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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017388/pathophysiological-bases-of-comorbidity-tbi-and-ptsd
#1
Gary B Kaplan, Kimberly A Leite-Morris, Lei Wang, Kendra K Rumbika, Stephen C Heinrichs, Xiang Zeng, Liquan Wu, Danielle T Arena, Yang D Teng
The high rates of TBI and PTSD diagnoses encountered in recent years by the U.S. Veterans Affairs Healthcare System have increased public awareness and research investigation into these conditions. In this review, we analyze the neural mechanisms underlying the TBI/PTSD comorbidity. TBI and PTSD present with common neuropsychiatric symptoms including anxiety, irritability, insomnia, personality changes and memory problems and this overlap complicates diagnostic differentiation. Interestingly, both TBI and PTSD can be produced by overlapping pathophysiological changes that disrupt neural connections termed the "connectome"...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988910/neuroprotection-and-neurorestoration-as-experimental-therapeutics-for-parkinson-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Veronica Francardo, Yvonne Schmitz, David Sulzer, M Angela Cenci
Disease-modifying treatments remain an unmet medical need in Parkinson's disease (PD). Such treatments can be operationally defined as interventions that slow down the clinical evolution to advanced disease milestones. A treatment may achieve this outcome by either inhibiting primary neurodegenerative events ("neuroprotection") or boosting compensatory and regenerative mechanisms in the brain ("neurorestoration"). Here we review experimental paradigms that are currently used to assess the neuroprotective and neurorestorative potential of candidate treatments in animal models of PD...
October 5, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967098/epigenetic-regulation-of-melatonin-receptors-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Sarra G Bahna, Lennard P Niles
Melatonin, the primary indoleamine hormone of the mammalian pineal gland, is known to have a plethora of neuroregulatory, neuroprotective and other properties. Melatonergic signaling is mediated by its two G protein-coupled receptors, MT1 and MT2 , which are widely expressed in the mammalian CNS. Melatonin levels and receptor expression often show a decrease during normal aging, and this reduction may be accelerated in some disease states. Depleted melatonergic signaling has been associated with neuropsychiatric dysfunction and impairments in cognition, memory, neurogenesis and neurorestorative processes...
October 2, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923278/can-adjunctive-therapies-augment-the-efficacy-of-endovascular-thrombolysis-a-potential-role-for-activated-protein-c
#4
REVIEW
Arun Paul Amar, Abhay P Sagare, Zhen Zhao, Yaoming Wang, Amy R Nelson, John H Griffin, Berislav V Zlokovic
In the management of acute ischemic stroke, vessel recanalization correlates with functional status, mortality, cost, and other outcome measures. Thrombolysis with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator has many limitations that restrict its applicability, but recent advances in the development of mechanical thrombectomy devices as well as improved systems of stroke care have resulted in greater likelihood of vessel revascularization. Nonetheless, there remains substantial discrepancy between rates of recanalization and rates of favorable outcome...
September 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867364/cell-based-and-pharmacological-neurorestorative-therapies-for-ischemic-stroke
#5
REVIEW
Poornima Venkat, Yi Shen, Michael Chopp, Jieli Chen
Ischemic stroke remains one of most common causes of death and disability worldwide. Stroke triggers a cascade of events leading to rapid neuronal damage and death. Neuroprotective agents that showed promise in preclinical experiments have failed to translate to the clinic. Even after decades of research, tPA remains the only FDA approved drug for stroke treatment. However, tPA is effective when administered 3-4.5 h after stroke onset and the vast majority of stroke patients do not receive tPA therapy. Therefore, there is a pressing need for novel therapies for ischemic stroke...
September 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864242/thymosin-%C3%AE-4-for-the-treatment-of-acute-stroke-in-aged-rats
#6
Daniel C Morris, Wing Lee Cheung, Richard Loi, Talan Zhang, Mei Lu, Zheng G Zhang, Michael Chopp
Thymosin β4 (Tβ4) is a 5K peptide which influences cellular migration by inhibiting organization of the actin-cytoskeleton. Tβ4 has neurorestorative properties and is a potential candidate for the treatment of sub-acute stroke. Previous research demonstrated that Tβ4 improved neurological outcome in a young (3 months) rat model of embolic stroke. We hypothesized that Tβ4 would improve neurological outcome in an aged rat model of embolic stroke when administered 24h after embolic stroke. Aged Male Wistar rats (Charles River, France 18-21 months) were subjected to embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo)...
October 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840482/nanodelivery-of-cerebrolysin-and-rearing-in-enriched-environment-induce-neuroprotective-effects-in-a-preclinical-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#7
C Requejo, J A Ruiz-Ortega, H Cepeda, A Sharma, H S Sharma, A Ozkizilcik, R Tian, H Moessler, L Ugedo, J V Lafuente
Rearing in enriched environment (EE) improves the recuperation in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Administration of TiO2-nanowired cerebrolysin (CBL) could represent an additional strategy to protect or repair the nigrostriatal system. This study aims to explore morphofunctional and biochemical changes in a preclinical stage of PD testing the synergistic efficiency of combining both strategies, housing in EE, and nanodelivery of CBL. Sprague-Dawley male rats receiving intrastriatally 6-hydroxydopamine after a short evolution time were segregated into CBL group (rats receiving nanowired CBL), EE group (rats housed in EE), CBL + EE group (rats housed in EE and receiving nanowired CBL), and control group (rats without additional treatment)...
August 24, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828029/oral-administration-of-red-ginseng-extract-promotes-neurorestoration-after-compressive-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#8
Pengxiang Zhu, Keiichi Samukawa, Hiroko Fujita, Hidemasa Kato, Masahiro Sakanaka
Red ginseng and its active ingredients have been shown to decrease neuron death after brain ischemia in experimental animals. However, little is known about the effects of orally administered ginseng extract on spinal cord injury. We orally gave red ginseng extract (RGE) to rats with compressed spinal cord injury (SCI). Open-field locomotor scores were measured as indices of motor function. Histopathological changes and cytokine expressions in situ after SCI were evaluated. Compared to vehicle treatment, RGE treatment (350 mg/kg/day) significantly improved locomotor score up to levels close to those pre-SCI, prevented neuron loss, and facilitated the restoration of white matter in the spinal cord at 14 days after SCI...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822057/short-term-exposure-to-enriched-environment-in-adult-rats-restores-mk-801-induced-cognitive-deficits-and-gabaergic-interneuron-immunoreactivity-loss
#9
Ane Murueta-Goyena, Naiara Ortuzar, Pascual Ángel Gargiulo, José Vicente Lafuente, Harkaitz Bengoetxea
Perinatal injections of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist in rodents emulate some cognitive impairments and neurochemical alterations, such as decreased GABAergic (gamma aminobutyric acid) interneuron immunoreactivity, also found in schizophrenia. These features are pervasive, and developing neuroprotective or neurorestorative strategies is of special interest. In this work, we aimed to investigate if a short exposure to enriched environment (EE) in early adulthood (P55-P73) was an effective strategy to improve cognitive dysfunction and to restore interneuron expression in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus (HPC)...
August 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807678/metformin-lowers-%C3%AE-synuclein-phosphorylation-and-upregulates-neurotrophic-factor-in-the-mptp-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Nikita Katila, Sunil Bhurtel, Sina Shadfar, Sunil Srivastav, Sabita Neupane, Uttam Ojha, Gil-Saeng Jeong, Dong-Young Choi
In spite of the massive research for the identification of neurorestorative or neuroprotective intervention for curing Parkinson's disease (PD), there is still lack of clinically proven neuroprotective agents. Metformin, a common anti-hyperglycemic drug has been known to possess neuroprotective properties. However, specific mechanisms by which metformin protects neurons from 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity remain to be elucidated. In this study, we assessed the neuroprotective effects of metformin in the subchronic MPTP model of PD, and explored its feasible mechanisms for neuroprotection...
October 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761412/immunomodulators-and-micrornas-as-neurorestorative-therapy-for-ischemic-stroke
#11
REVIEW
Bridget Martinez, Philip V Peplow
Most of all strokes are ischemic due to occlusion of a vessel, and comprise two main types, thrombotic and embolic. Inflammation and immune response play an important role in the outcome of ischemic stroke. Pharmaceutical and cell-based therapies with immunomodulatory properties could be of benefit in treating ischemic stroke. Possible changes in microRNAs brought about by immunomodulatory treatments may be important. The pharmaceutical studies described in this review have identified several differentially regulated miRNAs associated with disregulation of mRNA targets or the upregulation of several neuroprotective genes, thereby highlighting the potential neuroprotective roles of specific miRNAs such as miR-762, -1892, -200a, -145...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752929/progesterone-mediated-angiogenic-activity-of-endothelial-progenitor-cell-and-angiogenesis-in-traumatic-brain-injury-rats-were-antagonized-by-progesterone-receptor-antagonist
#12
Peng Yu, Shengjie Li, Zhifei Zhang, Xiaolong Wen, Wei Quan, Qilong Tian, Chuang Gao, Wanqiang Su, Jianning Zhang, Rongcai Jiang
OBJECTIVES: Progesterone (P4) has the potential therapeutic effects for traumatic brain injury (TBI) whose recovery depended on the enhanced angiogenesis. Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) plays an essential role in vascular biology. We previously demonstrated that P4 administration improved circulating EPC level and neurological recovery of rat with TBI. Here, we hypothesized that P4 augmented angiogenic potential of EPC and the angiogenesis-related neurorestoration after TBI through classical progesterone receptor (PR)...
October 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741407/pericytes-secrete-pro-regenerative-molecules-in-response-to-platelet-derived-growth-factor-bb
#13
Abderahim Gaceb, Ilknur Özen, Thomas Padel, Marco Barbariga, Gesine Paul
Brain pericytes not only maintain the anatomical, biochemical and immune blood-brain barrier, but display features of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. MSCs have pro-regenerative properties attributed to their secretome. However, whether also brain pericytes possess such pro-regenerative capacities is largely unknown. Here we characterize the secretome and microvesicle (MV) release of human brain pericytes mediated by platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)/PDGF receptor beta (PDGFRβ) signalling...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730408/evolution-of-the-hiv-1-transgenic-rat-utility-in-assessing-the-progression-of-hiv-1-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#14
Kristen A McLaurin, Rosemarie M Booze, Charles F Mactutus
Understanding the progression of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is a critical need as the prevalence of HIV-1 in older individuals (>50 years) is markedly increasing due to the great success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Longitudinal experimental designs, in comparison to cross-sectional studies, provide an opportunity to establish age-related disease progression in HAND. The HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat, which has been promoted for investigating the effect of long-term HIV-1 viral protein exposure, was used to examine two interrelated goals...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715867/therapeutic-impact-of-grape-leaves-polyphenols-on-certain-biochemical-and-neurological-markers-in-alcl3-induced-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Ibrahim H Borai, Magda K Ezz, Maha Z Rizk, Hanan F Aly, Mahmoud El-Sherbiny, Azza A Matloub, Ghadha I Fouad
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a grave and prevailing neurodegenerative disease, characterized by slow and progressive neurodegeneration in different brain regions. Aluminum (Al) is a potent and widely distributed neurotoxic metal, implicated in the neuropathogenesis of AD. This study aimed to evaluate the possible neurorestorative potential of Vitis vinifera Leaves Polyphenolic (VLP) extract in alleviating aluminum chloride (AlCl3)-induced neurotoxicity in male rats. AlCl3 neurotoxicity induced a significant decrease in brain/serum acetylcholine (ACh) contents and serum dopamine (DA) levels, along with a significant increment of brain/serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities...
September 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674431/9-cis-retinoic-acid-induces-neurorepair-in-stroke-brain
#16
Seong-Jin Yu, Mikko Airavaara, Kuo-Jen Wu, Brandon K Harvey, H S Liu, Yihong Yang, Alex Zacharek, Jieli Chen, Yun Wang
The purpose of this study was to examine the neurorestorative effect of delayed 9 cis retinoic acid (9cRA) treatment for stroke. Adult male rats received a 90-min right distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAo). Animals were separated into two groups with similar infarction sizes, based on magnetic resonance imaging on day 2 after dMCAo. 9cRA or vehicle was given via an intranasal route daily starting from day 3. Stroke rats receiving 9cRA post-treatment showed an increase in brain 9cRA levels and greater recovery in motor function...
July 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648945/phosphodiesterase-5-inhibition-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-ischemic-stroke-a-systematic-review-of-preclinical-studies
#17
Joakim N E Ölmestig, Ida R Marlet, Atticus H Hainsworth, Christina Kruuse
Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5i), such as sildenafil (Viagra®) are widely used for erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. Preclinical studies suggest that PDE5i may improve functional outcome following ischemic stroke. In this systematic review we aimed to evaluate the effects of selective PDE5i in animal models of brain ischaemia. A systematic search in Medline, Embase, and The Cochrane Library was performed including studies in English assessing the effects of selective PDE5i. 32 publications were included describing outcome in 3646 animals...
June 22, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642125/safety-and-efficacy-of-dual-lead-thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-for-patients-with-treatment-refractory-multiple-sclerosis-tremor-a-single-centre-randomised-single-blind-pilot-trial
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Seth F Oliveria, Ramon L Rodriguez, Dawn Bowers, Daniel Kantor, Justin D Hilliard, Erin H Monari, Bonnie M Scott, Michael S Okun, Kelly D Foote
BACKGROUND: Efficacy in previous studies of surgical treatments of refractory multiple sclerosis tremor using lesioning or deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been variable. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of dual-lead thalamic DBS (one targeting the ventralis intermedius-ventralis oralis posterior nucleus border [the VIM lead] and one targeting the ventralis oralis anterior-ventralis oralis posterior border [the VO lead]) for the treatment of multiple sclerosis tremor...
September 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597396/trpv4-activation-contributes-functional-recovery-from-ischemic-stroke-via-angiogenesis-and-neurogenesis
#19
Chun-Kai Chen, Po-Yuan Hsu, Tzu-Ming Wang, Zhi-Feng Miao, Ruey-Tay Lin, Suh-Hang H Juo
The endothelial transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4 (TRPV4) plays a crucial role in vascular remodeling; however, TRPV4-mediated angiogenesis after ischemic neuronal death as a neurorestorative strategy has not yet been thoroughly examined. In this study, we first tested whether TRPV4 activation can improve functional recovery in rats subjected to transient brain ischemia. The possible mechanisms for TRPV4 activation-promoted functional recovery were explored. A TRPV4 agonist, 4α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (4α-PDD), was intravenously injected via the tail vein at 6 h and 1, 2, 3, 4 days after ischemic stroke...
June 9, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571715/the-novel-multitarget-iron-chelating-and-propargylamine-drug-m30-affects-app-regulation-and-processing-activities-in-alzheimer-s-disease-models
#20
REVIEW
Tamar Amit, Orit Bar-Am, Danit Mechlovich, Lana Kupershmidt, Moussa B H Youdim, Orly Weinreb
In many of the neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and AD-related disorders, as well as in the regular ageing process, excessive generation of oxidative stress (OS) and accumulation of iron levels and deposition have been observed in specific affected-brain regions and thus, regarded as contributing factors to the pathogenesis of the diseases. In AD, iron promotes amyloid β (Aβ) neurotoxicity by producing free radical damage and OS in brain areas affected by neurodegeneration, presumably by facilitating the aggregation of Aβ...
May 29, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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