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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031156/hiv-misdiagnosis-a-root-cause-analysis-leading-to-improvements-in-hiv-diagnosis-and-patient-care
#1
Raynell Lang, Carmen Charlton, Brenda Beckthold, Kiana Kadivar, Stephanie Lavoie, Doug Caswell, Paul Levett, Greg Horsman, John Kim, M John Gill
BACKGROUND: Standard diagnostic testing for HIV infection has traditionally relied on a high sensitivity HIV antibody screening test using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) followed by a high specificity antibody confirmatory test such as a Western Blot. Recently several of the screening assays have been enhanced with an ability to identify p24 antigen thereby narrowing the diagnostic window. OBJECTIVES: To explore the implications of enhanced HIV screening methods that may be leading to HIV misdiagnoses...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031094/risk-assessment-of-dietary-lead-exposure-among-first-nations-people-living-on-reserve-in-ontario-canada-using-a-total-diet-study-and-a-probabilistic-approach
#2
Amanda K Juric, Malek Batal, Will David, Donald Sharp, Harold Schwartz, Amy Ing, Karen Fediuk, Andrew Black, Constantine Tikhonov, Hing Man Chan, Laurie Chan
Indigenous peoples have elevated risk of lead (Pb) exposure as hunted traditional food can be contaminated with lead-containing ammunition. Recent scientific consensus states that there is no threshold level for Pb exposure. The objective of this study was to estimate dietary exposure to Pb among First Nations living on-reserve in the province of Ontario, Canada. A total diet study was constructed based on a 24-h recall and Pb concentrations for traditional foods from the First Nations Food, Nutrition, and Environment Study (FNFNES) and Pb concentrations in market foods from Health Canada...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029166/beyond-antigenic-match-possible-agent-host-and-immuno-epidemiological-influences-on-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-during-the-2015-16-season-in-canada
#3
Danuta M Skowronski, Catharine Chambers, Suzana Sabaiduc, Gaston De Serres, Anne-Luise Winter, James A Dickinson, Jonathan B Gubbay, Steven J Drews, Christine Martineau, Hugues Charest, Mel Krajden, Nathalie Bastien, Yan Li
Background: Vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates are reported from Canada's Sentinel Practitioner Surveillance Network (SPSN) for the 2015-16 influenza season, characterized by a delayed A(H1N1)pdm09 epidemic and concurrent B(Victoria) activity. Potential influences beyond antigenic match are explored including viral genomic variation, birth cohort effects, prior vaccination and epidemic period. Methods: VE was estimated by test-negative design comparing adjusted-odds ratio for influenza test-positivity among vaccinated vs...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029063/impact-of-pneumococcal-vaccination-on-pneumonia-hospitalizations-and-related-costs-in-ontario-a-population-based-ecological-study
#4
Dara Lee Luca, Jeffrey C Kwong, Anna Chu, Beate Sander, Ryan O'Reilly, Allison J McGeer, David E Bloom
Background: In Ontario, Canada, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was approved for infants in 2001 and became part of the publicly funded routine immunization schedule in 2005. We assessed the population-level impact of PCV on pneumonia hospitalizations and related costs. Methods: We used the difference-in-differences (DD) approach to evaluate the impact of pneumococcal vaccination on pneumonia hospitalizations and related costs, using non-pneumonia hospitalization as the control condition...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028964/the-cost-effectiveness-of-hiv-testing-and-treatment-engagement-initiatives-in-british-columbia-canada-2011-2013
#5
B Nosyk, J E Min, E Krebs, X Zang, M Compton, R Gustafson, R Barrios, J S G Montaner
Background: Recognition of the secondary preventive benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has mobilized global efforts to 'seek, test, treat and retain' people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in HIV care. We aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of a set of HIV testing and treatment engagement interventions initiated in British Columbia (BC), Canada in 2011-2013. Methods: Using a previously-validated dynamic, compartmental HIV transmission model, linked individual-level health administrative data for PLHIV and aggregate-level HIV testing data, we estimated the cost-effectiveness of primary care testing (hospital, emergency department, outpatient), ART initiation and ART retention initiatives, versus a counterfactual scenario approximating the status quo...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028371/from-social-media-to-mainstream-news-the-information-flow-of-the-vaccine-autism-controversy-in-the-us-canada-and-the-uk
#6
S Mo Jang, Brooke W Mckeever, Robert Mckeever, Joon Kyoung Kim
Despite increasing warnings about inaccurate information online, little is known about how social media contribute to the widespread diffusion of unverified health information. This study addresses this issue by examining the vaccine-autism controversy. By looking into a large dataset of Twitter, Reddit posts, and online news over 20 months in the US, Canada, and the UK, our time-series analysis shows that Twitter drives news agendas, and Reddit follows news agendas regarding the vaccine-autism debate. Additionally, the results show that both Twitter and Reddit are more likely to discuss the vaccine-autism link compared to online news content...
October 13, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028255/wipe-sampling-method-and-evaluation-of-environmental-variables-for-assessing-surface-contamination-of-10-antineoplastic-drugs-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#7
Manuel Colombo, Matthew Jeronimo, George Astrakianakis, Chirag Apte, Chun-Yip Hon
This paper describes a novel wipe sampling and high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method capable of simultaneously detecting 10 antineoplastic drugs (5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, methotrexate, vindesine, ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, vinblastine, docetaxel, and paclitaxel). The good overall recoveries and sensitivity values of this method along with the comparatively short run time (8 min) allows for its use in routine monitoring in health care facilities...
October 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027708/advancing-prenatal-detection-of-congenital-heart-disease-a-novel-screening-protocol-improves-early-diagnosis-of-complex-congenital-heart-disease
#8
Karen M Letourneau, David Horne, Reeni N Soni, Keith R McDonald, Fern C Karlicki, Randy R Fransoo
OBJECTIVES: Prenatal diagnosis of complex congenital heart disease (CHD) during routine obstetric ultrasound (US) examinations improves postnatal outcomes, but sensitivity is low (<40%). Our objective was to improve our prenatal detection of complex CHD with implementation of a specific screening protocol. METHODS: From January 2003 to December 2013, 506 consecutive confirmed cases of complex CHD in the province of Manitoba, Canada, were analyzed to compare the sensitivity and positive predictive value of prenatal US detection of complex CHD before and after the introduction of a novel prenatal screening protocol...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027619/-even-heroes-get-depressed-sponsorship-and-self-stigma-in-canada-s-mental-illness-awareness-week
#9
Loren Gaudet
In 1992, the Canadian Psychiatric Association launched Canada's first national campaign against mental illness, Mental Illness Awareness Week (MIAW). I stress that pharmaceutical sponsorship of the first five years of MIAW (1992-1997) was integral to shaping the trajectory of the campaign and marks a shift in the way stigma is conceived and resisted in Canada: what was an interpersonal process based on social norms becomes refigured as "self-stigma," or an individualized process in which lack of information, education, and self-assessment contribute to an inability to consider oneself as at-risk for a disease, condition, or disorder...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027355/a-descriptive-analysis-of-rabies-post-exposure-prophylaxis-data-2013-ontario-canada
#10
D Middleton, J J Edwin, K O Johnson, B F Warshawsky
By 2013, the number of confirmed rabid animals in Ontario had decreased to unprecedented low numbers, yet the expected decrease in the number of courses of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (RPEP) administered did not occur consistent with the decrease in animal rabies cases (Figure ). This prompted a review of the reasons that RPEP was administered in Ontario. This study provides a descriptive analysis of the exposure incidents resulting in RPEP administration in Ontario during 2013 using data obtained from the integrated Public Health Information System, a Web-based disease surveillance system...
October 13, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027090/morphological-and-molecular-data-for-a-new-species-of-pomphorhynchus-monticelli-1905-acanthocephala-pomphorhynchidae-in-the-mexican-redhorse-moxostoma-austrinum-bean-cypriniformes-catostomidae-in-central-mexico
#11
Martín García-Varela, Berenit Mendoza-Garfias, Anindo Choudhury, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León
Pomphorhynchus purhepechus n. sp. is described from the intestine of the Mexican redhorse Moxostoma austrinum Bean (Catostomidae) in central Mexico. The new species can be distinguished from the other seven described species of Pomphorhynchus Monticelli, 1905 in the Americas by a subspherical proboscis and 14 longitudinal rows with 16-18 hooks each; the third and the fourth row of hooks are alternately longest. Sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and the large subunit (LSU) rDNA (including the domains D2-D3) were used to corroborate the morphological distinction between the new species and Pomphorhynchus bulbocolli Linkins in Van Cleave, 1919, a species widely distributed in several freshwater fish species across Canada, USA, and Mexico...
October 12, 2017: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026820/a-qualitative-assessment-of-the-journey-to-delayed-breast-reconstruction
#12
Ho Man Cheng, Catherine McMillan, Joan E Lipa, Laura Snell
BACKGROUND: Canada has low immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) rates compared to the United States and Europe. Breast cancer survivors live with mastectomy defects sometimes for years, and this represents an area for improvement in cancer care. PURPOSE: This study qualitatively assessed (1) information provided about breast reconstruction at the time of cancer diagnosis among women seeking delayed breast reconstruction (DBR) and (2) referral practices for plastic surgery consultation for DBR...
August 2017: Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026806/a-tale-of-two-health-care-systems-cost-utility-analysis-of-open-carpal-tunnel-release-in-canada-and-the-united-states
#13
Kevin Cheung, Manraj N Kaur, Tyson Tolliver, Christopher J Longo, Nash H Naam, Achilles Thoma
PURPOSE: Canadian health care is often criticized for extended wait times, whereas the United States suffers from increased costs. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the cost-utility of open carpal tunnel release in Canada versus the United States. METHODS: A prospective cohort study evaluated patients undergoing open carpal tunnel release at an institution in Canada and the United States. All costs from a societal perspective were captured. Utility was measured using validated health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scales-the EuroQol-5D and the Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire...
February 2017: Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025964/false-positive-newborn-screening-for-cystic-fibrosis-and-health-care-use
#14
Robin Z Hayeems, Fiona A Miller, Marian Vermeulen, Beth K Potter, Pranesh Chakraborty, Christine Davies, June C Carroll, Felix Ratjen, Astrid Guttmann
OBJECTIVES: Evidence is mixed regarding the impact of false-positive (FP) newborn bloodspot screening (NBS) results on health care use. Using cystic fibrosis (CF) as an example, we determined the association of FP NBS results with health care use in infants and their mothers in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study of all infants with FP CF results (N = 1564) and screen-negative matched controls (N = 6256) born between April 2008 and November 2012 using linked health administrative data...
October 12, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025844/investigating-canadian-parents-hpv-vaccine-knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviour-a-study-protocol-for-a-longitudinal-national-online-survey
#15
Gilla K Shapiro, Samara Perez, Anila Naz, Ovidiu Tatar, Juliet R Guichon, Rhonda Amsel, Gregory D Zimet, Zeev Rosberger
INTRODUCTION: Human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, can cause anogenital warts and a number of cancers. To prevent morbidity and mortality, three vaccines have been licensed and are recommended by Canada's National Advisory Committee on Immunisation (for girls since 2007 and boys since 2012). Nevertheless, HPV vaccine coverage in Canada remains suboptimal in many regions. This study will be the first to concurrently examine the correlates of HPV vaccine decision-making in parents of school-aged girls and boys and evaluate changes in parental knowledge, attitudes and behaviours over time...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025818/mental-health-and-addictions-capacity-building-for-community-health-centres-in-ontario
#16
Akwatu Khenti, Fiona C Thomas, Sirad Mohamoud, Pablo Diaz, Oriana Vaccarino, Kate Dunbar, Jaime C Sapag
PROBLEM ADDRESSED: In recent years, there has been increased recognition in Canada of the need to strengthen mental health services in primary health care (PHC). Collaborative models, including partnerships between PHC and specialized mental health care providers, have emerged as effective ways for improving access to mental health care and strengthening clinical capacity. Primary health care physicians and other health professionals are well positioned to facilitate the early detection of mental disorders and provide appropriate treatment and follow-up care, helping to tackle stigma toward mental health problems in the process...
October 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025807/examination-outcomes-and-work-locations-of-international-medical-graduate-family-medicine-residents-in-canada
#17
Maria Mathews, Rima Kandar, Steve Slade, Yanqing Yi, Sue Beardall, Ivy Bourgeault
OBJECTIVE: To describe the postgraduate medical education (PGME) examination outcomes and work locations of international medical graduates (IMGs); and to identify differences between Canadians studying abroad (CSAs) and non-CSAs. DESIGN: Cohort study using data from the National IMG Database and Scott's Medical Database. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All IMGs who had first entered a family medicine residency program between 2005 and 2009, with the exclusion of US graduates, visa trainees, and fellowship trainees...
October 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025786/disparity-between-nephrologists-opinions-and-contemporary-practices-for-community-follow-up-after-aki-hospitalization
#18
Divya J Karsanji, Neesh Pannu, Braden J Manns, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Zhi Tan, Kailash Jindal, Nairne Scott-Douglas, Matthew T James
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recent guidelines suggest that patients should be evaluated after AKI for resolution versus progression of CKD. There is uncertainty as to the role of nephrologists in this process. The objective of this study was to compare the follow-up recommendations from nephrologists with contemporary processes of care for varying scenarios of patients hospitalized with AKI. DESIGN, SETTING PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We surveyed Canadian nephrologists using a series of clinical vignettes of patients hospitalized with severe AKI and asked them to rank their likelihood of recommending follow-up for each patient after hospital discharge...
October 12, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025635/how-ethiopia-achieved-millennium-development-goal-4-through-multisectoral-interventions-a-countdown-to-2015-case-study
#19
Jenny Ruducha, Carlyn Mann, Neha S Singh, Tsegaye D Gemebo, Negussie S Tessema, Angela Baschieri, Ingrid Friberg, Taddese A Zerfu, Mohammed Yassin, Giovanny A Franca, Peter Berman
BACKGROUND: 3 years before the 2015 deadline, Ethiopia achieved Millennium Development Goal 4. The under-5 mortality decreased 69%, from 205 deaths per 1000 livebirths in 1990 to 64 deaths per 1000 livebirths in 2013. To understand the underlying factors that contributed to the success in achieving MDG4, Ethiopia was selected as a Countdown to 2015 case study. METHODS: We used a set of complementary methods to analyse progress in child health in Ethiopia between 1990 and 2014...
November 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025402/rates-of-and-risk-factors-for-septic-arthritis-in-patients-with-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-prospective-cohort-study
#20
Thomas J Marrie, Gregory J Tyrrell, Sumit R Majumdar, Dean T Eurich
BACKGROUND: There are many case reports of septic arthritis complicating invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD); however, no study has compared patients with IPD with septic arthritis to those who didn't develop septic arthritis Thus, we aimed to determine the rates of, and risk factors for, septic arthritis in patients with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). METHODS: Socio-demographic, clinical, and serological data were captured on all patients with IPD in Northern Alberta, Canada from 2000 to 2014...
October 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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