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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325290/-effect-of-hepatitis-c-virus-nonstructural-protein-5a-and-its-domains-ii-on-hepatocyte-gluconeogenesis-in-mice
#1
J J Zhang, Q Liu, L Qiao
Objective: To investigate the role of hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) and its domains I, II, and III in regulating gluconeogenesis in mice and the underlying mechanism. Methods: A total of 60 male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into six groups. Recombinant lentiviral particles with specific expression of full-length NS5A, NS5A domain I, NS5A domain II, or NS5A domain III were injected via the caudal vein to establish a mouse model, and the group without injection and the group with the injection of the lentiviral particles containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were established as negative control...
December 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321595/microrna-7-mediates-cross-talk-between-metabolic-signaling-pathways-in-the-liver
#2
Ragunath Singaravelu, Curtis Quan, Megan H Powdrill, Tyler A Shaw, Prashanth Srinivasan, Rodney K Lyn, Rhea C Alonzi, Daniel M Jones, Roxana Filip, Rodney S Russell, John P Pezacki
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as critical regulators of cellular metabolism. To characterise miRNAs crucial to the maintenance of hepatic lipid homeostasis, we examined the overlap between the miRNA signature associated with inhibition of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) signaling, a pathway regulating fatty acid metabolism, and the miRNA profile associated with 25-hydroxycholesterol treatment, an oxysterol regulator of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) and liver X receptor (LXR) signaling...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316805/red-pepper-seed-inhibits-differentiation-of-3t3-l1-cells-during-the-early-phase-of-adipogenesis-via-the-activation-of-ampk
#3
Hwa-Jin Kim, Mi-Kyoung You, Ziyun Wang, Hyeon-A Kim
Obesity is the main risk factor for metabolic syndromes and there has been an upsurge in demand for effective therapeutic strategies. This study investigated the effect of red pepper seed water extract (RPS) on the process of differentiation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. RPS treatment significantly suppressed cellular lipid accumulation and reduced the expression of adipocytes-associated proteins, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-[Formula: see text] (PPAR-[Formula: see text]), CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins [Formula: see text] (C/EBP [Formula: see text]), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), as well as fatty acid synthase (FAS), and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4)...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305303/alliin-attenuates-1-3-dichloro-2-propanol-induced-lipogenesis-in-hepg2-cells-through-activation-of-the-amp-activated-protein-kinase-dependent-pathway
#4
Jing Lu, Bijun Cheng, Zhuoqun Meng, Baochen Fang, Tianjiao Li, Maocheng Sun, Meitong Liu, Shuang Guan
Accumulating evidence reveals the association of 1, 3-dichloro-2-propanol (1, 3-DCP) exposure and lipogenesis. Alliin, the most abundant sulphur compound in garlic, has been demonstrated to exhibit hypoglycemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we showed that alliin attenuated lipogenesis induced by 1,3-DCP and that the reduction was due to activation of the AMPK pathway. HepG2 cells exposed to 1,3-DCP exhibited significant increase of triglyceride(TG) and total cholesterol(TC), and alliin reduced the accumulation...
January 2, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301371/the-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitor-dapagliflozin-prevents-renal-and-liver-disease-in-western-diet-induced-obesity-mice
#5
Dong Wang, Yuhuan Luo, Xiaoxin Wang, David J Orlicky, Komuraiah Myakala, Pengyuan Yang, Moshe Levi
Obesity and obesity related kidney and liver disease have become more prevalent over the past few decades, especially in the western world. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic agents with promising effects on cardiovascular and renal function. Given SGLT2 inhibitors exert both anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects by promoting urinary excretion of glucose and subsequent caloric loss, we investigated the effect of the highly selective renal SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin in mice with Western diet (WD) induced obesity...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296233/srebp-2-driven-transcriptional-activation-of-human-snd1-oncogene
#6
Sandra Armengol, Enara Arretxe, Leire Enzunza, Irati Llorente, Unai Mendibil, Hiart Navarro-Imaz, Begoña Ochoa, Yolanda Chico, María José Martínez
Upregulation of Staphylococcal nuclease and tudor domain containing 1 (SND1) is linked to cancer progression and metastatic spread. Increasing evidence indicates that SND1 plays a role in lipid homeostasis. Recently, it has been shown that SND1-overexpressing hepatocellular carcinoma cells present an increased de novo cholesterol synthesis and cholesteryl ester accumulation. Here we reveal that SND1 oncogene is a novel target for SREBPs. Exposure of HepG2 cells to the cholesterol-lowering drug simvastatin or to a lipoprotein-deficient medium triggers SREBP-2 activation and increases SND1 promoter activity and transcript levels...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286302/microrna-27b-depletion-enhances-endotrophic-and-intravascular-lipid-accumulation-and-induces-adipocyte-hyperplasia-in-zebrafish
#7
Chia-Chun Hsu, Chi-Yu Lai, Chiu-Ya Lin, Kun-Yun Yeh, Guor Mour Her
miR-27b has emerged as a regulatory hub in cholesterol and lipid metabolism, and as a potential therapeutic target for treating atherosclerosis and obesity. However, the impact of miR-27b on lipid levels in vivo remains to be determined. Zebrafish lipids are normally stored as triacylglycerols (TGs) and their main storage sites are visceral, intramuscular, and subcutaneous lipid depots, and not blood vessels and liver. In this study, we applied microRNA-sponge (miR-SP) technology and generated zebrafish expressing transgenic miR-27b-SP (C27bSPs), which disrupted endogenous miR-27b activity and induced intravascular lipid accumulation (hyperlipidemia) and the early onset of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286187/mitochondrial-atad3a-regulates-milk-biosynthesis-and-proliferation-of-mammary-epithelial-cells-from-dairy-cow-via-the-mtor-pathway
#8
Dongying Chen, Xiaohan Yuan, Lijie Liu, Minghui Zhang, Bo Qu, Zhen Zhen, Xuejun Gao
ATPase family AAA-domain containing protein 3A (ATAD3A) is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial membrane protein, which is essential for cell growth and metabolism. The mechanism by which ATAD3A acts is still not fully understood. In this study, we explored the regulatory role of ATAD3A on milk biosynthesis and proliferation of bovine mammary epithelial cell. We showed that ATAD3A is localized in mitochondria and the expression of ATAD3A was up-regulated in response to extracellular stimuli such as amino acids and hormones...
December 29, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282029/docosahexaenoic-acid-reduces-sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-1-and-fatty-acid-synthase-expression-and-inhibits-cell-proliferation-by-inhibiting-pakt-signaling-in-a-human-breast-cancer-mcf-7-cell-line
#9
Li-Hsuan Huang, Hsin-Yun Chung, Hui-Min Su
BACKGROUND: Fatty acid synthase (FASN), the major enzyme in de novo fatty acid synthesis, is highly expressed in breast cancer and its expression is reduced by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in liver. We previously found a positive association between rat mammary tumor levels of the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) and tumor weight. We examined the roles of the major n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and the major n-6 PUFA, AA, in FASN expression in, and proliferation of, human breast cancer MCF-7 cells...
December 28, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275178/central-administration-of-coagonist-of-glp-1-and-glucagon-receptors-improves-dyslipidemia
#10
Vishal Patel, Amit Joharapurkar, Samadhan Kshirsagar, Brijesh Sutariya, Maulik Patel, Hiren Patel, Dheerendra Pandey, Dipam Patel, Rajesh Bahekar, Mukul Jain
Coagonists of Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon receptors are under clinical investigation for treatment of obesity associated with diabetes. In addition to their role in glucose homeostasis, GLP-1 and glucagon modulate lipid metabolism. In this study, we have investigated the role of central GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and glucagon receptor (GCGR) activation in regulation of lipid metabolism in cholesterol-fed hamsters. Hamsters were treated with coagonist alone (0.3 μg) or in combination with either GLP-1R antagonist (0...
December 21, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273476/gasdermin-d-plays-a-key-role-as-a-pyroptosis-executor-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-humans-and-mice
#11
Bing Xu, Mingzuo Jiang, Yi Chu, Weijie Wang, Di Chen, Xiaowei Li, Zhao Zhang, Di Zhang, Daiming Fan, Yongzhan Nie, Feng Shao, Kaichun Wu, Jie Liang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gasdermin D (GSDMD)-executed programmed necrosis is involved in inflammation and controls interleukin (IL)-1β release. However, the role of GSDMD in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unclear. We investigated the role of GSDMD in the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis. METHODS: Human liver tissues of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients and control subjects were obtained to evaluate GSDMD expression. GSDMD knockout (GSDMD-/-) mice, obese db/db mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates were fed with methionine-and-choline-deficient (MCD) or control diet to induce steatohepatitis...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262315/cell-autonomous-control-of-neuronal-dendrite-expansion-via-the-fatty-acid-synthesis-regulator-srebp
#12
Anna B Ziegler, Christoph Thiele, Federico Tenedini, Mélisande Richard, Philipp Leyendecker, Astrid Hoermann, Peter Soba, Gaia Tavosanis
During differentiation, neurons require a high lipid supply for membrane formation as they elaborate complex dendritic morphologies. While glia-derived lipids support neuronal growth during development, the importance of cell-autonomous lipid production for dendrite formation has been unclear. Using Drosophila larva dendritic arborization (da) neurons, we show that dendrite expansion relies on cell-autonomous fatty acid production. The nociceptive class four (CIV) da neurons form particularly large space-filling dendrites...
December 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261661/individual-co-variation-between-viral-rna-load-and-gene-expression-reveals-novel-host-factors-during-early-dengue-virus-infection-of-the-aedes-aegypti-midgut
#13
Vincent Raquin, Sarah Hélène Merkling, Valérie Gausson, Isabelle Moltini-Conclois, Lionel Frangeul, Hugo Varet, Marie-Agnès Dillies, Maria-Carla Saleh, Louis Lambrechts
Dengue virus (DENV) causes more human infections than any other mosquito-borne virus. The current lack of antiviral strategies has prompted genome-wide screens for host genes that are required for DENV infectivity. Earlier transcriptomic studies that identified DENV host factors in the primary vector Aedes aegypti used inbred laboratory colonies and/or pools of mosquitoes that erase individual variation. Here, we performed transcriptome sequencing on individual midguts in a field-derived Ae. aegypti population to identify new candidate host factors modulating DENV replication...
December 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247843/dietary-betaine-supplementation-in-hens-modulates-hypothalamic-expression-of-cholesterol-metabolic-genes-in-f1-cockerels-through-modification-of-dna-methylation
#14
Abdulrahman A Idriss, Yun Hu, Zhen Hou, Yan Hu, Qinwei Sun, Nagmeldin A Omer, Halima Abobaker, Yingdong Ni, Ruqian Zhao
Betaine is widely used in animal nutrition to promote growth, development and methyl donor during methionine metabolism through nutritional reprogramming via regulation of gene expression. Prenatal betaine exposure is reported to modulate hypothalamic cholesterol metabolism in chickens, yet it remains unknown whether feeding hens with betaine-supplemented diet may affect hypothalamic cholesterol metabolism in F1 offspring. In this study, hens were fed with basal or betaine-supplemented (0.5%) for 30days, and the eggs were collected for incubation...
December 14, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245966/digenic-mutations-on-scap-and-agxt2-predispose-to-premature-myocardial-infarction
#15
Yuanfeng Gao, Chongyou Lee, Junxian Song, Sufang Li, Yuxia Cui, Yongzhen Liu, Jie Wang, Fengmin Lu, Hong Chen
Genetic factors play a vital role in the pathogenesis of premature myocardial infarction (PMI). However, current studies explained only small amounts of genetic risk in MI. In this study, we started from a PMI pedigree with three MI patients occurred at the age of 43, 45 and 53 respectively. Sanger sequencing revealed 6 LDLR mutation carriers in the family, but only one was diagnosed with PMI, indicating that the LDLR mutation may not be the reason for PMI. Upon exome-sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, two variants in SCAP and AGXT2 were identified as potential causative mutation for PMI...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231996/molecular-mechanisms-of-tributyltin-induced-alterations-in-cholesterol-homeostasis-and-steroidogenesis-in-hamster-testis-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-studies
#16
V Kanimozhi, K Palanivel, M A Akbarsha, B Kadalmani
Tributyltins (TBT) are ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminants that disturb normal endocrine function including gonadal function in humans and marine organisms. TBT was administered through oral route to male Syrian hamsters at daily doses of 50, 100 and 150 ppm/kg for 65 days. Changes in testis morphology, immunohistochemistry of iNOS, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD, cholesterol transport receptor, nuclear receptors, and transcription factors were analyzed. TBT treatment affected each of these parameters to significant levels in a dose-dependent manner compared to vehicle treated control...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217172/nobiletin-induces-brown-adipocyte-like-phenotype-and-ameliorates-stress-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#17
Jameel Lone, Hilal Ahmad Parray, Jong Won Yun
Browning of white adipocytes (beiging) is an attractive therapeutic strategy against obesity and its associated metabolic complications. Nobiletin (NOB) is a polymethoxylated flavone present in Citrus fruits and has been reported to have anti-obesity effects. Here, we report that nobiletin exerts dual modulatory effects on adipocytes via induction of browning in 3T3-L1 white adipocytes and amelioration of stress in adipocytes. Nobiletin-induced beiging was investigated by determining expression levels of beige-specific genes and proteins by RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis, respectively...
December 4, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213335/liraglutide-attenuates-atherosclerosis-via-inhibiting-er-induced-macrophage-derived-microvesicles-production-in-t2dm-rats
#18
Jinjin Li, Xiaojuan Liu, Qianhua Fang, Min Ding, Chunjun Li
Background: We investigated the effects of liraglutide on the formation and progression of atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control group, diabetes group and liraglutide treated group. The T2DM rats model with atherosclerosis were induced by high fat diet followed small dosage streptozotocin injection. Body weight and blood glucose levels were monitored once a week for 3 months and then the rats were sacrificed...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210166/phytoceuticals-in-fenugreek-ameliorate-vldl-overproduction-and-insulin-resistance-via-the-insig-signaling-pathway
#19
Rituraj Khound, Jing Shen, Yongyan Song, Dipak Santra, Qiaozhu Su
SCOPE: This study aimed to characterize the effect of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seed and its phytoceutical trigonelline in anti-metabolic inflammation and ameliorating overproduction of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) in insulin resistance. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two groups of genetic hyperlipidemic mice generated by depletion of cAMP responsive binding protein H (CREBH) were fed either a chow containing 2% fenugreek seed or vehicle for 7 weeks. Q-RT-PCR and immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that fenugreek seed containing diet inhibited hepatic SREBP-1c activation and the subsequent de novo lipogenesis by enhancing expression of insulin-inducible gene-1 (Insig-1) and gene-2 (Insig-2)...
December 6, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209441/pcsk9-signaling-pathways-and-their-potential-importance-in-clinical-practice
#20
REVIEW
Michał Wiciński, Jarosław Żak, Bartosz Malinowski, Gabriela Popek, Grzegorz Grześk
In the following review, authors described the structure and biochemical pathways of PCSK9, its involvement in LDL metabolism, as well as significances of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 targeted treatment. PCSK9 is a proprotein convertase, which plays a crucial role in LDL receptor metabolism. Transcription and translation of PCSK9 is controlled by different nuclear factors, such as, SREBP and HNF1α. This review focuses on interactions between PCSK9 and LDL receptor, VLDLR, ApoER2, CD36, CD81, and others...
December 2017: EPMA Journal
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