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Applied behavior analysis

Qianli D Y Ma, Changjuan Ji, Huanhuan Xie, Kai Yin, Zhen Ma, Chunhua Bian
The aim of this study is to investigate the coupling behavior between heartbeat and pulse of blood flow at different sleep stages, and to explore the feasibility of using this coupling strength for automatic sleep staging.
 Approach: The electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmography (PPG) signals are recorded during sleep, and R-wave-to-R-wave intervals (RRI) and Pulse-to-Pulse intervals (PPI) are extracted respectively. The detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) is applied to quantify long-range cross correlations between the RRIs and PPIs across sleep stages...
February 16, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Chih-Wen Yang, Kwan-Tai Leung, Ren-Feng Ding, Hsien-Chen Ko, Yi-Hsien Lu, Chung-Kai Fang, Ing-Shouh Hwang
Atomic force microscopy is used to conduct single-asperity friction measurements at a water-graphite interface. Local mapping of the frictional force, which is based on the degree of the cantilever twisting, shows nearly friction-free when a tip scans over a nanobubble. Surprisingly, apart from being gapless, the associated friction loop exhibits a tilt in the cantilever twisting versus the tip's lateral displacement with the slope depending on the loading force. The sign of the slope reverses at around zero loading force...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Qinghui Ge, Yuezhi Mao, Martin Head-Gordon
An energy decomposition analysis (EDA) scheme is developed for understanding the intermolecular interaction involving molecules in their excited states. The EDA utilizes absolutely localized molecular orbitals to define intermediate states and is compatible with excited state methods based on linear response theory such as configuration interaction singles and time-dependent density functional theory. The shift in excitation energy when an excited molecule interacts with the environment is decomposed into frozen, polarization, and charge transfer contributions, and the frozen term can be further separated into Pauli repulsion and electrostatics...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Abhendra K Singh, Heath E Misak, Shankar Mall
The effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure on the tensile behavior of CNT sheet was investigated in this study. Two types of CNT sheet, one acid treated and one un-treated, were directly exposed to UVB light for 500 hours. The exposure was done using a UVB lamp inside a dark chamber under room temperature ambient condition. The microstructure of the CNT sheets were studied both prior to and after UVB exposure using a scanning electron microscope. Upon completion of the exposure duration, the CNT sheet test coupons were tested mechanically in tension using a microtester to evaluate the tensile strength and behavior...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Brandon E Morgan, Oleg Schilling, Tucker A Hartland
The three-equation k-L-a turbulence model [B. Morgan and M. Wickett, Three-equation model for the self-similar growth of Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities, Phys. Rev. E 91, 043002 (2015)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.91.043002] is extended by the addition of a second length scale equation. It is shown that the separation of turbulence transport and turbulence destruction length scales is necessary for simultaneous prediction of the growth parameter and turbulence intensity of a Kelvin-Helmholtz shear layer when model coefficients are constrained by similarity analysis...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Priyanka Mishra, Vinit Raj, Archana S Bhadauria, Ashok K Singh, Amit Rai, Pranesh Kumar, Amit K Keshari, Arnab De, Amalesh Samanta, Umesh Kumar, Dinesh Kumar, Biswanath Maity, Sneha Nath, Anand Prakash, Kausar M Ansari, Sudipta Saha
In this study, we investigated the in vivo antiproliferative activity of 6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (M1) in dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced colorectal carcinoma (CRC) using albino Wistar rats. M1 was administered to DMH induced CRC rats at 10 and 25 mg/kg doses for 15 days. Various physiological, oxidative parameters, histopathology, ELISA, gene and protein expression studies were conducted to evaluate the anti-CRC potential of M1. The histopathology and biochemical tests indicated the protective action of M1 in DMH-induced colon cancer...
February 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Cheolwoong Ko, Mikyung Yang, Taemin Byun, Sang-Wook Lee
This study proposed a way to design femur fracture fixation plates made of shape memory alloy based on CT (Computed Tomography) images of Korean cadaveric femurs. To this end, 3 major design factors of femur fracture fixation plates (circumference angle, thickness, and inner diameter) were selected based on the contact pressure when a femur fracture fixation plate was applied to a cylinder model using the Taguchi Method. Then the effects of the design factors were analyzed. It was shown that the design factors were statistically significant at a level of p=0...
February 15, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Rebecca B Beck, Eavan M McGovern, John S Butler, Dorina Birsanu, Brendan Quinlivan, Ines Beiser, Shruti Narasimham, Sean O'Riordan, Michael Hutchinson, Richard B Reilly
The temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) is the shortest time interval at which an observer can discriminate two sequential stimuli as being asynchronous (typically 30-50 ms). It has been shown to be abnormal (prolonged) in neurological disorders, including cervical dystonia, a phenotype of adult onset idiopathic isolated focal dystonia. The TDT is a quantitative measure of the ability to perceive rapid changes in the environment and is considered indicative of the behavior of the visual neurons in the superior colliculus, a key node in covert attentional orienting...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jinrui Lin, Xiuyuan Ni
In this study, a photochemical polymerization using graphene oxide (GO) as an initiator generated a new composite film with poly(1-vinylimidazole) (PVI) covered the GO sheets. Atomic force microscopy and infrared spectroscopy revealed the uniform layering of the PVI on the sheets. An ITO/GO-PVI/Cu device was fabricated from this synthesized film, and it exhibited a write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory functionality with resistance switching under an applied voltage of -3.2 V. The ON/OFF current ratio of the device reached 106...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Jie-Jie Zhang, Xu Ding, Dan-Dan Liu, Jian-Ning Guan, Guo-Zhi Han
In this paper, we report a green and controllable synthetic method of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by directly β-CD reduction under mild conditions. Analysis of UV-vis spectra, along with TEM was applied to study the effects of experimental parameters on morphologies of the gold nanoparticles. The corresponding formation mechanism of the nanoparticles was evaluated by redox potential. In particular, compared with the traditional method of sodium citrate or ascorbic reduction, this method can facilely realize multi-dimensional regulation...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Winfried Rief, Stefan G Hofmann
In virtually every field of medicine, non-inferiority trials and meta-analyses with non-inferiority conclusions are increasingly common. This non-inferiority approach has been frequently used by a group of authors favoring psychodynamic therapies (PDTs), concluding that PDTs are just as effective as cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT). We focus on these examples to exemplify some problems associated with non-inferiority tests of psychological treatments, although the problems also apply to psychopharmacotherapy research, CBT research, and others...
February 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Qing-Qing Xu, Chun-Shuo Shan, Yong Wang, Yi-Hua Shi, Qi-Hao Zhang, Guo-Qing Zheng
BACKGROUND: Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second common form of dementia and Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for aging-related disorders for thousands of years. However, there is still a lack of scientific evidence using CHM for VaD. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review to assess the current evidence available for the effectiveness and safety of CHM for VaD. METHODS: Six databases were searched for high-quality randomized-controlled clinical trials that met the requirements of at least 4 of the 7 domains of the Cochrane risk of bias tool from their inception to February 2017...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Gang Liu, Aaron B A Shafer, Xiaolong Hu, Linhai Li, Yu Ning, Minghao Gong, Lijuan Cui, Huixin Li, Defu Hu, Lei Qi, Hengjiu Tian, Bojun Wang
Food resources are often not sufficient to satisfy the nutritional and energetic requirements during winter conditions at high latitudes. Dietary analysis is a prerequisite to fully understanding the feeding ecology of a species and the nature of trophic interactions. Previous dietary studies of Asian Great Bustard (Otis tarda dybowskii) relied on behavioral observations, resulting in categorization of diet limited to broad taxonomic groupings. Here, we applied a high-throughput sequencing meta-barcoding approach to quantify the diet of resident and migratory Asian Great Bustard in three wintering sites during early winter and late winter...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Andrea Cacciato Insilla, Agnese Proietti, Nicla Borrelli, Elisabetta Macerola, Cristina Niccoli, Paolo Vitti, Paolo Miccoli, Fulvio Basolo
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of endocrine malignancy and accounts for ~80% of thyroid carcinomas in adults and 90% in children. Risk stratification is important for identifying patients at higher risk and, for this reason, recent advances in molecular genetics of thyroid cancer can be applied to provide novel biomarkers useful in understanding tumor behavior. B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) and rat sarcoma (RAS) mutations have been widely studied and appear to have an important role in thyroid tumorigenesis...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Neonjyoti Bordoloi, Manash Deep Dey, Rupak Mukhopadhyay, Rupam Kataki
Biochar obtained through the pyrolysis of Pongamia glabra seed cover (PGSC) at 550 °C with a heating rate of 40 °C/min was characterized and its ability to adsorb the dyes Methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RB) from aqueous solutions was investigated. The effect of pH, temperature and initial concentration of the dyes on adsorption behavior were investigated. The equilibrium sorption data were analyzed by using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. Equilibrium data were well fitted for D-R isotherm in case of MB and Langmuir isotherm in case of RB dyes...
February 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Kamran Dastafkan, Armin Kiani, Ali Obeydavi, Mohammad Rahimi
An advanced sol-gel method is developed via combined ultrasound-microwave irradiation and utilized for the crystallization of pristine and samarium doped zinc oxide nanorods. Organic structure directing agents directed one dimensional growth and air-annealing was applied as post-thermal treatment. Microstructural, optical, and solid state survey was pursued by PXRD, FESEM, TEM, EDS, FTIR, DRS, PL, micro-Raman, H2-TPR, and ESR techniques. Phase analysis by diffraction patterns confirmed the efficacy of irradiation strategy as it improves the crystallinity degree, expedites the hexagonal close pack morphology, and conducts lattice imperfection...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Ekaterina Myasnikova, Alexander Spirov
The first manifestation of a segmentation pattern in the early Drosophila development is the formation of expression domains of genes belonging to the gap class. In our previous research the phenomenon of the gap system's robustness, exhibited as the ability to reduce highly variable gene expression in the course of development, was explained as a result of gene cross-regulation. In this paper we formulate the rigorous robustness conditions using the inherent properties of gap gene family. We propose an approach based on the observation that for the formation of a pattern with well-established domain borders it is necessary that there exist a stationary nucleus in which the gene expression level is almost constant in time...
February 8, 2018: Bio Systems
Ehsan Negahbani, Florian H Kasten, Christoph S Herrmann, Flavio Frohlich
Non-invasive brain stimulation to target specific network activity patterns, e.g. transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), has become an essential tool to understand the causal role of neuronal oscillations in cognition and behavior. However, conventional sinusoidal tACS limits the ability to record neuronal activity during stimulation and lacks spatial focality. One particularly promising new tACS stimulation paradigm uses amplitude-modulated (AM) high-frequency waveforms (AM-tACS) with a slow signal envelope that may overcome the limitations...
February 7, 2018: NeuroImage
Leonardo Lancia, Benjamin Rosenbaum
Since the seminal works of Bernstein (The coordination and regulation of movements. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1967) several authors have supported the idea that, to produce a goal-oriented movement in general, and a movement of the organs responsible for the production of speech sounds in particular, individuals activate a set of coupling relations that coordinate the behavior of the elements of the motor system involved in the production of the target movement or sound. In order to characterize the configurations of the coupling relations underlying speech production articulator movements, we introduce an original method based on recurrence analysis...
February 9, 2018: Biological Cybernetics
Jun Li, Jianfei Xia, Feifei Zhang, Zonghua Wang, Qingyun Liu
A highly and simply sensitive electrochemical sensor was presented for the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CT) in the water based on copper centered metal-organic framework-graphene composites (Cu-MOF-GN) [Cu-MOF = Cu3(BTC)2 (BTC = 1, 3, 5-benzenetricarboxylicacid)] modified glassy carbon electrode (Cu-MOF-GN/GCE). The modification procedure was carried out through casting metal-organic framework-graphene oxide composites (Cu-MOF-GO) on the bare glassy carbon electrode and followed by the transformation of Cu-MOF-GO to Cu-MOF-GN by an electrochemical reduction...
May 1, 2018: Talanta
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