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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170452/liraglutide-restores-chronic-er-stress-autophagy-impairments-and-apoptotic-signalling-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#1
Theodora Panagaki, Maria Michael, Christian Hölscher
Growing evidence suggests that agonists of glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) receptor exert neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects across a range of experimental models of neuronal degeneration, and, recently, a pilot clinical trial of Liraglutide in Alzheimer's disease patients showed improvements in cerebral glucose consumption that signifies disease progression. However, the exact underlying mechanism of action remains unclear. Chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has recently emerged as a mechanism for neuronal injury, rendering it a potent therapeutic target for acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163139/exercise-induced-neuroprotection-of-the-nigrostriatal-dopamine-system-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Lijuan Hou, Wei Chen, Xiaoli Liu, Decai Qiao, Fu-Ming Zhou
Epidemiological studies indicate that physical activity and exercise may reduce the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD), and clinical observations suggest that physical exercise can reduce the motor symptoms in PD patients. In experimental animals, a profound observation is that exercise of appropriate timing, duration, and intensity can reduce toxin-induced lesion of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system in animal PD models, although negative results have also been reported, potentially due to inappropriate timing and intensity of the exercise regimen...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132545/nanoformulation-a-useful-therapeutic-strategy-for-improving-neuroprotection-and-the-neurorestorative-potential-in-experimental-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Jose V Lafuente, Catalina Requejo, Alejandro Carrasco, Harkaitz Bengoetxea
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder, but current therapies are only symptomatic. Experimental models are necessary to go deeper in the comprehension of pathophysiological mechanism and to assess new therapeutic strategies. The unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion either in medial forebrain bundle (MFB) or into the striatum in rats affords to study various stages of PD depending on the evolution time lapsed. A promising alternative to address the neurodegenerative process is the use of neurotrophic factors; but its clinical use has been limited due to its short half-life and rapid degradation after in vivo administration, along with difficulties for crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113472/cell-therapy-for-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Takao Yasuhara, Masahiro Kameda, Tatsuya Sasaki, Naoki Tajiri, Isao Date
Cell therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) began in 1979 with the transplantation of fetal rat dopamine-containing neurons that improved motor abnormalities in the PD rat model with good survival of grafts and axonal outgrowth. Thirty years have passed since the 2 clinical trials using cell transplantation for PD patients were first reported. Recently, cell therapy is expected to develop as a realistic treatment option for PD patients owing to the advancement of biotechnology represented by pluripotent stem cells...
September 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100803/the-effects-of-cysteamine-in-a-mouse-model-of-levodopa-induced-dyskinesias
#5
Linda S David, Martine Saint-Pierre, Jérôme Lamontagne-Proulx, Francesca Cicchetti
Levo-dopa (L-DOPA) has shown significant and long-lasting efficacy in the treatment of motor features characteristic of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the effects tend to wear off at a time typically when side-effects, such as L-DOPA induced dyskinesias (LIDs), start to emerge and for which the treatment options are very limited. In recent years, we have reported on the neuroprotective and neurorestorative properties of the compounds cystamine/cysteamine in ameliorating several aspects of PD. Building on these observations, we set out to further evaluate the benefits of cysteamine on LIDs...
October 31, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094222/restorative-strategies-in-movement-disorders-the-contribution-of-imaging
#6
REVIEW
Nicholas P Lao-Kaim, Paola Piccini, Yen F Tai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to review the imaging, particularly positron emission tomography (PET), findings in neurorestoration studies in movement disorders, with specific focus on neural transplantation in Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). RECENT FINDINGS: PET findings in PD transplantation studies have shown that graft survival as reflected by increases in dopaminergic PET markers does not necessarily correlate with clinical improvement...
November 2, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053638/neuroprotective-surgical-strategies-in-parkinson-s-disease-role-of-preclinical-data
#7
REVIEW
Napoleon Torres, Jenny Molet, Cecile Moro, John Mitrofanis, Alim Louis Benabid
Although there have been many pharmacological agents considered to be neuroprotective therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, neurosurgical approaches aimed to neuroprotect or restore the degenerative nigrostriatal system have rarely been the focus of in depth reviews. Here, we explore the neuroprotective strategies involving invasive surgical approaches (NSI) using neurotoxic models 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), which have led to clinical trials. We focus on several NSI approaches, namely deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, glial neurotrophic derived factor (GDNF) administration and cell grafting methods...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017388/pathophysiological-bases-of-comorbidity-traumatic-brain-injury-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#8
Gary B Kaplan, Kimberly A Leite-Morris, Lei Wang, Kendra K Rumbika, Stephen C Heinrichs, Xiang Zeng, Liquan Wu, Danielle T Arena, Yang D Teng
The high rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnoses encountered in recent years by the United States Veterans Affairs Healthcare System have increased public awareness and research investigation into these conditions. In this review, we analyze the neural mechanisms underlying the TBI/PTSD comorbidity. TBI and PTSD present with common neuropsychiatric symptoms including anxiety, irritability, insomnia, personality changes, and memory problems, and this overlap complicates diagnostic differentiation...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988910/neuroprotection-and-neurorestoration-as-experimental-therapeutics-for-parkinson-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Veronica Francardo, Yvonne Schmitz, David Sulzer, M Angela Cenci
Disease-modifying treatments remain an unmet medical need in Parkinson's disease (PD). Such treatments can be operationally defined as interventions that slow down the clinical evolution to advanced disease milestones. A treatment may achieve this outcome by either inhibiting primary neurodegenerative events ("neuroprotection") or boosting compensatory and regenerative mechanisms in the brain ("neurorestoration"). Here we review experimental paradigms that are currently used to assess the neuroprotective and neurorestorative potential of candidate treatments in animal models of PD...
October 5, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967098/epigenetic-regulation-of-melatonin-receptors-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Sarra G Bahna, Lennard P Niles
Melatonin, the primary indoleamine hormone of the mammalian pineal gland, is known to have a plethora of neuroregulatory, neuroprotective and other properties. Melatonergic signaling is mediated by its two G protein-coupled receptors, MT1 and MT2 , which are widely expressed in the mammalian CNS. Melatonin levels and receptor expression often show a decrease during normal aging, and this reduction may be accelerated in some disease states. Depleted melatonergic signaling has been associated with neuropsychiatric dysfunction and impairments in cognition, memory, neurogenesis and neurorestorative processes...
October 2, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923278/can-adjunctive-therapies-augment-the-efficacy-of-endovascular-thrombolysis-a-potential-role-for-activated-protein-c
#11
REVIEW
Arun Paul Amar, Abhay P Sagare, Zhen Zhao, Yaoming Wang, Amy R Nelson, John H Griffin, Berislav V Zlokovic
In the management of acute ischemic stroke, vessel recanalization correlates with functional status, mortality, cost, and other outcome measures. Thrombolysis with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator has many limitations that restrict its applicability, but recent advances in the development of mechanical thrombectomy devices as well as improved systems of stroke care have resulted in greater likelihood of vessel revascularization. Nonetheless, there remains substantial discrepancy between rates of recanalization and rates of favorable outcome...
September 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867364/cell-based-and-pharmacological-neurorestorative-therapies-for-ischemic-stroke
#12
REVIEW
Poornima Venkat, Yi Shen, Michael Chopp, Jieli Chen
Ischemic stroke remains one of most common causes of death and disability worldwide. Stroke triggers a cascade of events leading to rapid neuronal damage and death. Neuroprotective agents that showed promise in preclinical experiments have failed to translate to the clinic. Even after decades of research, tPA remains the only FDA approved drug for stroke treatment. However, tPA is effective when administered 3-4.5 h after stroke onset and the vast majority of stroke patients do not receive tPA therapy. Therefore, there is a pressing need for novel therapies for ischemic stroke...
September 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864242/thymosin-%C3%AE-4-for-the-treatment-of-acute-stroke-in-aged-rats
#13
Daniel C Morris, Wing Lee Cheung, Richard Loi, Talan Zhang, Mei Lu, Zheng G Zhang, Michael Chopp
Thymosin β4 (Tβ4) is a 5K peptide which influences cellular migration by inhibiting organization of the actin-cytoskeleton. Tβ4 has neurorestorative properties and is a potential candidate for the treatment of sub-acute stroke. Previous research demonstrated that Tβ4 improved neurological outcome in a young (3 months) rat model of embolic stroke. We hypothesized that Tβ4 would improve neurological outcome in an aged rat model of embolic stroke when administered 24h after embolic stroke. Aged Male Wistar rats (Charles River, France 18-21 months) were subjected to embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo)...
October 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840482/nanodelivery-of-cerebrolysin-and-rearing-in-enriched-environment-induce-neuroprotective-effects-in-a-preclinical-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#14
C Requejo, J A Ruiz-Ortega, H Cepeda, A Sharma, H S Sharma, A Ozkizilcik, R Tian, H Moessler, L Ugedo, J V Lafuente
Rearing in enriched environment (EE) improves the recuperation in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Administration of TiO2-nanowired cerebrolysin (CBL) could represent an additional strategy to protect or repair the nigrostriatal system. This study aims to explore morphofunctional and biochemical changes in a preclinical stage of PD testing the synergistic efficiency of combining both strategies, housing in EE, and nanodelivery of CBL. Sprague-Dawley male rats receiving intrastriatally 6-hydroxydopamine after a short evolution time were segregated into CBL group (rats receiving nanowired CBL), EE group (rats housed in EE), CBL + EE group (rats housed in EE and receiving nanowired CBL), and control group (rats without additional treatment)...
August 24, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828029/oral-administration-of-red-ginseng-extract-promotes-neurorestoration-after-compressive-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#15
Pengxiang Zhu, Keiichi Samukawa, Hiroko Fujita, Hidemasa Kato, Masahiro Sakanaka
Red ginseng and its active ingredients have been shown to decrease neuron death after brain ischemia in experimental animals. However, little is known about the effects of orally administered ginseng extract on spinal cord injury. We orally gave red ginseng extract (RGE) to rats with compressed spinal cord injury (SCI). Open-field locomotor scores were measured as indices of motor function. Histopathological changes and cytokine expressions in situ after SCI were evaluated. Compared to vehicle treatment, RGE treatment (350 mg/kg/day) significantly improved locomotor score up to levels close to those pre-SCI, prevented neuron loss, and facilitated the restoration of white matter in the spinal cord at 14 days after SCI...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822057/short-term-exposure-to-enriched-environment-in-adult-rats-restores-mk-801-induced-cognitive-deficits-and-gabaergic-interneuron-immunoreactivity-loss
#16
Ane Murueta-Goyena, Naiara Ortuzar, Pascual Ángel Gargiulo, José Vicente Lafuente, Harkaitz Bengoetxea
Perinatal injections of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist in rodents emulate some cognitive impairments and neurochemical alterations, such as decreased GABAergic (gamma aminobutyric acid) interneuron immunoreactivity, also found in schizophrenia. These features are pervasive, and developing neuroprotective or neurorestorative strategies is of special interest. In this work, we aimed to investigate if a short exposure to enriched environment (EE) in early adulthood (P55-P73) was an effective strategy to improve cognitive dysfunction and to restore interneuron expression in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus (HPC)...
August 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807678/metformin-lowers-%C3%AE-synuclein-phosphorylation-and-upregulates-neurotrophic-factor-in-the-mptp-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Nikita Katila, Sunil Bhurtel, Sina Shadfar, Sunil Srivastav, Sabita Neupane, Uttam Ojha, Gil-Saeng Jeong, Dong-Young Choi
In spite of the massive research for the identification of neurorestorative or neuroprotective intervention for curing Parkinson's disease (PD), there is still lack of clinically proven neuroprotective agents. Metformin, a common anti-hyperglycemic drug has been known to possess neuroprotective properties. However, specific mechanisms by which metformin protects neurons from 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity remain to be elucidated. In this study, we assessed the neuroprotective effects of metformin in the subchronic MPTP model of PD, and explored its feasible mechanisms for neuroprotection...
October 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761412/immunomodulators-and-micrornas-as-neurorestorative-therapy-for-ischemic-stroke
#18
REVIEW
Bridget Martinez, Philip V Peplow
Most of all strokes are ischemic due to occlusion of a vessel, and comprise two main types, thrombotic and embolic. Inflammation and immune response play an important role in the outcome of ischemic stroke. Pharmaceutical and cell-based therapies with immunomodulatory properties could be of benefit in treating ischemic stroke. Possible changes in microRNAs brought about by immunomodulatory treatments may be important. The pharmaceutical studies described in this review have identified several differentially regulated miRNAs associated with disregulation of mRNA targets or the upregulation of several neuroprotective genes, thereby highlighting the potential neuroprotective roles of specific miRNAs such as miR-762, -1892, -200a, -145...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752929/progesterone-mediated-angiogenic-activity-of-endothelial-progenitor-cell-and-angiogenesis-in-traumatic-brain-injury-rats-were-antagonized-by-progesterone-receptor-antagonist
#19
Peng Yu, Shengjie Li, Zhifei Zhang, Xiaolong Wen, Wei Quan, Qilong Tian, Chuang Gao, Wanqiang Su, Jianning Zhang, Rongcai Jiang
OBJECTIVES: Progesterone (P4) has the potential therapeutic effects for traumatic brain injury (TBI) whose recovery depended on the enhanced angiogenesis. Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) plays an essential role in vascular biology. We previously demonstrated that P4 administration improved circulating EPC level and neurological recovery of rat with TBI. Here, we hypothesized that P4 augmented angiogenic potential of EPC and the angiogenesis-related neurorestoration after TBI through classical progesterone receptor (PR)...
October 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741407/pericytes-secrete-pro-regenerative-molecules-in-response-to-platelet-derived-growth-factor-bb
#20
Abderahim Gaceb, Ilknur Özen, Thomas Padel, Marco Barbariga, Gesine Paul
Brain pericytes not only maintain the anatomical, biochemical and immune blood-brain barrier, but display features of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. MSCs have pro-regenerative properties attributed to their secretome. However, whether also brain pericytes possess such pro-regenerative capacities is largely unknown. Here we characterize the secretome and microvesicle (MV) release of human brain pericytes mediated by platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)/PDGF receptor beta (PDGFRβ) signalling...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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