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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340444/comparative-effectiveness-of-dual-action-versus-single-action-antidepressants-for-the-treatment-of-depression-in-people-living-with-hiv-aids
#1
Jon C Mills, Jeffrey S Harman, Robert L Cook, Nicole M Marlow, Christopher A Harle, R Paul Duncan, Angela M Bengtson, Brian W Pence
BACKGROUND: Depression is the most common psychiatric comorbidity among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Little is known about the comparative effectiveness between different types of antidepressants used to treat depression in this population. We compared the effectiveness of dual-action and single-action antidepressants in PLWHA for achieving remission from depression. METHODS: We used data from the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinic Systems to identify 1175 new user dual-action or single-action antidepressant treatment episodes occurring from 2005 to 2014 for PLWHA diagnosed with depression...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340102/impact-of-unrestricted-access-to-pregabalin-on-the-use-of-opioids-and-other-cns-active-medications-a-cross-sectional-time-series-analysis
#2
Herman Kwok, Wayne Khuu, Kimberly Fernandes, Diana Martins, Mina Tadrous, Samantha Singh, David N Juurlink, Tara Gomes
Objective. : Access to pregabalin via Ontario's public drug insurance program was expanded to an unrestricted model on April 1, 2013, from a prior authorization model. This study aims to identify the effect of expanded access on the rate of pregabalin use by publicly insured persons and to assess the characteristics of new patients initiating pregabalin following this expanded access. Methods. : We conducted a cross-sectional time series analysis using the linked health administrative records of residents of Ontario, Canada, with public drug coverage who were dispensed a prescription for pregabalin between April 1, 2006, and December 31, 2014...
March 6, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338544/associations-between-medication-class-and-subsequent-augmentation-of-depression-treatment-in-privately-insured-us-adults
#3
Omid Ameli, Rene Soria-Saucedo, Eric G Smith, Howard J Cabral, Marina Soley-Bori, Lewis E Kazis
IMPORTANCE: Treatment augmentation is an important clinical decision in the pharmacotherapy for depression, yet few studies have examined the rates of treatment augmentation by medication class. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine which initial pharmacotherapies for depression are more likely than others to result in subsequent treatment augmentation. METHODS: This study is a retrospective cohort analysis of administrative data of 214,705 privately insured US adults between the age of 18 and 64 years who were diagnosed with a new episode of depression in 2009...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337940/genome-wide-analysis-of-lps-induced-inflammatory-response-in-the-rat-ventral-hippocampus-modulatory-activity-of-the-antidepressant-agomelatine
#4
Andrea Carlo Rossetti, Maria Serena Paladini, Giorgio Racagni, Marco Andrea Riva, Annamaria Cattaneo, Raffaella Molteni
OBJECTIVES: Several studies reported that antidepressant drugs have immune-regulatory effects by acting on specific inflammatory mediators. However, considering the highly complex nature of the inflammatory response, we have adopted an unbiased genome-wide strategy to investigate the immune-regulatory activity of the antidepressant agomelatine in modulating the response to an acute inflammatory challenge. METHODS: Microarray analysis was used to identify genes modulated in the ventral hippocampus of adult rats chronically treated with agomelatine (40 mg/kg, os) before being challenged with a single injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 250 μg/kg, i...
March 24, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335658/dopamine-antagonists-for-treatment-resistance-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-review-and-focus-on-bdnf-stimulators-loxapine-and-amitriptyline
#5
Jessica A Hellings, L Eugene Arnold, Joan Han
Drug development is urgently needed for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and psychiatric comorbidity, which often presents as aggression and self-injury. At the same time, most psychiatric medications are drugs that have been repurposed following clinical observations of efficacy for a new treatment purpose. Areas Covered: This review aims to provide an overview of dopamine antagonists, including classical and atypical, as well as unconventional antipsychotics in ASD, since they are a mainstay of treatment for such problems...
March 24, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335039/brain-temporal-complexity-in-explaining-the-therapeutic-and-cognitive-effects-of-seizure-therapy
#6
Faranak Farzan, Sravya Atluri, Ye Mei, Sylvain Moreno, Andrea J Levinson, Daniel M Blumberger, Zafiris J Daskalakis
Over 350 million people worldwide suffer from depression, a third of whom are medication-resistant. Seizure therapy remains the most effective treatment in depression, even when many treatments fail. The utility of seizure therapy is limited due to its cognitive side effects and stigma. The biological targets of seizure therapy remain unknown, hindering design of new treatments with comparable efficacy. Seizures impact the brains temporal dynamicity observed through electroencephalography. This dynamicity reflects richness of information processing across distributed brain networks subserving affective and cognitive processes...
March 3, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333512/randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-positive-affect-intervention-for-people-newly-diagnosed-with-hiv
#7
Judith T Moskowitz, Adam W Carrico, Larissa G Duncan, Michael A Cohn, Elaine O Cheung, Abigail Batchelder, Lizet Martinez, Eisuke Segawa, Michael Acree, Susan Folkman
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine whether IRISS (Intervention for those Recently Informed of their Seropositive Status), a positive affect skills intervention, improved positive emotion, psychological health, physical health, and health behaviors in people newly diagnosed with HIV. METHOD: One-hundred and fifty-nine participants who had received an HIV diagnosis in the past 3 months were randomized to a 5-session, in-person, individually delivered positive affect skills intervention or an attention-matched control condition...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317392/pharmacotherapy-of-major-depression-in-late-life-what-is-the-role-of-new-agents
#8
Kinjal Patel, Petal S Abdool, Tarek K Rajji, Benoit H Mulsant
Evidence on the pharmacotherapy of late-life major depressive disorder (LLD) is scant. Most of the recommendations in existing clinical guidelines are based on expert opinions, extrapolations from data obtained in younger patients, or theoretical considerations. AREAS COVERED This article summarizes the recommendations from existing clinical guidelines and recent reviews on the treatment of LLD. Next, it discusses the potential role of newer antidepressants -vilazodone, levomilnacipran, and vortioxetine- based on a systematic search of the literature published during the past five years...
March 20, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301398/a-pilot-study-cardiac-parameters-in-children-receiving-new-generation-antidepressants
#9
Mai Uchida, Andrea E Spencer, Tara Kenworthy, James Chan, Maura Fitzgerald, Ana Maria Rosales, Elana Kagan, Alexandra Saunders, Joseph Biederman
OBJECTIVE: Because of concerns about potential associations between high doses of citalopram and QTc prolongation in adults, this study examined whether such associations are operant in children. We hypothesized that therapeutic doses of nontricyclic antidepressant medications (non-TCAs) prescribed to children would be cardiovascularly safe. STUDY DESIGN: The sample consisted of 49 psychiatrically referred children and adolescents 6 to 17 years old of both sexes treated with a non-TCA (citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, bupropion, duloxetine, venlafaxine, mirtazapine)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294084/continuous-circular-cycling-as-a-predictor-of-treatment-response-in-bipolar-disorders-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-current-literature
#10
Antonio Tundo, Paola Cavalieri
Evidence from the literature suggests that, on average, 27% of patients with a bipolar disorder (BD) experience a continuous cycling course (CCC) and that this subgroup differs significantly from patients with a noncontinuous cycling course (N-CCC) with respect to sociodemographic characteristics and clinical presentation. The aim of the present paper is to review the studies that evaluated short- and long-term treatment responses in BD patients with CCC. The retrieved studies indicate that CCC is a significant predictor of poor response to long-term treatment with lithium (the odds of a response in the CCC group were 57% less than in the N-CCC group; p<0...
March 15, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293192/indole-alkaloids-from-plants-as-potential-leads-for-antidepressant-drugs-a-mini-review
#11
Hazrulrizawati A Hamid, Aizi N M Ramli, Mashitah M Yusoff
Depression is the most common illness observed in the elderly, adults, and children. Antidepressants prescribed are usually synthetic drugs and these can sometimes cause a wide range of unpleasant side effects. Current research is focussed on natural products from plants as they are a rich source of potent new drug leads. Besides Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort), the plants studied include Passiflora incarnata L. (passion flower), Mitragyna speciosa (kratom), Piper methysticum G. Forst (kava) and Valeriana officinalis L...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288814/galanin-1-15-enhancement-of-the-behavioral-effects-of-fluoxetine-in-the-forced-swimming-test-gives-a-new-therapeutic-strategy-against-depression
#12
Antonio Flores-Burgess, Carmelo Millón, Belen Gago, Manuel Narváez, Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Guadalupe Mengod, José Angel Narváez, Kjell Fuxe, Luis Santín, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale
The pharmacological treatment of major depression is mainly based on drugs elevating serotonergic (5-HT) activity. Specifically, selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors, including Fluoxetine (FLX), are the most commonly used for treatment of major depression. However, the understanding of the mechanism of action of FLX beyond its effect of elevating 5-HT is limited. The interaction between serotoninergic system and neuropeptides signalling could be a key aspect. We examined the ability of the neuropeptide Galanin(1-15) [GAL(1-15)] to modulate the behavioral effects of FLX in the forced swimming test (FST) and studied feasible molecular mechanisms...
March 10, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286537/smoking-and-antidepressants-pharmacokinetics-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Pedro Oliveira, Joana Ribeiro, Helena Donato, Nuno Madeira
BACKGROUND: Despite an increasingly recognized relationship between depression and smoking, little is known about how smoking influences antidepressant response and treatment outcomes. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence of the impact of smoking on new-generation antidepressants with an emphasis on the pharmacokinetic perspective. METHODS: We present a systematic review of clinical trials comparing the serum levels of new-generation antidepressants in smokers and nonsmokers...
2017: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282499/non-opioid-medications-for-the-relief-of-chronic-breathlessness-current-evidence
#14
Carlo Barbetta, David C Currow, Miriam J Johnson
To evaluate systematically randomised clinical trials investigating non-opioid medications for the management and treatment of chronic breathlessness. Areas Covered: The evidence for the role of benzodiazepines, anxiolytics, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants, antihistamines, cannabinoids, nebulized furosemide and herbal-based treatments were critically reviewed. Search of the Clinical Trials Registry (Clinicaltrial.gov) identified ongoing studies expected to generate new data in the near future in several classes of non-opioid medications for their net effect on chronic breathlessness...
March 10, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281674/new-insights-into-the-intracellular-distribution-pattern-of-cationic-amphiphilic-drugs
#15
Magdalena Vater, Leonhard Möckl, Vanessa Gormanns, Carsten Schultz Fademrecht, Anna M Mallmann, Karolina Ziegart-Sadowska, Monika Zaba, Marie L Frevert, Christoph Bräuchle, Florian Holsboer, Theo Rein, Ulrike Schmidt, Thomas Kirmeier
Cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) comprise a wide variety of different substance classes such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, and antiarrhythmics. It is well recognized that CADs accumulate in certain intracellular compartments leading to specific morphological changes of cells. So far, no adequate technique exists allowing for ultrastructural analysis of CAD in intact cells. Azidobupramine, a recently described multifunctional antidepressant analogue, allows for the first time to perform high-resolution studies of CADs on distribution pattern and morphological changes in intact cells...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280381/topical-phenytoin-for-the-treatment-of-neuropathic-pain
#16
David J Kopsky, Jan M Keppel Hesselink
We developed and tested a new putative analgesic cream, based on the anticonvulsant phenytoin in patients suffering from treatment refractory neuropathic pain. The use of commercial topical analgesics is not widespread due to the facts that capsaicin creams or patches can give rise to side effects, such as burning, and analgesic patches (e.g., lidocaine 5% patches) have complex handling, especially for geriatric patients. Only in a few countries, compounded creams based on tricyclic antidepressants or other (co-)analgesics are available...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276811/new-therapeutic-options-for-ibs-the-role-of-the-first-in-class-mixed-%C3%A2%C2%B5-opioid-receptor-agonist-and-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-antagonist-mudelta-eluxadoline
#17
Maura Corsetti, Peter Whorwell
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder which represents a major cost to healthcare services. IBS-D patients represent about one-third of the IBS population and are currently treated with antispasmodics, loperamide, bile acid sequestrants and antidepressants. Alosetron and rifaximin are also available in USA, ramosetron in Japan, Korea and Thailand and ondansetron as an off-label treatment. Areas covered: This article focuses on eluxadoline, a novel pharmacological agent that has recently been approved by both the FDA and EMA for treatment of patients with IBS-D...
April 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275719/a-negative-allosteric-modulator-for-%C3%AE-5-subunit-containing-gaba-receptors-exerts-a-rapid-and-persistent-antidepressant-like-action-without-the-side-effects-of-the-nmda-receptor-antagonist-ketamine-in-mice
#18
Panos Zanos, Mackenzie E Nelson, Jaclyn N Highland, Samuel R Krimmel, Polymnia Georgiou, Todd D Gould, Scott M Thompson
New antidepressant pharmacotherapies that provide rapid relief of depressive symptoms are needed. The NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine exerts rapid antidepressant actions in depressed patients but also side effects that complicate its clinical utility. Ketamine promotes excitatory synaptic strength, likely by producing high-frequency correlated activity in mood-relevant regions of the forebrain. Negative allosteric modulators of GABA-A receptors containing α5 subunits (α5 GABA-NAMs) should also promote high-frequency correlated electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and should therefore exert rapid antidepressant responses...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275543/the-global-ect-mri-research-collaboration-gemric-establishing-a-multi-site-investigation-of-the-neural-mechanisms-underlying-response-to-electroconvulsive-therapy
#19
Leif Oltedal, Hauke Bartsch, Ole Johan Evjenth Sørhaug, Ute Kessler, Christopher Abbott, Annemieke Dols, Max L Stek, Lars Ersland, Louise Emsell, Philip van Eijndhoven, Miklos Argyelan, Indira Tendolkar, Pia Nordanskog, Paul Hamilton, Martin Balslev Jorgensen, Iris E Sommer, Sophie M Heringa, Bogdan Draganski, Ronny Redlich, Udo Dannlowski, Harald Kugel, Filip Bouckaert, Pascal Sienaert, Amit Anand, Randall Espinoza, Katherine L Narr, Dominic Holland, Anders M Dale, Ketil J Oedegaard
Major depression, currently the world's primary cause of disability, leads to profound personal suffering and increased risk of suicide. Unfortunately, the success of antidepressant treatment varies amongst individuals and can take weeks to months in those who respond. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), generally prescribed for the most severely depressed and when standard treatments fail, produces a more rapid response and remains the most effective intervention for severe depression. Exploring the neurobiological effects of ECT is thus an ideal approach to better understand the mechanisms of successful therapeutic response...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271818/mixed-up-about-how-to-diagnose-and-treat-mixed-features-in-major-depressive-episodes
#20
Stephen M Stahl
The classical point of view-that major depressive episodes (MDEs), no matter what additional symptoms are present, should be treated first line with antidepressants-is now giving way to new a notion. The idea is that MDEs mixed with a few symptoms of mania/hypomania should be viewed very differently in terms of their natural history, clinical outcome, and treatment, and perhaps certain antipsychotics should be given as first-line treatment rather than antidepressant monotherapy.
March 8, 2017: CNS Spectrums
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