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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098516/germacrone-attenuates-hyperlipidemia-and-improves-lipid-metabolism-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-c57bl-6j-mice
#1
Yuan-Ri Guo, Se-Young Choung
We previously showed that Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract (ASE) reduced body weight gain and serum and liver lipid levels and significantly suppressed serum insulin and leptin concentrations in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. Germacrone (GM) was identified as a potent bioactive constituent of ASE. In this study, we hypothesized that GM can attenuate hyperlipidemia by alleviating fatty acid (FA) synthesis/uptake and improve lipid metabolism by stimulating FA β-oxidation in HFD-induced obese C57BL/6J mice...
January 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097097/mir-29a-promotes-lipid-droplet-and-triglyceride-formation-in-hcv-infection-by-inducing-expression-of-srebp-1c-and-cav1
#2
Mennatallah Mamdouh Mahdy, Nada Magdy El-Ekiaby, Rana Mahmoud Hashish, Radwa Ayman Salah, Rasha Sayed Hanafi, Hassan Mohamed El-Said Azzazy, Ahmed Ihab Abdelaziz
Aims: To examine the regulation of SREBP-1c and CAV1 by microRNA-29a (miR-29a) in cells infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in an attempt to control HCV-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Methods: In order to examine the manipulation of SREBP-1c and CAV1 by miR-29a, oleic acid (OA)-treated JFH-I-infected Huh-7 cells were used. OA was added 24 h post-transfection and gene expression was investigated by qRT-PCR at 48 h post treatment. The functional impact of the observed alteration in SREBP-1c and CAV1 expression was analyzed by examining lipid droplet (LD) and triglyceride (TG) content at 72 h post-OA treatment using light microscopy and spectrophotometry, respectively...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095750/effects-of-pre-germinated-brown-rice-treatment-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#3
Hsueh-Wei Yen, Hui-Li Lin, Chi-Long Hao, Fu-Chih Chen, Chun-Yun Chen, Jia-Hao Chen, Kuo-Ping Shen
To investigate using pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) to treat metabolic syndrome, we fed one group of mice standard-regular-diet (SRD) for 20 weeks and another group of mice high-fat-diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. We subdivided them into HFD group and HFD + PGBR group whose dietary carbohydrate was replaced with PGBR for 4 weeks. The HFD group gained more weight, had higher blood pressure, heart rate, blood glucose and lipids, liver levels of TG, feces TG and bile acid, lower adipose levels of adipocytokine, lower skeletal muscle IR, IRS-1, IRS-2, PI3 K, Akt/PKB, GLUT-1, GLUT-4, GCK and PPAR-γ; higher liver SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, HMGCR, LDLR, CYP7α1 and PPAR-α, and higher adipose SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, and lower adipose PPAR-α and adiponectin...
January 18, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094767/impaired-sumoylation-of-nuclear-receptor-lrh-1-promotes-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
Sokrates Stein, Vera Lemos, Pan Xu, Hadrien Demagny, Xu Wang, Dongryeol Ryu, Veronica Jimenez, Fatima Bosch, Thomas F Lüscher, Maaike H Oosterveer, Kristina Schoonjans
Hepatic steatosis is caused by metabolic imbalances that could be explained in part by an increase in de novo lipogenesis that results from increased sterol element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) activity. The nuclear receptor liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1) is an important regulator of intermediary metabolism in the liver, but its role in regulating lipogenesis is not well understood. Here, we have assessed the contribution of LRH-1 SUMOylation to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mice expressing a SUMOylation-defective mutant of LRH-1 (LRH-1 K289R mice) developed NAFLD and early signs of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) when challenged with a lipogenic, high-fat, high-sucrose diet...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089435/jejunal-gluconeogenesis-associated-with-insulin-resistance-level-and-its-evolution-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#5
Carolina Gutierrez-Repiso, Sara Garcia-Serrano, Francisco J Moreno-Ruiz, Guillermo Alcain-Martinez, Francisca Rodriguez-Pacheco, Eduardo Garcia-Fuentes
BACKGROUND: Intestinal gluconeogenesis (GNG) may play an important role in glucose homeostasis, but there is little information about the condition in humans. OBJECTIVES: To study the relationship between intestinal GNG and insulin resistance, its association with the evolution of morbidly obese patients after bariatric surgery, and the effect of insulin and or leptin. SETTING: Regional university hospital, Malaga (Spain). METHODS: Jejunal mRNA expression of genes involved in GNG was analyzed in 3 groups of morbidly obese patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: with low insulin resistance (MO-low-IR), with high insulin resistance (MO-high-IR), and with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin (MO-metf-T2D)...
December 2, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088385/flavonoid-derivative-fla-cn-inhibited-adipocyte-differentiation-via-activating-ampk-and-up-regulating-microrna-27-in-3t3-l1-cells
#6
Chun-Chun Gan, Tian-Wen Ni, Yang Yu, Nan Qin, Ying Chen, Mei-Na Jin, Hong-Quan Duan
Fla-CN (3-O-[(E)-4-(4-cyanophenyl)-2-oxobut-3-en-1-yl] kaempferol) is a semi-synthesized flavonoid derivative of tiliroside which exhibited anti-diabetic effect in vivo. Our previous study revealed the role of Fla-CN in anti-obesity and anti-diabetes in vivo, but the underlying mechanism remained to be addressed. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of anti-adipogenesis in vitro. Fla-CN markedly inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner, and the inhibitory effect was mainly limited to the early stage of adipocyte differentiation in vitro...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077646/adenovirus-modulates-toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-by-reprogramming-orp1l-vap-protein-contacts-for-cholesterol-transport-from-endosomes-to-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#7
Nicholas L Cianciola, Stacey Chung, Danny Manor, Cathleen R Carlin
: Human adenoviruses generally cause mild self-limiting infections but can lead to serious disease and even be fatal in high-risk individuals, underscoring the importance of understanding how the virus counteracts host defense mechanisms. This study had two goals. First, determine the molecular basis of cholesterol homeostatic responses induced by the early region 3 membrane protein RIDα via its direct interaction with the sterol-binding protein ORP1L. Second, determine how this interaction regulates innate immunity to adenovirus...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067297/regulation-of-fads2-transcription-by-srebp-1-and-ppar-%C3%AE-influences-lc-pufa-biosynthesis-in-fish
#8
Xiaojing Dong, Peng Tan, Zuonan Cai, Hanlin Xu, Jingqi Li, Wei Ren, Houguo Xu, Rantao Zuo, Jianfeng Zhou, Kangsen Mai, Qinghui Ai
The present study was conducted to explore the mechanisms leading to differences among fishes in the ability to biosynthesize long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). Replacement of fish oil with vegetable oil caused varied degrees of increase in 18-carbon fatty acid content and decrease in n-3 LC-PUFA content in the muscle and liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus) and large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea), suggesting that these fishes have differing abilities to biosynthesize LC-PUFAs...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062356/cyp4f2-repression-and-a-modified-alpha-tocopherol-vitamin-e-metabolism-are-two-independent-consequences-of-ethanol-toxicity-in-human-hepatocytes
#9
A Russo, D Bartolini, P Torquato, D Giusepponi, C Barola, R Galarini, M Birringer, S Lorkowski, F Galli
The expression of CYP4F2, a form of cytochrome P-450 with proposed role in α-tocopherol and long-chain fatty acid metabolism, was explored in HepG2 and HepaRG human hepatocytes during ethanol toxicity. Cytotoxicity, ROS production, and JNK and ERK1/2 kinase signaling increased in a dose and time-dependent manner during ethanol treatments; CYP4F2 gene expression decreased, while other CYP4F forms, namely 4F11 and 12, increased along with 3A4 and 2E1 isoforms. α-Tocopherol antagonized the cytotoxicity and CYP4F2 gene repression effect of ethanol in HepG2 cells...
January 3, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058586/key-genes-in-stomach-adenocarcinoma-identified-via-network-analysis-of-rna-seq-data
#10
Li Shen, Lizhi Zhao, Jiquan Tang, Zhiwei Wang, Weisong Bai, Feng Zhang, Shouli Wang, Weihua Li
RNA-seq data of stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) were analyzed to identify critical genes in STAD. Meanwhile, relevant small molecule drugs, transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) were also investigated. Gene expression data of STAD were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Differential analysis was performed with package edgeR. Relationships with correlation coefficient > 0.6 were retained in the gene co-expression network. Functional enrichment analysis was performed for the genes in the network with DAVID and KOBASS 2...
January 5, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057006/bisphenol-a-promotes-cholesterol-absorption-in-caco-2-cells-by-up-regulation-of-npc1l1-expression
#11
Dan Feng, Jun Zou, Shanshan Zhang, Xuechun Li, Peiyang Li, Minqi Lu
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA), an commonly exposed environmental chemicals in humans, has been shown to have a hypercholesterolemic effect with molecular mechanism not clear. Since intestinal cholesterol absorption plays a major role in maintaining total body cholesterol homeostasis, the present study is to investigate whether BPA affects cholesterol absorption in the intestinal Caco-2 cells. METHODS: The Caco-2 cells were pretreated with BPA at different concentrations for 24 h and then incubated with radioactive micellar cholesterol for 2 h...
January 6, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056918/fermented-blueberry-juice-extract-and-its-specific-fractions-have-an-anti-adipogenic-effect-in-3%C3%A2-t3-l1-cells
#12
Mayra L Sánchez-Villavicencio, Melinda Vinqvist-Tymchuk, Wilhelmina Kalt, Chantal Matar, Francisco J Alarcón Aguilar, Maria Del Carmen Escobar Villanueva, Pierre S Haddad
BACKGROUND: Obesity and Type 2 diabetes have reached epidemic status worldwide. Wild lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) is a plant of the North American Aboriginal traditional pharmacopeia with antidiabetic potential, especially when it is fermented with Serratia vaccinii. METHODS: A phytochemical fractionation scheme was used to identify potential bioactive compounds as confirmed by HPLC retention times and UV-Vis spectra. 3 T3-L1 cells were differentiated for 7 days with either Normal Blueberry Extract (NBE), Fermented Blueberry Extract (FBE/F1), seven fractions and four pure compounds...
January 6, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049764/the-scf%C3%AE-trcp-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-complex-targets-lipin1-for-ubiquitination-and-degradation-to-promote-hepatic-lipogenesis
#13
Kouhei Shimizu, Hidefumi Fukushima, Kohei Ogura, Evan C Lien, Naoe Taira Nihira, Jinfang Zhang, Brian J North, Ailan Guo, Katsuyuki Nagashima, Tadashi Nakagawa, Seira Hoshikawa, Asami Watahiki, Koji Okabe, Aya Yamada, Alex Toker, John M Asara, Satoshi Fukumoto, Keiichi I Nakayama, Keiko Nakayama, Hiroyuki Inuzuka, Wenyi Wei
The SCF(β-TRCP) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex plays pivotal roles in normal cellular physiology and in pathophysiological conditions. Identification of β-transducin repeat-containing protein (β-TRCP) substrates is therefore critical to understand SCF(β-TRCP) biology and function. We used a β-TRCP-phosphodegron motif-specific antibody in a β-TRCP substrate screen coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and identified multiple β-TRCP substrates. One of these substrates was Lipin1, an enzyme and suppressor of the family of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors, which activate genes encoding lipogenic factors...
January 3, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039399/the-impact-of-exercise-intensity-on-whole-body-and-adipose-tissue-metabolism-during-energy-restriction-in-sedentary-overweight-men-and-postmenopausal-women
#14
Jean-Philippe Walhin, Natalie C Dixon, James A Betts, Dylan Thompson
This study aimed to establish whether vigorous-intensity exercise offers additional adipose-related health benefits and metabolic improvements compared to energy-matched moderate-intensity exercise. Thirty-eight sedentary overweight men (n = 24) and postmenopausal women (n = 14) aged 52 ± 5 years (mean ± standard deviations [SD]) were prescribed a 3-week energy deficit (29302 kJ∙week(-1)) achieved by increased isocaloric moderate or vigorous-intensity exercise (+8372 kJ∙week(-1)) and simultaneous restricted energy intake (-20930 kJ∙week(-1))...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027934/histone-modifications-in-fasn-modulated-by-sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-1c-and-carbohydrate-responsive-element-binding-protein-under-insulin-stimulation-are-related-to-nafld
#15
Wei Shen, Xuan Du, Can Cai, Jialing Yao, Youping Zhou, Huihong Yu
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its causal factors of hepatic insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes are rapidly growing worldwide. Developing new therapeutic methods for these conditions requires a comprehensive understanding between hepatic lipid metabolism and IR. Sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1c (SREBP-1c) and carbohydrate responsive-element binding protein (ChREBP) are the major regulators of fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key enzyme of de novo fatty acid synthesis...
December 24, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027595/inhibition-of-the-srebp-pathway-suppresses-hepatocellular-carcinoma-through-repressing-inflammation
#16
Na Li, Zhang-Sen Zhou, Yang Shen, Jie Xu, Hong-Hua Miao, Ying Xiong, Feng Xu, Bo-Liang Li, Jie Luo, Bao-Liang Song
: Obesity is a critical risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it remains unknown whether inhibition of de novo lipid biosynthesis can suppress HCC. In this study, we blocked the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) pathway, one of the key determinants of lipid homeostasis, by ablating gp78 or SCAP in hepatocytes as well as by administering a chemical compound called betulin. We found that either genetically or pharmacologically inhibiting the SREBP pathway dramatically reduced diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC progression through down-regulating tumor promoting cytokines including IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β...
December 27, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013023/metabolic-roles-of-poly-adp-ribose-polymerases
#17
REVIEW
András Vida, Judit Márton, Edit Mikó, Péter Bai
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) is an evolutionarily conserved reaction that had been associated with numerous cellular processes such as DNA repair, protein turnover, inflammatory regulation, aging or metabolic regulation. The metabolic regulatory tasks of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are complex, it is based on the regulation of metabolic transcription factors (e.g. SIRT1, nuclear receptors, SREBPs) and certain cellular energy sensors. PARP over-activation can cause damage to mitochondrial terminal oxidation, while the inhibition of PARP-1 or PARP-2 can induce mitochondrial oxidation by enhancing the mitotropic tone of gene transcription and signal transduction...
December 21, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012395/regulatory-mechanism-of-mineral-balanced-deep-sea-water-on-hypocholesterolemic-effects-in-hepg2-hepatic-cells
#18
Kyu-Shik Lee, Yun-Suk Kwon, Soyoung Kim, Deok-Soo Moon, Hyeon Ju Kim, Kyung-Soo Nam
Several previous studies have shown the benefits of deep sea water (DSW) in lipid metabolism. However, the effects of DSW on cellular cholesterol accumulation and synthesis induced by high glucose or free fatty acid plus high glucose [4.5g/L] (FFA/glucose) have not been fully elucidated to date. Herein, we showed the effects of mineral-balanced DSW [magnesium (Mg):calcium (Ca)=3:1] (MB-DSW) on cholesterol metabolism induced by high glucose or FFA/glucose in HepG2 hepatic cells. Moreover, the effects of high ratio Mg DSW [Mg:Ca=40:1] (Mg40) were also investigated...
December 21, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011404/regulation-of-srebp-2-intracellular-trafficking-improves-impaired-autophagic-flux-and-alleviates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-nafld
#19
Xiaoling Deng, Xiaoli Pan, Chunwei Cheng, Beibei Liu, Huan Zhang, Yuping Zhang, Keshu Xu
Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP-2), is a well-known transcriptional regulator of cholesterol metabolism. SREBP-2 is activated unconventionally to promote excessive cholesterol accumulation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In addition, recent studies suggested that excessive lipid and cholesterol accumulation can weaken cellular autophagy function and promote endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). However, it remains unknown whether regulation of SREBP-2 processing modulates autophagy and ERS...
December 21, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003358/heat-shock-protein-90-modulates-lipid-homeostasis-by-regulating-the-stability-and-function-of-sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-srebp-and-srebp-cleavage-activating-protein
#20
Yen-Chou Kuan, Tsutomu Hashidume, Takahiro Shibata, Koji Uchida, Makoto Shimizu, Jun Inoue, Ryuichiro Sato
Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are the key transcription factors that modulate lipid biosynthesis. SREBPs are synthesized as endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-bound precursors that require proteolytic activation in the Golgi apparatus. The stability and maturation of precursor SREBPs depend on their binding to SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP), which escorts SCAP/SREBP complex to the Golgi apparatus. In this study, we identified heat shock protein (HSP) 90 as a novel SREBP regulator that binds to and stabilizes SCAP/SREBP...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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