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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782636/a-boxplot-for-circular-data
#1
Davide Buttarazzi, Giuseppe Pandolfo, Giovanni C Porzio
The box-and-whiskers plot is an extraordinary graphical tool that provides a quick visual summary of an observed distribution. In spite of its many extensions, a really suitable boxplot to display circular data is not yet available. Thanks to its simplicity and strong visual impact, such a tool would be especially useful in all fields where circular measures arise: biometrics, astronomy, environmetrics, Earth sciences, to cite just a few. For this reason, in line with Tukey's original idea, a Tukey-like circular boxplot is introduced...
May 21, 2018: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769675/the-onset-of-star-formation-250-million-years-after-the-big-bang
#2
Takuya Hashimoto, Nicolas Laporte, Ken Mawatari, Richard S Ellis, Akio K Inoue, Erik Zackrisson, Guido Roberts-Borsani, Wei Zheng, Yoichi Tamura, Franz E Bauer, Thomas Fletcher, Yuichi Harikane, Bunyo Hatsukade, Natsuki H Hayatsu, Yuichi Matsuda, Hiroshi Matsuo, Takashi Okamoto, Masami Ouchi, Roser Pelló, Claes-Erik Rydberg, Ikkoh Shimizu, Yoshiaki Taniguchi, Hideki Umehata, Naoki Yoshida
A fundamental quest of modern astronomy is to locate the earliest galaxies and study how they influenced the intergalactic medium a few hundred million years after the Big Bang1-3 . The abundance of star-forming galaxies is known to decline4,5 from redshifts of about 6 to 10, but a key question is the extent of star formation at even earlier times, corresponding to the period when the first galaxies might have emerged. Here we report spectroscopic observations of MACS1149-JD1 6 , a gravitationally lensed galaxy observed when the Universe was less than four per cent of its present age...
May 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766905/rapid-freezing-of-water-under-dynamic-compression
#3
Philip C Myint, Jonathan L Belof
Understanding the behavior of materials at extreme pressures is a central issue in fields like aerodynamics, astronomy, and geology, as well as for advancing technological grand challenges such as inertial confinement fusion. Dynamic compression experiments to probe high-pressure states often encounter rapid phase transitions that may cause the materials to behave in unexpected ways, and understanding the kinetics of these phase transitions remains an area of great interest. In this review, we examine experimental and theoretical/computational efforts to study the freezing kinetics of water to a high-pressure solid phase known as ice VII...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748540/diffusion-in-translucent-media
#4
Zhou Shi, Azriel Z Genack
Diffusion is the result of repeated random scattering. It governs a wide range of phenomena from Brownian motion, to heat flow through window panes, neutron flux in fuel rods, dispersion of light in human tissue, and electronic conduction. It is universally acknowledged that the diffusion approach to describing wave transport fails in translucent samples thinner than the distance between scattering events such as are encountered in meteorology, astronomy, biomedicine, and communications. Here we show in optical measurements and numerical simulations that the scaling of transmission and the intensity profiles of transmission eigenchannels have the same form in translucent as in opaque media...
May 10, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726510/analysis-and-correction-for-measurement-error-of-edge-sensors-caused-by-deformation-of-guide-flexure-applied-in-the-thirty-meter-telescope-ssa
#5
Haifeng Cao, Jingxu Zhang, Fei Yang, Qichang An, Hongchao Zhao, Peng Guo
The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) project will design and build a 30-m-diameter telescope for research in astronomy in visible and infrared wavelengths. The primary mirror of TMT is made up of 492 hexagonal mirror segments under active control. The highly segmented primary mirror will utilize edge sensors to align and stabilize the relative piston, tip, and tilt degrees of segments. The support system assembly (SSA) of the segmented mirror utilizes a guide flexure to decouple the axial support and lateral support, while its deformation will cause measurement error of the edge sensor...
May 1, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725242/prospects-for-observing-and-localizing-gravitational-wave-transients-with-advanced-ligo-advanced-virgo-and-kagra
#6
REVIEW
B P Abbott, R Abbott, T D Abbott, M R Abernathy, F Acernese, K Ackley, C Adams, T Adams, P Addesso, R X Adhikari, V B Adya, C Affeldt, M Agathos, K Agatsuma, N Aggarwal, O D Aguiar, L Aiello, A Ain, P Ajith, T Akutsu, B Allen, A Allocca, P A Altin, A Ananyeva, S B Anderson, W G Anderson, M Ando, S Appert, K Arai, A Araya, M C Araya, J S Areeda, N Arnaud, K G Arun, H Asada, S Ascenzi, G Ashton, Y Aso, M Ast, S M Aston, P Astone, S Atsuta, P Aufmuth, C Aulbert, A Avila-Alvarez, K Awai, S Babak, P Bacon, M K M Bader, L Baiotti, P T Baker, F Baldaccini, G Ballardin, S W Ballmer, J C Barayoga, S E Barclay, B C Barish, D Barker, F Barone, B Barr, L Barsotti, M Barsuglia, D Barta, J Bartlett, M A Barton, I Bartos, R Bassiri, A Basti, J C Batch, C Baune, V Bavigadda, M Bazzan, B Bécsy, C Beer, M Bejger, I Belahcene, M Belgin, A S Bell, B K Berger, G Bergmann, C P L Berry, D Bersanetti, A Bertolini, J Betzwieser, S Bhagwat, R Bhandare, I A Bilenko, G Billingsley, C R Billman, J Birch, R Birney, O Birnholtz, S Biscans, A Bisht, M Bitossi, C Biwer, M A Bizouard, J K Blackburn, J Blackman, C D Blair, D G Blair, R M Blair, S Bloemen, O Bock, M Boer, G Bogaert, A Bohe, F Bondu, R Bonnand, B A Boom, R Bork, V Boschi, S Bose, Y Bouffanais, A Bozzi, C Bradaschia, P R Brady, V B Braginsky, M Branchesi, J E Brau, T Briant, A Brillet, M Brinkmann, V Brisson, P Brockill, J E Broida, A F Brooks, D A Brown, D D Brown, N M Brown, S Brunett, C C Buchanan, A Buikema, T Bulik, H J Bulten, A Buonanno, D Buskulic, C Buy, R L Byer, M Cabero, L Cadonati, G Cagnoli, C Cahillane, J Calderón Bustillo, T A Callister, E Calloni, J B Camp, K C Cannon, H Cao, J Cao, C D Capano, E Capocasa, F Carbognani, S Caride, J Casanueva Diaz, C Casentini, S Caudill, M Cavaglià, F Cavalier, R Cavalieri, G Cella, C B Cepeda, L Cerboni Baiardi, G Cerretani, E Cesarini, S J Chamberlin, M Chan, S Chao, P Charlton, E Chassande-Mottin, B D Cheeseboro, H Y Chen, Y Chen, H-P Cheng, A Chincarini, A Chiummo, T Chmiel, H S Cho, M Cho, J H Chow, N Christensen, Q Chu, A J K Chua, S Chua, S Chung, G Ciani, F Clara, J A Clark, F Cleva, C Cocchieri, E Coccia, P-F Cohadon, A Colla, C G Collette, L Cominsky, M Constancio, L Conti, S J Cooper, T R Corbitt, N Cornish, A Corsi, S Cortese, C A Costa, M W Coughlin, S B Coughlin, J-P Coulon, S T Countryman, P Couvares, P B Covas, E E Cowan, D M Coward, M J Cowart, D C Coyne, R Coyne, J D E Creighton, T D Creighton, J Cripe, S G Crowder, T J Cullen, A Cumming, L Cunningham, E Cuoco, T Dal Canton, S L Danilishin, S D'Antonio, K Danzmann, A Dasgupta, C F Da Silva Costa, V Dattilo, I Dave, M Davier, G S Davies, D Davis, E J Daw, B Day, R Day, S De, D DeBra, G Debreczeni, J Degallaix, M De Laurentis, S Deléglise, W Del Pozzo, T Denker, T Dent, V Dergachev, R De Rosa, R T DeRosa, R DeSalvo, R C Devine, S Dhurandhar, M C Díaz, L Di Fiore, M Di Giovanni, T Di Girolamo, A Di Lieto, S Di Pace, I Di Palma, A Di Virgilio, Z Doctor, K Doi, V Dolique, F Donovan, K L Dooley, S Doravari, I Dorrington, R Douglas, M Dovale Álvarez, T P Downes, M Drago, R W P Drever, J C Driggers, Z Du, M Ducrot, S E Dwyer, K Eda, T B Edo, M C Edwards, A Effler, H-B Eggenstein, P Ehrens, J Eichholz, S S Eikenberry, R A Eisenstein, R C Essick, Z Etienne, T Etzel, M Evans, T M Evans, R Everett, M Factourovich, V Fafone, H Fair, S Fairhurst, X Fan, S Farinon, B Farr, W M Farr, E J Fauchon-Jones, M Favata, M Fays, H Fehrmann, M M Fejer, A Fernández Galiana, I Ferrante, E C Ferreira, F Ferrini, F Fidecaro, I Fiori, D Fiorucci, R P Fisher, R Flaminio, M Fletcher, H Fong, S S Forsyth, J-D Fournier, S Frasca, F Frasconi, Z Frei, A Freise, R Frey, V Frey, E M Fries, P Fritschel, V V Frolov, Y Fujii, M-K Fujimoto, P Fulda, M Fyffe, H Gabbard, B U Gadre, S M Gaebel, J R Gair, L Gammaitoni, S G Gaonkar, F Garufi, G Gaur, V Gayathri, N Gehrels, G Gemme, E Genin, A Gennai, J George, L Gergely, V Germain, S Ghonge, Abhirup Ghosh, Archisman Ghosh, S Ghosh, J A Giaime, K D Giardina, A Giazotto, K Gill, A Glaefke, E Goetz, R Goetz, L Gondan, G González, J M Gonzalez Castro, A Gopakumar, M L Gorodetsky, S E Gossan, M Gosselin, R Gouaty, A Grado, C Graef, M Granata, A Grant, S Gras, C Gray, G Greco, A C Green, P Groot, H Grote, S Grunewald, G M Guidi, X Guo, A Gupta, M K Gupta, K E Gushwa, E K Gustafson, R Gustafson, J J Hacker, A Hagiwara, B R Hall, E D Hall, G Hammond, M Haney, M M Hanke, J Hanks, C Hanna, M D Hannam, J Hanson, T Hardwick, J Harms, G M Harry, I W Harry, M J Hart, M T Hartman, C-J Haster, K Haughian, K Hayama, J Healy, A Heidmann, M C Heintze, H Heitmann, P Hello, G Hemming, M Hendry, I S Heng, J Hennig, J Henry, A W Heptonstall, M Heurs, S Hild, E Hirose, D Hoak, D Hofman, K Holt, D E Holz, P Hopkins, J Hough, E A Houston, E J Howell, Y M Hu, E A Huerta, D Huet, B Hughey, S Husa, S H Huttner, T Huynh-Dinh, N Indik, D R Ingram, R Inta, K Ioka, H N Isa, J-M Isac, M Isi, T Isogai, Y Itoh, B R Iyer, K Izumi, T Jacqmin, K Jani, P Jaranowski, S Jawahar, F Jiménez-Forteza, W W Johnson, D I Jones, R Jones, R J G Jonker, L Ju, J Junker, T Kagawa, T Kajita, M Kakizaki, C V Kalaghatgi, V Kalogera, M Kamiizumi, N Kanda, S Kandhasamy, S Kanemura, M Kaneyama, G Kang, J B Kanner, S Karki, K S Karvinen, M Kasprzack, Y Kataoka, E Katsavounidis, W Katzman, S Kaufer, T Kaur, K Kawabe, N Kawai, S Kawamura, F Kéfélian, D Keitel, D B Kelley, R Kennedy, J S Key, F Y Khalili, I Khan, S Khan, Z Khan, E A Khazanov, N Kijbunchoo, C Kim, H Kim, J C Kim, J Kim, W Kim, Y-M Kim, S J Kimbrell, N Kimura, E J King, P J King, R Kirchhoff, J S Kissel, B Klein, L Kleybolte, S Klimenko, P Koch, S M Koehlenbeck, Y Kojima, K Kokeyama, S Koley, K Komori, V Kondrashov, A Kontos, M Korobko, W Z Korth, K Kotake, I Kowalska, D B Kozak, C Krämer, V Kringel, B Krishnan, A Królak, G Kuehn, P Kumar, Rahul Kumar, Rakesh Kumar, L Kuo, K Kuroda, A Kutynia, Y Kuwahara, B D Lackey, M Landry, R N Lang, J Lange, B Lantz, R K Lanza, A Lartaux-Vollard, P D Lasky, M Laxen, A Lazzarini, C Lazzaro, P Leaci, S Leavey, E O Lebigot, C H Lee, H K Lee, H M Lee, H W Lee, K Lee, J Lehmann, A Lenon, M Leonardi, J R Leong, N Leroy, N Letendre, Y Levin, T G F Li, A Libson, T B Littenberg, J Liu, N A Lockerbie, A L Lombardi, L T London, J E Lord, M Lorenzini, V Loriette, M Lormand, G Losurdo, J D Lough, C O Lousto, G Lovelace, H Lück, A P Lundgren, R Lynch, Y Ma, S Macfoy, B Machenschalk, M MacInnis, D M Macleod, F Magaña-Sandoval, E Majorana, I Maksimovic, V Malvezzi, N Man, V Mandic, V Mangano, S Mano, G L Mansell, M Manske, M Mantovani, F Marchesoni, M Marchio, F Marion, S Márka, Z Márka, A S Markosyan, E Maros, F Martelli, L Martellini, I W Martin, D V Martynov, K Mason, A Masserot, T J Massinger, M Masso-Reid, S Mastrogiovanni, F Matichard, L Matone, N Matsumoto, F Matsushima, N Mavalvala, N Mazumder, R McCarthy, D E McClelland, S McCormick, C McGrath, S C McGuire, G McIntyre, J McIver, D J McManus, T McRae, S T McWilliams, D Meacher, G D Meadors, J Meidam, A Melatos, G Mendell, D Mendoza-Gandara, R A Mercer, E L Merilh, M Merzougui, S Meshkov, C Messenger, C Messick, R Metzdorff, P M Meyers, F Mezzani, H Miao, C Michel, Y Michimura, H Middleton, E E Mikhailov, L Milano, A L Miller, A Miller, B B Miller, J Miller, M Millhouse, Y Minenkov, J Ming, S Mirshekari, C Mishra, V P Mitrofanov, G Mitselmakher, R Mittleman, O Miyakawa, A Miyamoto, T Miyamoto, S Miyoki, A Moggi, M Mohan, S R P Mohapatra, M Montani, B C Moore, C J Moore, D Moraru, G Moreno, W Morii, S Morisaki, Y Moriwaki, S R Morriss, B Mours, C M Mow-Lowry, G Mueller, A W Muir, Arunava Mukherjee, D Mukherjee, S Mukherjee, N Mukund, A Mullavey, J Munch, E A M Muniz, P G Murray, A Mytidis, S Nagano, K Nakamura, T Nakamura, H Nakano, Masaya Nakano, Masayuki Nakano, K Nakao, K Napier, I Nardecchia, T Narikawa, L Naticchioni, G Nelemans, T J N Nelson, M Neri, M Nery, A Neunzert, J M Newport, G Newton, T T Nguyen, W-T Ni, A B Nielsen, S Nissanke, A Nitz, A Noack, F Nocera, D Nolting, M E N Normandin, L K Nuttall, J Oberling, E Ochsner, E Oelker, G H Ogin, J J Oh, S H Oh, M Ohashi, N Ohishi, M Ohkawa, F Ohme, K Okutomi, M Oliver, K Ono, Y Ono, K Oohara, P Oppermann, Richard J Oram, B O'Reilly, R O'Shaughnessy, D J Ottaway, H Overmier, B J Owen, A E Pace, J Page, A Pai, S A Pai, J R Palamos, O Palashov, C Palomba, A Pal-Singh, H Pan, C Pankow, F Pannarale, B C Pant, F Paoletti, A Paoli, M A Papa, H R Paris, W Parker, D Pascucci, A Pasqualetti, R Passaquieti, D Passuello, B Patricelli, B L Pearlstone, M Pedraza, R Pedurand, L Pekowsky, A Pele, F E Peña Arellano, S Penn, C J Perez, A Perreca, L M Perri, H P Pfeiffer, M Phelps, O J Piccinni, M Pichot, F Piergiovanni, V Pierro, G Pillant, L Pinard, I M Pinto, M Pitkin, M Poe, R Poggiani, P Popolizio, A Post, J Powell, J Prasad, J W W Pratt, V Predoi, T Prestegard, M Prijatelj, M Principe, S Privitera, G A Prodi, L G Prokhorov, O Puncken, M Punturo, P Puppo, M Pürrer, H Qi, J Qin, S Qiu, V Quetschke, E A Quintero, R Quitzow-James, F J Raab, D S Rabeling, H Radkins, P Raffai, S Raja, C Rajan, M Rakhmanov, P Rapagnani, V Raymond, M Razzano, V Re, J Read, T Regimbau, L Rei, S Reid, D H Reitze, H Rew, S D Reyes, E Rhoades, F Ricci, K Riles, M Rizzo, N A Robertson, R Robie, F Robinet, A Rocchi, L Rolland, J G Rollins, V J Roma, R Romano, J H Romie, D Rosińska, S Rowan, A Rüdiger, P Ruggi, K Ryan, S Sachdev, T Sadecki, L Sadeghian, N Sago, M Saijo, Y Saito, K Sakai, M Sakellariadou, L Salconi, M Saleem, F Salemi, A Samajdar, L Sammut, L M Sampson, E J Sanchez, V Sandberg, J R Sanders, Y Sasaki, B Sassolas, B S Sathyaprakash, S Sato, T Sato, P R Saulson, O Sauter, R L Savage, A Sawadsky, P Schale, J Scheuer, E Schmidt, J Schmidt, P Schmidt, R Schnabel, R M S Schofield, A Schönbeck, E Schreiber, D Schuette, B F Schutz, S G Schwalbe, J Scott, S M Scott, T Sekiguchi, Y Sekiguchi, D Sellers, A S Sengupta, D Sentenac, V Sequino, A Sergeev, Y Setyawati, D A Shaddock, T J Shaffer, M S Shahriar, B Shapiro, P Shawhan, A Sheperd, M Shibata, Y Shikano, T Shimoda, A Shoda, D H Shoemaker, D M Shoemaker, K Siellez, X Siemens, M Sieniawska, D Sigg, A D Silva, A Singer, L P Singer, A Singh, R Singh, A Singhal, A M Sintes, B J J Slagmolen, B Smith, J R Smith, R J E Smith, K Somiya, E J Son, B Sorazu, F Sorrentino, T Souradeep, A P Spencer, A K Srivastava, A Staley, M Steinke, J Steinlechner, S Steinlechner, D Steinmeyer, B C Stephens, S P Stevenson, R Stone, K A Strain, N Straniero, G Stratta, S E Strigin, R Sturani, A L Stuver, Y Sugimoto, T Z Summerscales, L Sun, S Sunil, P J Sutton, T Suzuki, B L Swinkels, M J Szczepańczyk, M Tacca, H Tagoshi, S Takada, H Takahashi, R Takahashi, A Takamori, D Talukder, H Tanaka, K Tanaka, T Tanaka, D B Tanner, M Tápai, A Taracchini, D Tatsumi, R Taylor, S Telada, T Theeg, E G Thomas, M Thomas, P Thomas, K A Thorne, E Thrane, T Tippens, S Tiwari, V Tiwari, K V Tokmakov, K Toland, T Tomaru, C Tomlinson, M Tonelli, Z Tornasi, C I Torrie, D Töyrä, F Travasso, G Traylor, D Trifirò, J Trinastic, M C Tringali, L Trozzo, M Tse, R Tso, K Tsubono, T Tsuzuki, M Turconi, D Tuyenbayev, T Uchiyama, T Uehara, S Ueki, K Ueno, D Ugolini, C S Unnikrishnan, A L Urban, T Ushiba, S A Usman, H Vahlbruch, G Vajente, G Valdes, N van Bakel, M van Beuzekom, J F J van den Brand, C Van Den Broeck, D C Vander-Hyde, L van der Schaaf, J V van Heijningen, M H P M van Putten, A A van Veggel, M Vardaro, V Varma, S Vass, M Vasúth, A Vecchio, G Vedovato, J Veitch, P J Veitch, K Venkateswara, G Venugopalan, D Verkindt, F Vetrano, A Viceré, A D Viets, S Vinciguerra, D J Vine, J-Y Vinet, S Vitale, T Vo, H Vocca, C Vorvick, D V Voss, W D Vousden, S P Vyatchanin, A R Wade, L E Wade, M Wade, T Wakamatsu, M Walker, L Wallace, S Walsh, G Wang, H Wang, M Wang, Y Wang, R L Ward, J Warner, M Was, J Watchi, B Weaver, L-W Wei, M Weinert, A J Weinstein, R Weiss, L Wen, P Weßels, T Westphal, K Wette, J T Whelan, B F Whiting, C Whittle, D Williams, R D Williams, A R Williamson, J L Willis, B Willke, M H Wimmer, W Winkler, C C Wipf, H Wittel, G Woan, J Woehler, J Worden, J L Wright, D S Wu, G Wu, W Yam, H Yamamoto, K Yamamoto, T Yamamoto, C C Yancey, K Yano, M J Yap, J Yokoyama, T Yokozawa, T H Yoon, Hang Yu, Haocun Yu, H Yuzurihara, M Yvert, A Zadrożny, L Zangrando, M Zanolin, S Zeidler, J-P Zendri, M Zevin, L Zhang, M Zhang, T Zhang, Y Zhang, C Zhao, M Zhou, Z Zhou, S J Zhu, X J Zhu, M E Zucker, J Zweizig
We present possible observing scenarios for the Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo and KAGRA gravitational-wave detectors over the next decade, with the intention of providing information to the astronomy community to facilitate planning for multi-messenger astronomy with gravitational waves. We estimate the sensitivity of the network to transient gravitational-wave signals, and study the capability of the network to determine the sky location of the source. We report our findings for gravitational-wave transients, with particular focus on gravitational-wave signals from the inspiral of binary neutron star systems, which are the most promising targets for multi-messenger astronomy...
2018: Living Reviews in Relativity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717241/billion-star-map-of-milky-way-set-to-transform-astronomy
#7
Davide Castelvecchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694775/potent-macromolecule-sized-poration-of-lipid-bilayers-by-the-macrolittins-a-synthetically-evolved-family-of-pore-forming-peptides
#8
Sijia Li, Sarah Y Kim, Anna E Pittman, Gavin M King, William C Wimley, Kalina Hristova
Potent macromolecule-sized poration of lipid bilayers by the macrolittins, a synthetically evolved family of pore-forming peptides. Sijia Li1, Sarah Y. Kim1, Anna E. Pittman3, Gavin M. King3,4, William C. Wimley2* and Kalina Hristova1* 1Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 2Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112 3Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65201 4Biochemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65201 *Address correspondence to wwimley@tulane...
April 25, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694122/matching-matched-filtering-with-deep-networks-for-gravitational-wave-astronomy
#9
Hunter Gabbard, Michael Williams, Fergus Hayes, Chris Messenger
We report on the construction of a deep convolutional neural network that can reproduce the sensitivity of a matched-filtering search for binary black hole gravitational-wave signals. The standard method for the detection of well-modeled transient gravitational-wave signals is matched filtering. We use only whitened time series of measured gravitational-wave strain as an input, and we train and test on simulated binary black hole signals in synthetic Gaussian noise representative of Advanced LIGO sensitivity...
April 6, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661982/the-promises-of-gravitational-wave-astronomy
#10
Iain W Martin, Nils Andersson, Jim Hough, Carole Mundell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661981/high-energy-astrophysics-and-the-search-for-sources-of-gravitational-waves
#11
P T O'Brien, P Evans
The dawn of the gravitational-wave (GW) era has sparked a greatly renewed interest into possible links between sources of high-energy radiation and GWs. The most luminous high-energy sources-gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)-have long been considered as very likely sources of GWs, particularly from short-duration GRBs, which are thought to originate from the merger of two compact objects such as binary neutron stars and a neutron star-black hole binary. In this paper, we discuss: (i) the high-energy emission from short-duration GRBs; (ii) what other sources of high-energy radiation may be observed from binary mergers; and (iii) how searches for high-energy electromagnetic counterparts to GW events are performed with current space facilities...
May 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661980/the-prospects-of-pulsar-timing-with-new-generation-radio-telescopes-and-the-square-kilometre-array
#12
REVIEW
B W Stappers, E F Keane, M Kramer, A Possenti, I H Stairs
Pulsars are highly magnetized and rapidly rotating neutron stars. As they spin, the lighthouse-like beam of radio emission from their magnetic poles sweeps across the Earth with a regularity approaching that of the most precise clocks known. This precision combined with the extreme environments in which they are found, often in compact orbits with other neutron stars and white dwarfs, makes them excellent tools for studying gravity. Present and near-future pulsar surveys, especially those using the new generation of telescopes, will find more extreme binary systems and pulsars that are more precise 'clocks'...
May 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661979/microelectromechanical-system-gravimeters-as-a-new-tool-for-gravity-imaging
#13
Richard P Middlemiss, Steven G Bramsiepe, Rebecca Douglas, Stefan Hild, James Hough, Douglas J Paul, Antonio Samarelli, Sheila Rowan, Giles D Hammond
A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) gravimeter has been manufactured with a sensitivity of 40 ppb in an integration time of 1 s. This sensor has been used to measure the Earth tides: the elastic deformation of the globe due to tidal forces. No such measurement has been demonstrated before now with a MEMS gravimeter. Since this measurement, the gravimeter has been miniaturized and tested in the field. Measurements of the free-air and Bouguer effects have been demonstrated by monitoring the change in gravitational acceleration measured while going up and down a lift shaft of 20...
May 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661978/control-of-cell-behaviour-through-nanovibrational-stimulation-nanokicking
#14
REVIEW
Shaun N Robertson, Paul Campsie, Peter G Childs, Fiona Madsen, Hannah Donnelly, Fiona L Henriquez, William G Mackay, Manuel Salmerón-Sánchez, Monica P Tsimbouri, Craig Williams, Matthew J Dalby, Stuart Reid
Mechanical signals are ubiquitous in our everyday life and the process of converting these mechanical signals into a biological signalling response is known as mechanotransduction. Our understanding of mechanotransduction, and its contribution to vital cellular responses, is a rapidly expanding field of research involving complex processes that are still not clearly understood. The use of mechanical vibration as a stimulus of mechanotransduction, including variation of frequency and amplitude, allows an alternative method to control specific cell behaviour without chemical stimulation (e...
May 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661977/gravitational-wave-detection-using-laser-interferometry-beyond-the-standard-quantum-limit
#15
REVIEW
M Heurs
Interferometric gravitational wave detectors (such as advanced LIGO) employ high-power solid-state lasers to maximize their detection sensitivity and hence their reach into the universe. These sophisticated light sources are ultra-stabilized with regard to output power, emission frequency and beam geometry; this is crucial to obtain low detector noise. However, even when all laser noise is reduced as far as technically possible, unavoidable quantum noise of the laser still remains. This is a consequence of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, the basis of quantum mechanics: in this case, it is fundamentally impossible to simultaneously reduce both the phase noise and the amplitude noise of a laser to arbitrarily low levels...
May 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661976/characterizing-transient-noise-in-the-ligo-detectors
#16
L K Nuttall
Data from the LIGO detectors typically contain many non-Gaussian noise transients which arise due to instrumental and environmental conditions. These non-Gaussian transients can be an issue for the modelled and unmodelled transient gravitational-wave searches, as they can mask or mimic a true signal. Data quality can change quite rapidly, making it imperative to track and find new sources of transient noise so that data are minimally contaminated. Several examples of transient noise and the tools used to track them are presented...
May 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661975/gravitational-waves-from-neutron-stars-and-asteroseismology
#17
Wynn C G Ho
Neutron stars are born in the supernova explosion of massive stars. Neutron stars rotate as stably as atomic clocks and possess densities exceeding that of atomic nuclei and magnetic fields millions to billions of times stronger than those created in laboratories on the Earth. The physical properties of neutron stars are determined by many areas of fundamental physics, and detection of gravitational waves can provide invaluable insights into our understanding of these areas. Here, we describe some of the physics and astrophysics of neutron stars and how traditional electromagnetic wave observations provide clues to the sorts of gravitational waves we expect from these stars...
May 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661974/development-of-mirror-coatings-for-gravitational-wave-detectors
#18
J Steinlechner
Gravitational waves are detected by measuring length changes between mirrors in the arms of kilometre-long Michelson interferometers. Brownian thermal noise arising from thermal vibrations of the mirrors can limit the sensitivity to distance changes between the mirrors, and, therefore, the ability to measure gravitational-wave signals. Thermal noise arising from the highly reflective mirror coatings will limit the sensitivity both of current detectors (when they reach design performance) and of planned future detectors...
May 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661973/quasi-monolithic-mirror-suspensions-in-ground-based-gravitational-wave-detectors-an-overview-and-look-to-the-future
#19
REVIEW
Anna-Maria A van Veggel
At the commencement of a new era in astrophysics, with added information from direct detections of gravitational-wave (GW) signals, this paper is a testament to the quasi-monolithic suspensions of the test masses of the GW detectors that have enabled the opening of a new window on the universe. The quasi-monolithic suspensions are the final stages in the seismic isolation of the test masses in GW detectors, and are specifically designed to introduce as little thermal noise as possible. The history of the development of the fused-silica quasi-monolithic suspensions, which have been so essential for the first detections of GWs, is outlined and a glimpse into the status of research towards quasi-monolithic suspensions made of sapphire and silicon is given...
May 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661972/gravitational-wave-astronomy-delivering-on-the-promises
#20
B F Schutz
Now that LIGO and Virgo have begun to detect gravitational-wave events with regularity, the field of gravitational-wave astronomy is beginning to realize its promise. Binary black holes and, very recently, binary neutron stars have been observed, and we are already learning much from them. The future, with improved sensitivity, more detectors and detectors like LISA in different frequency bands, has even more promise to open a completely hidden side of the Universe to our exploration.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'...
May 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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