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(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2017: Nature
Linda Nordling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2017: Nature
Rhorry Gauld, Juan Rojo
The small-x gluon in global fits of parton distributions is affected by large uncertainties from the lack of direct experimental constraints. In this Letter, we provide a precision determination of the small-x gluon from the exploitation of forward charm production data provided by LHCb for three different center-of-mass (c.m.) energies: 5 TeV, 7 TeV, and 13 TeV. The LHCb measurements are included in the parton distribution function (PDF) fit by means of normalized distributions and cross-section ratios between data taken at different c...
February 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Lanqiang Zhang, Youming Guo, Changhui Rao
Multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) is the most promising technique currently developed to enlarge the corrected field of view of adaptive optics for astronomy. In this paper, we propose a new configuration of solar MCAO based on high order ground layer adaptive optics and low order high altitude correction, which result in a homogeneous correction effect in the whole field of view. An individual high order multiple direction Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is employed in the configuration to detect the ground layer turbulence for low altitude correction...
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
Ignas A G Snellen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2017: Nature
Michaël Gillon, Amaury H M J Triaud, Brice-Olivier Demory, Emmanuël Jehin, Eric Agol, Katherine M Deck, Susan M Lederer, Julien de Wit, Artem Burdanov, James G Ingalls, Emeline Bolmont, Jeremy Leconte, Sean N Raymond, Franck Selsis, Martin Turbet, Khalid Barkaoui, Adam Burgasser, Matthew R Burleigh, Sean J Carey, Aleksander Chaushev, Chris M Copperwheat, Laetitia Delrez, Catarina S Fernandes, Daniel L Holdsworth, Enrico J Kotze, Valérie Van Grootel, Yaseen Almleaky, Zouhair Benkhaldoun, Pierre Magain, Didier Queloz
One aim of modern astronomy is to detect temperate, Earth-like exoplanets that are well suited for atmospheric characterization. Recently, three Earth-sized planets were detected that transit (that is, pass in front of) a star with a mass just eight per cent that of the Sun, located 12 parsecs away. The transiting configuration of these planets, combined with the Jupiter-like size of their host star-named TRAPPIST-1-makes possible in-depth studies of their atmospheric properties with present-day and future astronomical facilities...
February 22, 2017: Nature
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Nature
Kayhan Gültekin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: Nature
Dai Tomono, Tetsuya Mizumoto, Atsushi Takada, Shotaro Komura, Yoshihiro Matsuoka, Yoshitaka Mizumura, Makoto Oda, Toru Tanimori
We have developed an Electron Tracking Compton Camera (ETCC), which provides a well-defined Point Spread Function (PSF) by reconstructing a direction of each gamma as a point and realizes simultaneous measurement of brightness and spectrum of MeV gamma-rays for the first time. Here, we present the results of our on-site pilot gamma-imaging-spectroscopy with ETCC at three contaminated locations in the vicinity of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants in Japan in 2014. The obtained distribution of brightness (or emissivity) with remote-sensing observations is unambiguously converted into the dose distribution...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Amir Kiperwas, Daniel Rosenfeld, Yonina C Eldar
We present an algorithm for resampling a function from its values on a non-Cartesian grid onto a Cartesian grid. This problem arises in many applications such as MRI, CT, radio astronomy and geophysics. Our algorithm, termed SParse Uniform ReSampling (SPURS), employs methods from modern sampling theory to achieve a small approximation error while maintaining low computational cost. The given non-Cartesian samples are projected onto a selected intermediate subspace, spanned by integer translations of a compactly supported kernel function...
November 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Weisheng Dong, Fazuo Fu, Guangming Shi, Xun Cao, Jinjian Wu, Guangyu Li, Xin Li
Hyperspectral imaging has many applications from agriculture and astronomy to surveillance and mineralogy. However, it is often challenging to obtain High-resolution (HR) hyperspectral images using existing hyperspectral imaging techniques due to various hardware limitations. In this paper, we propose a new Hyperspectral image super-resolution method from a low-resolution (LR) image and a HR reference image of the same scene. The estimation of the HR hyperspectral image is formulated as a joint estimation of the hyperspectral dictionary and the sparse codes based on the prior knowledge of the spatialspectral sparsity of the hyperspectral image...
March 22, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Daniel Clery
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2017: Science
Heino Falcke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2017: Nature
Stanislav Burov, Patrick Figliozzi, Binhua Lin, Stuart A Rice, Norbert F Scherer, Aaron R Dinner
We present a general method for detecting and correcting biases in the outputs of particle-tracking experiments. Our approach is based on the histogram of estimated positions within pixels, which we term the single-pixel interior filling function (SPIFF). We use the deviation of the SPIFF from a uniform distribution to test the veracity of tracking analyses from different algorithms. Unbiased SPIFFs correspond to uniform pixel filling, whereas biased ones exhibit pixel locking, in which the estimated particle positions concentrate toward the centers of pixels...
January 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Adrian Grewe, Stefan Sinzinger
Helix phase plates are used in a variety of applications from optical trapping to astronomy. Tunable helix phase plates based on the Alvarez-Lohmann principle allow variation of the topological charge of the helix by rotating the phase plates with respect to each other around the optical axis. Current designs generate an undesired inverse phase in the section determined by the rotation angle. We present tunable phase plates that use a special quantization to maintain a uniform phase over the tuning range, suppressing the undesired part...
October 15, 2016: Optics Letters
Yeong Hwan Ko, Robert Magnusson
Narrow bandpass filters are applied in laser systems, imaging, telecommunications, and astronomy. Traditionally implemented with thin-film stacks, there is recent interest in alternative means incorporating photonic resonance effects. Here, we demonstrate a new approach to bandpass filters that engages the guided-mode resonance effect working with a cavity-based Fabry-Perot resonance to flatten and steepen the pass band. Both of these resonance mechanisms are native to simple resonant bandpass filters placed in a cascade...
October 15, 2016: Optics Letters
Tailin Xu, Wanxin Shi, Jinrong Huang, Yongchao Song, Feilong Zhang, Li-Ping Xu, Xueji Zhang, Shutao Wang
The construction of the Space Station provides a spaceflight laboratory, which enables us to accomplish tremendous short- and long-duration research such as astronomy, physics, material sciences, and life sciences in a microgravity environment. Continuous innovation and development of spaceflight laboratory prompted us to develop a facile detection approach to meet stringent requirements in a microgravity environment that traditional experimental approaches cannot reach. Here we introduce superhydrophilic microwells onto superhydrophobic substrates that are capable of capturing and transferring microdroplets, demonstrating a proof-of-concept study of a biosensing platform toward microgravity application...
December 22, 2016: ACS Nano
P Darré, R Baudoin, J-T Gomes, N J Scott, L Delage, L Grossard, J Sturmann, C Farrington, F Reynaud, T A Ten Brummelaar
The Astronomical Light Optical Hybrid Analysis project investigates the combined use of a telescope array interferometer and nonlinear optics to propose a new generation of instruments dedicated to high-resolution imaging for infrared astronomy. The nonlinear process of optical frequency conversion transfers the astronomical light to a shorter wavelength domain. Here, we report on the first fringes obtained on the sky with the prototype operated at 1.55  μm in the astronomical H band and implemented on the Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy telescope array...
December 2, 2016: Physical Review Letters
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2016: Nature
C Philipp E Nothaft
The article introduces a previously unknown fourteenth-century treatise on computus and calendrical astronomy entitled Expositio kalendarii novi, whose author proposed elaborate solutions to the technical flaws inherent in the calendar used by the Roman Church. An analysis of verbal parallels to other contemporary works on the same topic makes it possible to establish that the Expositio was produced in the context of a calendar reform initiative led by Pope Clement VI in 1344/45 and that this anonymous text is probably identical to a 'great and laborious work' on the calendar that the monk Johannes de Termis prepared for the pope around this time...
January 2017: Annals of Science
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