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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786901/degradable-polymers-and-nanoparticles-built-from-salicylic-acid
#1
Saeed Akkad, Christopher J Serpell
As more evidence emerges supporting the possibility that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, especially aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid), might have a role in the prevention and management of certain types of cancer, there have been several attempts to fabricate salicylic acid-based polymers that can be employed in the targeted therapy of tumors. The primary disadvantage so far has been in use of nontherapeutic polymeric backbones that constitute the majority of the therapeutic particle's size. The focus of this research is the creation of a biodegradable polymer consisting only of salicylic acid, and its use as the main building block in targeted nanotherapeutics that would consequently provide both high local dose and sustained release of the active moiety...
May 22, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786899/improved-stable-indocyanine-green-icg-mediated-cancer-optotheranostics-with-naturalized-hepatitis-b-core-particles
#2
Wenjun Shan, Ronghe Chen, Qiang Zhang, Jie Zhao, Binbin Chen, Xi Zhou, Shefang Ye, Shengli Bi, Liming Nie, Lei Ren
In recent years, hepatitis B core protein virus-like particle (HBc VLP) is an impressive biomaterial, which has attracted considerable attention due to favorable properties such as structural stability, high uptake efficiency, and biocompatibility in biomedical applications. Heretofore, only a few attempts have been made to apply it in physical, chemical, and biological therapy for cancer. In this study, a tumor-targeting RGD-HBc VLP is first fabricated through genetic engineering. For image-guided cancer phototherapy, indocyanine green (ICG) is loaded into RGD-HBc VLP via a disassembly/reassembly pathway and electrostatic attraction with high efficiency...
May 22, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786861/temporally-feathered-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-a-planning-technique-to-reduce-normal-tissue-toxicity
#3
Juan Carlos López Alfonso, Shireen Parsai, Nikhil Joshi, Andrew Godley, Chirag Shah, Shlomo A Koyfman, Jimmy J Caudell, Clifton D Fuller, Heiko Enderling, Jacob G Scott
PURPOSE: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has allowed optimization of three-dimensional spatial radiation dose distributions permitting target coverage while reducing normal tissue toxicity. However, radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity is a major contributor to patients' quality of life and often a dose-limiting factor in the definitive treatment of cancer with radiation therapy. We propose the next logical step in the evolution of IMRT using canonical radiobiological principles, optimizing the temporal dimension through which radiation therapy is delivered to further reduce radiation-induced toxicity by increased time for normal tissue recovery...
May 22, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786813/prediction-of-mortality-in-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-implementations-from-a-tertiary-pediatric-intensive-care-facility
#4
Ebru Atike Ongun, Oğuz Dursun
BACKGROUND: To explore the mortality risk factors of traumatic brain injury in pediatric intensive care unit admissions. METHODS: Eighty-eight children (categorized using the Glasgow Coma Scale) between September 2014 and December 2016 were analyzed. Emergency department and intensive care course, treatment strategies, axonal injury, intubation and tracheostomy rates, length of intensive care and hospitalization, Rotterdam-CT scores, injury severity scores, and PRISM-III scores were recorded...
May 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786782/preclinical-impact-of-high-dose-intermittent-antiangiogenic-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-pazopanib-in-intrinsically-resistant-tumor-models
#5
Elaine Reguera-Nuñez, Shan Man, Ping Xu, Robert S Kerbel
Antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) target vascular endothelial growth factor receptors and other receptor tyrosine kinases. As a result of toxicity, the clinical failures or the modest benefits associated with antiangiogenic TKI therapy may be related in some cases to suboptimal drug dosing and scheduling, thereby facilitating resistance. Most antiangiogenic TKIs, including pazopanib, are administered on a continuous daily basis. Here, instead, we evaluated the impact of increasing the dose and administering the drug intermittently...
May 21, 2018: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786763/mir-124-promotes-proliferation-and-neural-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells-through-targeting-dact1-and-activating-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathways
#6
Shujie Jiao, Yaling Liu, Yaobing Yao, Junfang Teng
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent and undifferentiated cells with the potential to differentiate into neuronal lineages and gliocytes. NSCs have the ability to generate and regenerate the brain, indicating the possibility of cell-based therapies for neurological disorders. miR-124 has been demonstrated as a modulator in the survival, expansion, and differentiation of NSCs. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of miR-124 in NSC development are still far from being understood. The expressions of miR-124, dishevelled binding antagonist of beta-catenin 1 (DACT1), ki-67, Nestin, β-tubulin III, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), β-catenin, cyclinD1, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) were examined by qRT-PCR or western blot...
May 21, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786755/cardiac-progenitor-cell%C3%A2-derived-exosomes-promote-h9c2-cell-growth-via-akt-mtor-activation
#7
Shentang Li, Jie Jiang, Zuocheng Yang, Zhuoying Li, Xing Ma, Xin Li
Exosomes are cell‑derived vesicles released from a variety of mammalian cells that are involved in cell‑to‑cell signalling. It has been reported that cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) derived from an adult heart are one of the most promising stem cell types for cardioprotection and repair. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway is a pivotal regulator in CPCs, therefore, CPC‑derived exosomes were used in the present study to investigate whether it can promote H9C2 cell growth through the protein kinase B (PKB, or Akt)/mTOR signalling pathway...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786670/deubiquitinylase-usp47-promotes-rela-phosphorylation-and-survival-in-gastric-cancer-cells
#8
Lara Naghavi, Martin Schwalbe, Ahmed Ghanem, Michael Naumann
Every year, gastric cancer causes around 819,000 deaths worldwide. The incidence of gastric cancer in the western world is slowly declining, but the prognosis is unpromising. In Germany, the 5-year-survival rate is around 32%, and the average life span after diagnosis is 6 to 9 months. Therapy of gastric cancer patients comprises a gastrectomy and perioperative or adjuvant chemotherapy. However, resistance of gastric cancer cells to these agents is widespread; thus, improved chemotherapeutic approaches are required...
May 22, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786614/a-novel-optimization-framework-for-vmat-with-dynamic-gantry-couch-rotation
#9
Qihui Lyu, Victoria Y Yu, Dan Ruan, Ryan Neph, Daniel O'Connor, Ke Sheng
Existing Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) optimization using coplanar arcs is highly efficient but usually dosimetrically inferior to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with optimized non-coplanar beams. To achieve both dosimetric quality and delivery efficiency, we proposed in this study, a novel integrated optimization method for non-coplanar VMAT (4πVMAT). 4πVMAT with Direct Aperture Optimization (DAO) was achieved by utilizing a least square dose fidelity objective, along with an anisotropic total variation term for regularizing the fluence smoothness, a single segment term for imposing simple apertures, and a group sparsity term for selecting beam angles...
May 22, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786563/cell-based-liver-therapies-past-present-and-future
#10
REVIEW
Valeria Iansante, Anil Chandrashekran, Anil Dhawan
Liver transplantation represents the standard treatment for people with an end-stage liver disease and some liver-based metabolic disorders; however, shortage of liver donor tissues limits its availability. Furthermore, whole liver replacement eliminates the possibility of using native liver as a possible target for future gene therapy in case of liver-based metabolic defects. Cell therapy has emerged as a potential alternative, as cells can provide the hepatic functions and engraft in the liver parenchyma...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786517/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-potential-target-for-therapy-in-adult-granulosa-cell-tumors
#11
Alessandra Ciucci, Gabriella Ferrandina, Floriana Mascilini, Flavia Filippetti, Giovanni Scambia, Gian Franco Zannoni, Daniela Gallo
OBJECTIVE: Adult granulosa cell tumor (AGCT) is a rare form of sex-cord stromal ovarian tumors. Due to their origin, AGCTs secrete estrogens, and thus, estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated signaling has been considered as a possible target for therapy. The aim of the present study was to get insights into estrogen receptor status and activity in AGCTs, as a strategy to provide molecular support for personalized hormonal treatments. METHODS: We evaluated by immunohistochemistry the expression of ERα, ERβ isoforms (i...
May 18, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786420/bacteria-driven-hypoxia-targeting-for-combined-biotherapy-and-photothermal-therapy
#12
Wenfei Chen, Ying Wang, Ming Qin, Xudong Zhang, Zhirong Zhang, Xun Sun, Zhen Gu
The facultative anaerobe Salmonella strain VNP20009 selectively colonizes into tumors following systemic injection due to its preference for the hypoxia in the tumor cores. However, the Phase 1 Clinical Trial of VNP20009 has been terminated mainly due to its weak anti-tumor effects and exhibition of dose-dependent toxicity. Here we leveraged the advantages of VNP20009 biotherapy together with polydopamine-mediated photothermal therapy in order to enhance the antitumor efficacy toward malignant melanoma. VNP20009 was coated with polydopamine via oxidation and self-polymerization, which was then injected into tumor-bearing mice via the tail vein...
May 22, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786184/-protein-carbamylation-what-it-is-and-why-it-concerns-nephrologists
#13
Emanuele De Simone, Lucia Di Micco, Gaetano La Manna, Biagio Di Iorio
Spontaneous urea dissociation in water solution is a prominent source of protein carbamylation in our body. Protein carbamylation is a well-known phenomenon since early seventies. Some years ago, much interest in the diagnostic power of carbamylated protein arouse. Recently the target of the researches focused on its potential cardiovascular pathogenicity. Some authors claimed that this could be a reason for higher cardiovascular mortality in uremic patients. Nutritional therapy, amino acids supplementation and intensive dialysis regimen are some of the therapeutic tools tested to lower the carbamylation burst in this population...
May 2018: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786170/immunopeptidomic-profiling-of-hla-a2-positive-triple-negative-breast-cancer-identifies-potential-immunotherapy-target-antigens
#14
Nicola Ternette, Marloes J M Olde Nordkamp, Julius Muller, Amanda P Anderson, Annalisa Nicastri, Adrian V S Hill, Benedikt M Kessler, Demin Li
The recent development in immune checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells in the treatment of cancer has not only demonstrated the potency of utilising T-cell reactivity for cancer therapy, but has also highlighted the need for developing new approaches to discover targets suitable for such novel therapeutics. Here we analysed the immunopeptidomes of 6 HLA-A2-positive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) samples by nano-ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nUPLC-MS2 )...
May 22, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786078/targeting-the-upstream-transcriptional-activator-of-pd-l1-as-an-alternative-strategy-in-melanoma-therapy
#15
Bo Zhu, Liming Tang, Shuyang Chen, Chengqian Yin, Shiguang Peng, Xin Li, Tongzheng Liu, Wei Liu, Changpeng Han, Lukasz Stawski, Zhi-Xiang Xu, Guangbiao Zhou, Xiang Chen, Xiumei Gao, Colin R Goding, Nan Xu, Rutao Cui, Peng Cao
Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) interacts with programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) as an immune checkpoint. Reactivating the immune response by inhibiting PD-L1 using therapeutic antibodies provides substantial clinical benefits in many, though not all, melanoma patients. However, transcriptional suppression of PD-L1 expression as an alternative therapeutic anti-melanoma strategy has not been exploited. Here we provide biochemical evidence demonstrating that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induction of PD-L1 in skin is directly controlled by nuclear factor E2-related transcription factor 2 (NRF2)...
May 22, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785886/treatment-of-homozygous-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-in-paediatric-patients-a-monocentric-experience
#16
Paola S Buonuomo, Marina Macchiaiolo, Giovanna Leone, Paola Valente, Gerarda Mastrogiorgio, Maria Gnazzo, Ippolita Rana, Michaela V Gonfiantini, Maria G Gagliardi, Francesca Romano, Andrea Bartuli
Background Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia is a rare life-threatening disease characterized by markedly elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations and accelerated atherosclerosis. The presence of double gene defects in the LDL-Receptor, either the same defect (homozygous) or two different LDL-raising mutations (compound heterozygotes) or other variants, identify the homozygous phenotype (HopFH). Apheresis is a procedure in which plasma is separated from red blood cells before the physical removal of LDL-C or the LDL-C is directly removed from whole blood...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785841/effects-of-antipsychotic-drugs-on-neurites-relevant-to-schizophrenia-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Xu-Feng Huang, Xueqin Song
Although antipsychotic drugs are mainly used for treating schizophrenia, they are widely used for treating various psychiatric diseases in adults, the elderly, adolescents and even children. Today, about 1.2% of the worldwide population suffers from psychosis and related disorders, which translates to about 7.5 million subjects potentially targeted by antipsychotic drugs. Neurites project from the cell body of neurons and connect neurons to each other to form neural networks. Deficits in neurite outgrowth and integrity are implicated in psychiatric diseases including schizophrenia...
May 22, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785790/the-role-of-mirna-regulation-in-fetal-cardiomyocytes-cardiac-maturation-and-the-risk-of-heart-disease-in-adults
#18
Mitchell C Lock, Ross L Tellam, Kimberley J Botting, Kimberley C W Wang, Joseph B Selvanayagam, Doug A Brooks, Mike Seed, Janna L Morrison
Myocardial infarction is a primary contributor towards the global burden of cardiovascular disease. Rather than repairing the existing damage of myocardial infarction, current treatments only address the symptoms of the disease and reducing the risk of a secondary infarction. Cardiac regenerative capacity is dependent on cardiomyocyte proliferation, which concludes soon after birth in humans and precocial species such as sheep. Human fetal cardiac tissue has some ability to repair following tissue damage, whereas a fully matured human heart has minimal capacity for cellular regeneration...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785785/metabolism-within-the-tumor-microenvironment-and-its-implication-on-cancer-progression-an-ongoing-therapeutic-target
#19
REVIEW
Ma Carmen Ocaña, Beatriz Martínez-Poveda, Ana R Quesada, Miguel Ángel Medina
Since reprogramming energy metabolism is considered a new hallmark of cancer, tumor metabolism is again in the spotlight of cancer research. Many studies have been carried out and many possible therapies have been developed in the last years. However, tumor cells are not alone. A series of extracellular components and stromal cells, such as endothelial cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts, tumor-associated macrophages, and tumor-infiltrating T cells, surround tumor cells in the so-called tumor microenvironment (TME)...
May 22, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785683/targeted-therapies-and-adverse-drug-reactions-in-oncology-the-role-of-clinical-pharmacist-in-pharmacovigilance
#20
G Fornasier, M Taborelli, S Francescon, J Polesel, M Aliberti, P De Paoli, P Baldo
Background The majority of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported in the summary of product characteristics (SPCs) are based on pivotal clinical trials, performed under controlled conditions and with selected patients. Objectives (1) to observe ADRs in the real-world setting and to evaluate if the supervision of the pharmacist impacts on the management of ADRs and on the satisfaction of patients; (2) to sensitise health professionals and patients on the need to increase the reporting of ADRs, in compliance with Pharmacovigilance...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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