández, Alfonso Corrales, Raquel López-Mejías, Miguel Angel González-Gay, Iván Ferraz-Amaro
OBJECTIVES: Insulin resistance (IR) plays a role in the increased cardiovascular risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. This study aimed to determine the potential association of IR with disease activity, drug exposure and subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with SLE. METHODS: This cross-sectional study encompassed 87 non-diabetic SLE patients and 82 sex-matched controls. Insulin and C-peptide serum levels, IR indexes by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA2) (both insulin-based: HOMA2-IR, and with C-peptide: HOMA2-IR-C-peptide) and lipid profiles were assessed in patients and controls...
March 8, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275376/immunological-balance-is-associated-with-clinical-outcome-after-autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-type-1-diabetes
#19
Kelen C R Malmegrim, Júlia T C de Azevedo, Lucas C M Arruda, Joana R F Abreu, Carlos E B Couri, Gislane L V de Oliveira, Patricia V B Palma, Gabriela T Scortegagna, Ana B P L Stracieri, Daniela A Moraes, Juliana B E Dias, Fabiano Pieroni, Renato Cunha, Luiza Guilherme, Nathália M Santos, Milton C Foss, Dimas T Covas, Richard K Burt, Belinda P Simões, Júlio C Voltarelli, Bart O Roep, Maria C Oliveira
Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) increases C-peptide levels and induces insulin independence in patients with type 1 diabetes. This study aimed to investigate how clinical outcomes may associate with the immunological status, especially concerning the balance between immunoregulation and autoreactivity. Twenty-one type 1 diabetes patients were monitored after AHSCT and assessed every 6 months for duration of insulin independence, C-peptide levels, frequencies of islet-specific autoreactive CD8(+) T cells (CTL), regulatory lymphocyte subsets, thymic function, and T-cell repertoire diversity...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264067/ivgtt-based-simple-assessment-of-glucose-tolerance-in-the-zucker-fatty-rat-validation-against-minimal-models
#20
Micaela Morettini, Emanuela Faelli, Luisa Perasso, Sandro Fioretti, Laura Burattini, Piero Ruggeri, Francesco Di Nardo
For the assessment of glucose tolerance from IVGTT data in Zucker rat, minimal model methodology is reliable but time- and money-consuming. This study aimed to validate for the first time in Zucker rat, simple surrogate indexes of insulin sensitivity and secretion against the glucose-minimal-model insulin sensitivity index (SI) and against first- (Φ1) and second-phase (Φ2) β-cell responsiveness indexes provided by C-peptide minimal model. Validation of the surrogate insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and of two sets of coupled insulin-based indexes for insulin secretion, differing from the cut-off point between phases (FPIR3-SPIR3, t = 3 min and FPIR5-SPIR5, t = 5 min), was carried out in a population of ten Zucker fatty rats (ZFR) and ten Zucker lean rats (ZLR)...
2017: PloS One
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