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Brandon Jf Gheller, Phillip Joy, Daphne Lordly
PURPOSE: In Canada, dietitians serve a sex-diverse population despite the profession being predominately female (>95%). It is unknown why there are so few male dietitians. The objective of the present study was to explore the experience of the male dietitian, as a minority, in female-dominated dietetics. METHODS: Two semi-structured interviews were conducted, approximately 6 weeks apart, with Nova Scotian male dietitians. The interviews prompted participants to reflect on their experience of being a male dietitian...
March 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Phillip Joy, Matthew Numer
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer people (LGBTQ) have unique concerns regarding their nutritional health while experiencing disparities within the Canadian healthcare system. Dietetic training programs often do not provide adequate knowledge or skills to students to be competent in meeting the needs of this population. Drawing from literature from other health programs, this paper outlines key strategies to the integration of LGBTQ curriculum into dietetic training programs. LGBTQ training can help students gain cultural competencies, knowledge and understanding of the LGBTQ communities, and the nutritional concerns within them...
March 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Leila Itani, Simona Calugi, Riccardo Dalle Grave, Dima Kreidieh, Germine El Kassas, Dana El Masri, Hana Tannir, Aya Harfoush, Marwan El Ghoch
Few studies have thus far been carried out on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and obesity in Arab-speaking countries, an issue that we therefore set out to investigate in this study. HRQoL was assessed by the validated Arabic version of the ORWELL 97 questionnaire in 129 treatment-seeking individuals with obesity referred to the Nutritional and Weight Management Outpatient Clinic at the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics of Beirut Arab University (BAU) in Lebanon, and 129 normal-weight participants of similar age and gender...
March 13, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Sabrina M Bierman, Sarah J Peterson, Yimin Chen
BACKGROUND: The American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and the American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition released a pediatric malnutrition consensus statement in 2014 recommending the use of z-scores as indicators for identification and documentation of malnutrition. A shift in focus is needed on standardizing pediatric malnutrition language at institutions nationwide to make study data comparable. With this standardized language, establishment of institutional baselines for identification, coding, and reimbursement of pediatric malnutrition is crucial to measure process improvements...
March 12, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Pauline Uí Dhuibhir, Noelle Collura, Declan Walsh
Oral nutritional supplements (ONS) are frequently prescribed for those at risk of malnutrition. Palatability is an important factor in long-term compliance. ONS selection is typically dietitian led, but the degree to which individual perceptions of palatability influence dietitian clinical decision making is unclear. This study aimed to explore factors that influence dietitians' ONS clinical practice, evaluate dietitian hedonic preferences and overall impression of specific ONS products, and study phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) sensitivity in relation to ONS hedonic ratings...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Shu Hwa Ong, Winnie Siew Swee Chee, L Mageswary Lapchmanan, Shan Ni Ong, Zhi Chin Lua, Jowynna Xia-Ni Yeo
Background: Early detection of malnutrition in hospitalized children helps reduce length of hospital stay and morbidity. A validated nutrition tool is essential to correctly identify children at risk of malnutrition or who are already malnourished. This study compared the use of the Subjective Global Nutrition Assessment (SGNA, nutrition assessment tool) and Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Paediatrics (STAMP, nutrition screening tool) with objective nutritional parameters to identify malnutrition in hospitalized children...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Steven Shapin
Luigi Cornaro (d. 1566) was a Venetian nobleman whose book De Vita Sobria (On the Temperate Life) was an instant success and has proved to be one of the most long-lasting and influential works of practical medical advice, counseling readers how to live long and healthily. Yet Cornaro was not a physician and his account raises a series of questions about the nature and location of medical expertise. Who can have that expertise? Can you, and should you, be your own physician, and, if so, on what grounds? I situate Cornaro's claims to expertise within a historically specific culture of medical dietetics in which personal experience counted for much...
March 5, 2018: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
Asad Nawaz, Allah Bakhsh Javaid, Sana Irshad, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Hanguo Xiong
The gut immune system is, the main option for maintaining host's health, affected by numerous factors comprising dietary constituents and commensal bacteria. These dietary components that affect the intestinal immunity and considered as an alternative of antibiotics are called immunosaccharides. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), Galactooligosaccharide (GOS), inulin, dietary carbohydrates, and xylooligosaccharide (XOS) are among the most studied prebiotics in human as well as in aquaculture. Although prebiotics and probiotics have revealed potential as treatment for numerous illnesses in both human and fish, a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanism behind direct and indirect effect on the intestinal immune response will help more and perhaps extra effective therapy intended for ailments...
March 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Urvashi Mulasi, David M Vock, Adam J Kuchnia, Gautam Jha, Naomi Fujioka, Venkatesh Rudrapatna, Manish R Patel, Levi Teigen, Carrie P Earthman
BACKGROUND: Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (Academy/ASPEN) Consensus malnutrition definition, we estimated malnutrition prevalence in a sample of individuals with head and neck cancer (HNC) and compared it with the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA). We also investigated the utility of the 50-kHz phase angle (PA) and 200-kHz/5-kHz impedance ratio (IR) to identify malnutrition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen individuals (18 males, 1 female) scheduled to undergo chemoradiotherapy were seen at 5 time points during and up to 3 months after treatment completion...
January 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Sara L Nottingham, Tricia M Kasamatsu
BACKGROUND: Preceptors are important contributors to the professional development of students in allied healthcare programs. Considering their role in supervising and teaching students during clinical education, it is important that preceptors understand and embody effective characteristics and behaviors. Most existing research on preceptor effectiveness in nursing, medicine, and dietetics professions has examined preceptor and student perceptions of effective behaviors independently...
2018: Journal of Allied Health
Claire Morana, Marie Collignon, David Nocca
BACKGROUND: Beyond obesity-related comorbidities, overweight patients have a high risk of developing osteoarticular pathologies. Moreover, weight loss following bariatric surgery induces a decrease in fat mass but also in muscle mass, thus affecting the physical capacities of these patients. Functional rehabilitation is a solution to correct these imbalances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a functional rehabilitation program after bariatric surgery. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with severe obesity (BMI = 37...
February 26, 2018: Obesity Surgery
A M Okba, S M Saber, A S Abdel-Rehim, M M Amin, D A Mohamed
Background. Studies proposed a link between gut microbiota and airway tract. Objective. Study the diversity and density of gut microbiota in healthy and asthmatic patients. Method. Semi-quantitative stool cultures were performed from fecal samples collected from 80 adult asthmatic patients and 40 healthy individuals. Data on gender, age, dietetic history, clinical examination and investigations as skin prick test and pulmonary function testing were also collected. Results. Lactobacilli were found to be higher among patient group than control group...
January 15, 2018: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Takayo Tada, Paul Moritoshi, Kanae Sato, Takayo Kawakami, Yuko Kawakami
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of an adapted simulated patient (SP) intervention on self-efficacy in nutrition care process skills. DESIGN: A repeated-measures design using a 25-item survey divided into 7 nutrition professional practice competencies (PPCs) employing a 5-point self-efficacy scale (1 = lowest to 5 = highest) administered immediately before and after the intervention. SETTING: A private Japanese university. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety Japanese third-year dietetics undergraduates aged 20-38 years...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Amanda Willig, Lauri Wright, Theresa A Galvin
Nutrition is an integral component of medical care for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/autoimmune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLWHA). The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics supports integration of medical nutrition therapy into routine care for this population. Fewer PLWHA experience wasting and undernutrition, while the prevalence of obesity and other chronic diseases has increased significantly. Improved understanding of HIV infection's impact on metabolism and chronic inflammation has only increased the complexity of managing chronic HIV infection...
March 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Claudio Ponticelli, Francesco Locatelli
Glucocorticoids exert anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities by genomic and nongenomic effects. The classic genomic effects are mediated by cytosolic glucocorticoid receptors that can upregulate the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins in the nucleus (transactivation) or repress the translocation of proinflammatory transcription factors from the cytosol into the nucleus (transrepression). The nongenomic effects are probably mediated by membrane glucocorticoid receptors. Glucocorticoid receptors are expressed also in podocytes and experimental data suggest that glucocorticoids may protect from podocyte injury...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Alyssa M Cassar, Gareth S Denyer, Helen T O'Connor, Janelle A Gifford
Nutrition literacy is linked to health via its influence on dietary intake. There is a need for a tool to assess nutrition literacy in research and dietetic practice. We sought guidance from nutrition professionals on topic areas and features of an electronic nutrition literacy assessment tool for Australian adults. 28 experienced nutrition professionals engaged in a range of nutrition and dietetic work areas participated in six focus groups using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using an inductive approach using NVivo 10 (QSR International, Pty Ltd...
February 23, 2018: Nutrients
C Tuck, E Ly, A Bogatyrev, I Costetsou, P Gibson, J Barrett, J Muir
BACKGROUND: The low FODMAP (fermentable, oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols) diet is an effective strategy to improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. However, combining the low FODMAP diet with another dietary restriction such as vegetarianism/veganism is challenging. Greater knowledge about the FODMAP composition of plant-based foods and food processing practices common to vegetarian/vegan eating patterns would assist in the implementation of the diet in this patient population...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Simone Brardi, Gabriele Cevenini, Vanni Giovannelli, Giuseppe Romano
OBJECTIVE: This longitudinal prospective observational type study was conceived with the aim to examine the impact on renal resistive index (RRI) of the variables that we can manipulate with therapeutic and or dietetic interventions in a chronic kidney disease population in order to known which of these variables was statistically related to changes in RRI and therefore could become the object of the greatest therapeutic effort. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was undertaken between May 2016 to May 2017 in the outpatient nephrology and urology clinic of San Donato Hospital in Arezzo...
December 31, 2017: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
K Maunder, K Walton, P Williams, M Ferguson, E Beck
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to determine the eHealth readiness and changes over time of dietitians in Australia. METHODS: Two cross-sectional analyses of Australian dietitians were conducted in 2013 and 2016, using a survey adapted from one conducted in 2011 by the US Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. The survey encompassed 30 questions on eHealth readiness across five dimensions: access, standards, attitude, aptitude and advocacy. Descriptive statistics, independent t-tests, chi-squared tests and Z-tests were computed to compare responses from the 2013 and 2016 surveys...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Rachel Bacon, Jane Kellett, Janeane Dart, Cathy Knight-Agarwal, Rebecca Mete, Susan Ash, Claire Palermo
AIM: The aim of this research was to evaluate a Consensus Model for competency-based assessment. METHODS: An evaluative case study was used to allow a holistic examination of a constructivist-interpretivist programmatic model of assessment. Using a modified Delphi process, the competence of all 29 students enrolled in their final year of a Master of Nutrition and Dietetics course was assessed by a panel (with expertise in competency-based assessment; industry and academic representation) from a course e-portfolio (that included the judgements of student performance made by worksite educators) and a panel interview...
February 21, 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
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