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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745825/salmonella-choleraesuis-outer-membrane-vesicles-proteomics-and-immunogenicity
#1
Qiong Liu, Jie Yi, Kang Liang, Xiangmin Zhang, Qing Liu
Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis), Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen is capable of inducing the cholera in pigs whose symptoms manifest as fever, depression, septicemia, arthritis, and diarrhea. Infections with S. Choleraesuis has resulted in great economic loss for the swine breeding operations. Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) play an important role in pathogenicity and host-pathogen interaction. In this study, we purified OMVs released by S. Choleraesuis strain χ3545 and characterized their lipopolysaccharide (LPS) profile...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731926/history-of-anaesthesia-the-ketamine-story-past-present-and-future
#2
Georges Mion
: Ketamine's history begins in the 1950s in Detroit, Michigan, at Parke-Davis Laboratories. On 26 March 1956, Harold V. Maddox synthesised phencyclidine or PCP. Domino studied PCP effects in animals and in 1958, Greifenstein made the first trials of PCP in humans under the name of Sernyl. Sernyl did not cause depression of cardiovascular and respiratory functions, but elicited severe excitation with a very prolonged postoperative recovery. Because of its psychedelic effects, it became a street drug under the name of 'angel dust' and was placed on schedule II of Federal Controlled Substance Act (CSA) in 1978...
July 20, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721049/the-potential-role-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-the-treatment-of-hiv-associated-depression-a-review-of-literature
#3
REVIEW
William C Nicholson, Mirjam-Colette Kempf, Linda Moneyham, David E Vance
Depression is the most common comorbidity and neuropsychiatric complication in HIV. Estimates suggest that the prevalence rate for depression among HIV-infected individuals is three times that of the general population. The association between HIV and clinical depression is complex; however, chronic activation of inflammatory mechanisms, which disrupt central nervous system (CNS) function, may contribute to this association. Disruptions in CNS function can result in cognitive disorders, social withdrawal, fatigue, apathy, psychomotor impairment, and sleep disturbances, which are common manifestations in depression and HIV alike...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707590/combining-drug-and-psychological-treatments-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-what-is-the-evidence-when-and-for-whom
#4
Umberto Albert, Gabriele Di Salvo, Francesca Solia, Gianluca Rosso, Giuseppe Maina
BACKGROUND: serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) and cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy (CBT) are first-line treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Since response is often inadequate, in recent years researchers investigated whether combining CBT and SRIs, either ab initio or sequentially, results in a greater reduction of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. OBJECTIVE: the aims of the present paper are to assess if combination treatment seems adding benefits as compared to either monotherapy alone and if sequential strategies may be effective in converting partial or non responders to a first-line treatment into responders...
July 12, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698761/vagus-nerve-stimulation
#5
REVIEW
Hakan Ekmekçi, Hülagu Kaptan
BACKGROUND: The vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an approach mainly used in cases of intractable epilepsy despite all the efforts. Also, its benefits have been shown in severe cases of depression resistant to typical treatment. AIM: The aim of this study was to present current knowledge of vagus nerve stimulation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A new value has emerged just at this stage: VNS aiming the ideal treatment with new hopes. It is based on the placement of a programmable generator on the chest wall...
June 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671633/l1210-cells-overexpressing-abcb1-drug-transporters-are-resistant-to-inhibitors-of-the-n-and-o-glycosylation-of-proteins
#6
Lucia Pavlikova, Mario Seres, Milan Hano, Viera Bohacova, Ivana Sevcikova, Tomas Kyca, Albert Breier, Zdena Sulova
Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, drug transporter) in neoplastic cells is the most frequently observed molecular cause of multidrug resistance. Here, we show that the overexpression of P-gp in L1210 cells leads to resistance to tunicamycin and benzyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-d-galactopyranoside (GalNAc-α-O-benzyl). Tunicamycin induces both glycosylation depression and ubiquitination improvement of P-gp. However, the latter is not associated with large increases in molecular mass as evidence for polyubiquitination...
July 3, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664038/case-report-epilepsy-surgical-outcome-for-epileptic-and-non-epileptic-seizures-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-depression
#7
Mazen Basheikh
A 48-year-old male was diagnosed with both drug resistant epilepsy and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. Both diagnoses were confirmed by video-EEG monitoring. His epileptic seizures were a consequence of right mesial temporal sclerosis. He was diagnosed by a psychiatrist to have depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Following a right anterior temporal resection he became seizure free (both epileptic and nonepileptic) with a remarkable improvement in his psychiatric comorbidities leading to significant reduction in his psychotropic medications...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657934/multitarget-botanical-pharmacotherapy-in-major-depression-a-toxic-brain-hypothesis
#8
Siu W Tang, Wayne H Tang, Brain E Leonard
A significant number of patients with major depression do not respond optimally to current antidepressant drugs. As depression is likely to be a heterogeneous disorder, it is possible that existing neurotransmitter-based antidepressant drugs do not fully address other pathologies that may exist in certain cases. Biological pathologies related to depression that have been proposed and studied extensively include inflammation and immunology, hypercortisolemia, oxidative stress, and impaired angiogenesis. Such pathologies may induce neurodegeneration, which in turn causes cognitive impairment, a symptom increasingly being recognized in depression...
June 27, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653857/anti-inflammatory-treatment-for-major-depressive-disorder-implications-for-patients-with-an-elevated-immune-profile-and-non-responders-to-standard-antidepressant-therapy
#9
Paula Kopschina Feltes, Janine Doorduin, Hans C Klein, Luis Eduardo Juárez-Orozco, Rudi Ajo Dierckx, Cristina M Moriguchi-Jeckel, Erik Fj de Vries
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent and disabling psychiatric disease with rates of non-responsiveness to antidepressants ranging from 30-50%. Historically, the monoamine depletion hypothesis has dominated the view on the pathophysiology of depression. However, the lack of responsiveness to antidepressants and treatment resistance suggests that additional mechanisms might play a role. Evidence has shown that a subgroup of depressive patients may have an underlying immune deregulation that could explain the lack of therapeutic benefit from antidepressants...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651170/an-analysis-of-quality-of-life-qol-in-patients-with-epilepsy-and-comorbid-psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures-pnes-after-vagus-nerve-stimulation-vns
#10
Andrew C Vivas, Christian J Reitano, Hena Waseem, Selim R Benbadis, Fernando L Vale
PURPOSE: Patients with epilepsy (PWE) may suffer from comorbid psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). The efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in the treatment of epilepsy and depression is established, however the impact on PNES is unknown. Since many patients with PNES have comorbid depression, we explored the impact on quality of life (QOL) that VNS has on PWE and PNES. METHODS: The video electroencephalogram (vEEG) of all patients who underwent VNS at our institution was reviewed...
June 23, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625609/oxidative-stress-induced-by-cumene-hydroperoxide-produces-synaptic-depression-and-transient-hyperexcitability-in-rat-primary-motor-cortex-neurons
#11
R Pardillo-Diaz, L Carrascal, G Barrionuevo, P Nunez-Abades
Pyramidal neurons of the motor cortex are selectively degenerated in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The mechanisms underlying neuronal death in ALS are not well established. In the absence of useful biomarkers, the early increased neuronal excitability seems to be the unique characteristic of ALS. Lipid peroxidation caused by oxidative stress has been postulated as one of the possible mechanisms involved in degeneration motor cortex pyramidal neurons. This paper examines the effect of lipid peroxidation on layer V pyramidal neurons induced by cumene hydroperoxide (CH) in brain slices from wild type rats...
June 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624596/repeated-co-treatment-with-antidepressants-and-risperidone-increases-bdnf-mrna-and-protein-levels-in-rats
#12
Zofia Rogóż, Katarzyna Kamińska, Patrycja Pańczyszyn-Trzewik, Magdalena Sowa-Kućma
BACKGROUND: Recently, several clinical studies have suggested a beneficial effect of a combination of antidepressants (ADs) with antipsychotic drugs in drug-resistant depression. Moreover, preclinical and clinical studies indicated a role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathology of depression, as well as in the mechanism of action of ADs. METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the effect of repeated administration of ADs, escitalopram, fluoxetine or mirtazapine and a low dose of risperidone (an atypical antipsychotic drug) given separately or in combination, on the mRNA and protein levels of BDNF or cAMP response element binding (p-CREB) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of male Wistar rats...
March 4, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622206/bupropion-augmentation-in-a-case-of-compulsive-buying-disorder
#13
Gianna Sepede, Giuseppe Di Iorio, Fabiola Sarchione, Federica Fiori, Massimo Di Giannantonio
BACKGROUND: Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is a condition characterized by excessive preoccupations, impulses, and behaviors regarding buying, resulting in serious psychological, social, and financial problems. Even though it has not been included in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, "behavioral addictions" section, CBD is a hot topic in current clinical psychiatry, because of its relevant prevalence (at least 5% in adult populations) and severe effect on quality of life...
July 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622159/weeding-out-the-justification-for-marijuana-treatment-in-patients-with-developmental-and-behavioral-conditions
#14
Theodora Nelson, Yi Hui Liu, Kara S Bagot, Martin T Stein
Alex is a 13-year-old adolescent with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-combined type, anxiety, and depression. He has been resistant to engaging in therapy and treatment with various medications has been unsuccessful. Alex's parents are concerned about his anxiety, isolation, oppositional behaviors, academic underachievement, truancy, and substance use. A recent altercation with his stepfather led to a police intervention and a brief removal of Alex from the home...
July 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613369/-hypertension-en-orthostatic-hypotension-during-use-of-monoamine-oxidase-mao-inhibitors
#15
W T Zandee, J Alsma, T K Birkenhäger, A H VAN den Meiracker, M van Hoek, J Versmissen
Monoamine oxidase (mao) inhibitors are antidepressants with potentially severe side-effects. For this reason, the registration of this drug was suspended for some time when safer alternatives became available. However, mao inhibitors can be very effective in cases where depression has proved to be treatment resistant. Consequently, last year tranylcypromine was re-registered for use in the Netherlands. Since mao inhibitors have been used only sporadically in the Netherlands over the last few years, health professionals have only limited knowledge about the side-effects...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604316/when-students-become-patients-tb-disease-among-medical-undergraduates-in-cape-town-south-africa
#16
Helene-Mari Van der Westhuizen, Angela Dramowski
BACKGROUND: Medical students acquire latent tuberculosis (TB) infection at a rate of 23 cases/100 person-years. The frequency and impact of occupational TB disease in this population are unknown. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed via email and social media to current medical students and recently graduated doctors (2010 - 2015) at two medical schools in Cape Town. Individuals who had developed TB disease as undergraduate students were eligible to participate...
May 24, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599949/quetiapine-extended-release-versus-aripiprazole-in-children-and-adolescents-with-first-episode-psychosis-the-multicentre-double-blind-randomised-tolerability-and-efficacy-of-antipsychotics-tea-trial
#17
Anne Katrine Pagsberg, Pia Jeppesen, Dea Gowers Klauber, Karsten Gjessing Jensen, Ditte Rudå, Marie Stentebjerg-Olesen, Peter Jantzen, Simone Rasmussen, Eva Ann-Sofie Saldeen, Maj-Britt Glenn Lauritsen, Niels Bilenberg, Anne Dorte Stenstrøm, Louise Nyvang, Sarah Madsen, Thomas M Werge, Theis Lange, Christian Gluud, Maria Skoog, Per Winkel, Jens Richardt M Jepsen, Birgitte Fagerlund, Christoph U Correll, Anders Fink-Jensen
BACKGROUND: Head-to-head trials to guide antipsychotic treatment choices for paediatric psychosis are urgently needed because extrapolations from adult studies might not be implementable. In this superiority trial with two-sided significance testing, we aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of quetiapine-extended release (quetiapine-ER) versus aripiprazole in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis, to determine whether differences between the two treatments were sufficient to guide clinicians in their choice of one drug over the other...
August 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598698/beyond-serotonin-newer-antidepressants-in-the-future
#18
Gopalkumar Rakesh, Chi-Un Pae, Prakash S Masand
There are numerous antidepressants for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) on the market. However, inadequate treatment response, therapeutic lag between drug administration and the onset of clinical improvement, and safety/tolerability issues with the use of contemporary antidepressants have accelerated the search for newer antidepressants with novel mechanisms of action. Areas covered: The authors review novel antidepressants with rapid efficacy for diverse MDD symptoms and have fewer adverse effects (AEs)...
June 19, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597291/multiple-drug-transporters-mediate-the-placental-transport-of-sulpiride
#19
Mengru Bai, Zhiyuan Ma, Dongli Sun, Caihong Zheng, Yayun Weng, Xi Yang, Ting Jiang, Huidi Jiang
Sulpiride is a typical antipsychotic drug for the treatment of schizophrenia, depression and other psychological disorders. It has been proven that a small amount of sulpiride could cross the human placenta using an ex vivo placental perfusion model. However, the placental transfer mechanism has not been elucidated. Considering the structure of sulpiride, we speculated that the transporters expressed in placenta might be involved in sulpiride uptake across the blood-placenta barrier. The aim of our study was to determine which transporters contributed to the placental transfer of sulpiride...
June 9, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588979/determinants-of-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-positive-adults-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review
#20
Tessa Heestermans, Joyce L Browne, Susan C Aitken, Sigrid C Vervoort, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch
OBJECTIVE: The rapid scale up of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has resulted in an increased focus on patient adherence. Non-adherence can lead to drug-resistant HIV caused by failure to achieve maximal viral suppression. Optimal treatment requires the identification of patients at high risk of suboptimal adherence and targeted interventions. The aim of this review was to identify and summarise determinants of adherence to ART among HIV-positive adults. DESIGN: Systematic review of adherence to ART in SSA from January 2002 to October 2014...
November 2016: BMJ Global Health
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