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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691632/mathematical-modeling-of-climate-change-and-malaria-transmission-dynamics-a-historical-review
#1
REVIEW
Steffen E Eikenberry, Abba B Gumel
Malaria, one of the greatest historical killers of mankind, continues to claim around half a million lives annually, with almost all deaths occurring in children under the age of five living in tropical Africa. The range of this disease is limited by climate to the warmer regions of the globe, and so anthropogenic global warming (and climate change more broadly) now threatens to alter the geographic area for potential malaria transmission, as both the Plasmodium malaria parasite and Anopheles mosquito vector have highly temperature-dependent lifecycles, while the aquatic immature Anopheles habitats are also strongly dependent upon rainfall and local hydrodynamics...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690517/fine-particulate-matter-pollution-and-risk-of-community-acquired-sepsis
#2
Elisa J Sarmiento, Justin Xavier Moore, Leslie A McClure, Russell Griffin, Mohammad Z Al-Hamdan, Henry E Wang
While air pollution has been associated with health complications, its effect on sepsis risk is unknown. We examined the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) air pollution and risk of sepsis hospitalization. We analyzed data from the 30,239 community-dwelling adults in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort linked with satellite-derived measures of PM2.5 data. We defined sepsis as a hospital admission for a serious infection with ≥2 systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) criteria...
April 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689766/low-dose-ct-reconstruction-via-l1-norm-dictionary-learning-using-alternating-minimization-algorithm-and-balancing-principle
#3
Junfeng Wu, Fang Dai, Gang Hu, Xuanqin Mou
Excessive radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT) scans increases the chance of developing cancer and has become a major clinical concern. Recently, statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR) with l0-norm dictionary learning regularization has been developed to reconstruct CT images from the low dose and few-view dataset in order to reduce radiation dose. Nonetheless, the sparse regularization term adopted in this approach is l0-norm, which cannot guarantee the global convergence of the proposed algorithm...
April 18, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689600/correlation-of-point-shear-wave-velocity-and-kidney-function-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
Iulia Grosu, Flaviu Bob, Ioan Sporea, Alina Popescu, Roxana Şirli, Adalbert Schiller
OBJECTIVES: Point shear wave elastography is a quantitative ultrasound-based imaging method used in the assessment of renal disease. Among point shear wave elastographic options, 2 techniques have been studied considerably: Virtual Touch quantification (VTQ; Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany) and ElastPQ (EPQ; Philips Healthcare, Bothell, WA). Both rely on the tissue response to an acoustic beam generated by the ultrasound transducer. The data on renal VTQ are more extensive, whereas EPQ has been used less thus far in the assessment of the kidneys...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689134/inferring-pathogen-dynamics-from-temporal-count-data-the-emergence-of-xylella-fastidiosa-in-france-is-probably-not-recent
#5
Samuel Soubeyrand, Pauline de Jerphanion, Olivier Martin, Mathilde Saussac, Charles Manceau, Pascal Hendrikx, Christian Lannou
Unravelling the ecological structure of emerging plant pathogens persisting in multi-host systems is challenging. In such systems, observations are often heterogeneous with respect to time, space and host species, and may lead to biases of perception. The biased perception of pathogen ecology may be exacerbated by hidden fractions of the whole host population, which may act as infection reservoirs. We designed a mechanistic-statistical approach to help understand the ecology of emerging pathogens by filtering out some biases of perception...
April 24, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688114/adjustment-disorder-and-type-specific-cancer-incidence-a-danish-cohort-study
#6
Thomas P Ahern, Katalin Veres, Tammy Jiang, Dóra Körmendiné Farkas, Timothy L Lash, Henrik Toft Sørensen, Jaimie L Gradus
BACKGROUND: Although adjustment disorder is common, there is a dearth of research on its physical health consequences. Earlier studies, biological mechanisms and stress-related behaviors suggest that cancer may be a potential sequelae of adjustment disorder. This study examined the association between adjustment disorder and type-specific cancer incidence in a nationwide cohort. METHODS: Data were obtained from the comprehensive nationwide medical and administrative registries of Denmark...
April 24, 2018: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686868/impact-of-degree-truncation-on-the-spread-of-a-contagious-process-on-networks
#7
Guy Harling, Jukka-Pekka Onnela
Understanding how person-to-person contagious processes spread through a population requires accurate information on connections between population members. However, such connectivity data, when collected via interview, is often incomplete due to partial recall, respondent fatigue or study design, e.g., fixed choice designs (FCD) truncate out-degree by limiting the number of contacts each respondent can report. Past research has shown how FCD truncation affects network properties, but its implications for predicted speed and size of spreading processes remain largely unexplored...
March 2018: Network Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685600/formulation-of-sludge-incineration-residue-based-geopolymer-and-stabilization-performance-on-potential-toxic-elements
#8
Shichang Sun, Junhao Lin, Lin Fang, Rui Ma, Zhu Ding, Xianghua Zhang, Xuxin Zhao, Yilin Liu
Using sludge incineration residue (SIR) to prepare SIR-based geopolymer can realize the minimization and reclamation of urban sludge as well as the stabilization of potential toxic elements. This work has researched the critical factors that influence the formulation of SIR-based geopolymer and the stabilization performance on potential toxic elements. Results showed that the addition amount of SIR had significant influence on the compressive strength of geopolymer, while the modules of sodium silicate and the sodium silicate/metakaolin ratio had little influence thereon...
April 20, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684585/nogo-b-reticulon-4b-functions-as-a-negative-regulator-of-the-apoptotic-pathway-through-the-interaction-with-c-flip-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#9
Nao Kawaguchi, Keitaro Tashiro, Kohei Taniguchi, Masaru Kawai, Keitaro Tanaka, Junji Okuda, Michihiro Hayashi, Kazuhisa Uchiyama
Nogo-B is a member of the Nogo/Reticulon-4 family and has been reported to be an inducer of apoptosis in certain types of cancer cells. However, the role of Nogo-B in human cancer remains less understood. Here, we demonstrated the functions of Nogo-B in colorectal cancer cells. In clinical colorectal cancer specimens, Nogo-B was obviously overexpressed, as determined by immunohistochemistry; and Western blot analysis showed its expression level to be significantly up-regulated. Furthermore, knockdown of Nogo-B in two colorectal cancer cell lines, SW480 and DLD-1, by transfection with si-RNA (siR) resulted in significantly reduced cell viability and a dramatic increase in apoptosis with insistent overexpression of cleaved caspase-8 and cleaved PARP...
April 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683405/longitudinal-evaluation-of-plasma-concentrations-of-presepsin-in-patients-after-severe-trauma-a-prospective-observational-study
#10
Christian Koch, Sophie Ruhrmann, Michael Pöhlmann, Emmanuel Schneck, Borros Arneth, Thomas Zajonz, Michael Sander, Markus A Weigand, Florian Uhle
BACKGROUND: The high mortality rate of patients suffering from severe trauma is based not only on the mechanism of injury, but also on the higher risk for development of subsequent infections. Therefore, the early recognition of infection after severe trauma is of particular importance for patient outcome. However, early diagnosis is often masked by the consequences of the sterile, damage-triggered immune response. Our study sought to analyze the course of soluble CD14-subtype (sCD14-ST, presepsin) compared with clinically established inflammatory and infectious biomarkers in a cohort of patients with severe trauma...
April 23, 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683274/drug-repositioning-to-alleviate-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-caused-by-gram-negative-bacterial-outer-membrane-vesicles
#11
Ji Hyun Kim, Jaewook Lee, Kyong-Su Park, Sung-Wook Hong, Yong Song Gho
Sepsis is characterized by systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) accompanied with infection. Gram-negative bacteria can evoke sepsis by activating the host immune system, such as the release of IL-6 and TNF-α, through their virulence factors. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), nanosized bilayered proteolipids derived from Gram-negative bacteria, harbor various virulence factors and are shown to induce SIRS. Here, drugs are repositioned to alleviate SIRS caused by Gram-negative bacterial OMVs. Using novel OMV-based drug screening systems, a total of 178 commercially available drugs are primarily screened, and a total of 18 repositioned drug candidates are found to effectively block IL-6 and TNF-α production from OMV-stimulated macrophages...
April 23, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683252/decreasing-rates-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-in-people-living-with-hiv-a-nationwide-cohort-study-in-spain-2004-2015
#12
M Masiá, S Padilla, J A García, J I Bernardino, A A Campins, V Asensi, F Gutiérrez
OBJECTIVES: Contemporary data from country-wide cohorts are needed to reveal trends in the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in people living with HIV (PLWH). We analysed time trends in the standardized incidence rate (sIR) of AMI in PLWH in Spain from 2004 to 2015, and compared them with trends in the general population. METHODS: A longitudinal study in a nationwide contemporary multicentre HIV-infected cohort was carried out. Data on all incident AMI events were collected, and age- and sex-standardized IRs calculated...
April 23, 2018: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682325/antimicrobial-resistance-mechanisms-and-potential-synthetic-treatments
#13
REVIEW
Junaid Ali, Qasim A Rafiq, Elizabeth Ratcliffe
Since the discovery of antibiotics by Sir Alexander Fleming they have been used throughout medicine and play a vital role in combating microorganisms. However, with their vast use, development of resistance has become more prevalent and their use is currently under threat. Antibiotic resistance poses a global threat to human and animal health, with many bacterial species having developed some form of resistance and in some cases within a year of first exposure to antimicrobial agents. This review aims to examine some of the mechanisms behind resistance...
April 2018: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680812/a-smartphone-application-for-reporting-symptoms-in-adults-with-cystic-fibrosis-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Jamie Wood, Sue Jenkins, David Putrino, Siobhain Mulrennan, Sue Morey, Nola Cecins, Kylie Hill
INTRODUCTION: In people with cystic fibrosis (CF), exacerbations have been shown to have profound and prolonged negative effects such as reducing physical activity and health-related quality of life, increasing the rate of decline of lung function and healthcare costs, and ultimately increasing the risk of mortality. Delayed initiation of treatment following the signs of an exacerbation has been shown to be associated with failure to recover to baseline. Therefore, the late identification and treatment of an exacerbation due to delayed presentation will potentially worsen short-term and long-term outcomes...
April 21, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680395/plasma-procalcitonin-concentration-in-healthy-calves-and-those-with-septic-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome
#15
F Bonelli, V Meucci, T J Divers, A Boccardo, D Pravettoni, M Meylan, A G Belloli, M Sgorbini
The diagnosis of sepsis in calves is challenging. Blood culture and clinical signs combined with a complete blood count have been used for the diagnosis of sepsis. Recent literature in humans and animal species has been focused on sepsis-specific biomarkers, such as procalcitonin (PCT), that may more accurately and efficiently diagnose sepsis. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma PCT concentrations in healthy and septic calves. Twenty healthy control calves and 58 sick calves with septic systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) based on SIRS score and clinical findings were included...
April 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680262/clinical-implications-of-intravenous-drug-incompatibilities-in-critically-ill-patients
#16
REVIEW
Malik Benlabed, Maxime Perez, Romain Gaudy, Stéphanie Genay, Damien Lannoy, Christine Barthélémy, Pascal Odou, Gilles Lebuffe, Bertrand Décaudin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to analyse the clinical consequences of intravenous drug incompatibilities in critically ill patients, especially the incidence of organ dysfunctions and mortality. METHODS: A review of literature was conducted according to the PRISMA statement in June 2017, using Medline, ISI Web of Science and Clinicaltrials.gov. DATA EXTRACTION: Eligible studies were case reports and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effects of drug incompatibilities in critically ill patients on morbidity or mortality as primary or secondary outcomes, or adverse events...
April 19, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680000/stone-culture-in-patients-undergoing-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-a-practical-point-of-view
#17
Amihay Nevo, Roy Mano, Ohad Shoshani, Gherman Kriderman, Eran Schreter, David Lifshitz
INTRODUCTION: To determine the clinical yield of stone culture in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and to identify patients who may benefit from this test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We queried our database for all patients who underwent PCNL from 2005 to 2017, from whom urine culture (UC) and stone culture (SC) were obtained. Study endpoint was systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) within 48 hours of PCNL. Risk factors for SIRS and for stone colonization with highly resistant pathogens were evaluated...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678941/autoantibodies-and-scleroderma-phenotype-define-subgroups-at-high-risk-and-low-risk-for-cancer
#18
Takeru Igusa, Laura K Hummers, Kala Visvanathan, Carrie Richardson, Fredrick M Wigley, Livia Casciola-Rosen, Antony Rosen, Ami A Shah
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies demonstrate autoantibodies are powerful tools to interrogate molecular events linking cancer and the development of autoimmunity in scleroderma. Investigating cancer risk in these biologically relevant subsets may provide an opportunity to develop personalised cancer screening guidelines. In this study, we examined cancer risk in distinct serologic and phenotypic scleroderma subsets and compared estimates with the general population. METHODS: Patients in the Johns Hopkins Scleroderma Center observational cohort were studied...
April 20, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678851/improved-diagnostic-and-prognostic-power-of-combined-delta-neutrophil-index-and-mean-platelet-volume-in-pediatric-sepsis
#19
Minjeong Nam, Byeong Hei Son, Jung Eun Seo, Il Ry Kim, Chee Kyoung Park, Hyun Kyung Kim
This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic significance of white blood cell (WBC) and platelet parameters measured by automated hematology analyzers in pediatric sepsis. The study included 232 pediatric patients whose C-reactive protein test had been requested for evaluation of infection or inflammation at a pediatric tertiary hospital. The patients were allocated to control, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) without infection, and sepsis groups. An ADVIA 2120i hematology system was used to measure the delta neutrophil index (DN) and platelet parameters including platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), plateletcrit (PCT), and immature platelet fraction (IPF)...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676026/selective-inversion-recovery-quantitative-magnetization-transfer-brain-mri-at-7t-clinical-and-postmortem-validation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Francesca Bagnato, Simon Hametner, Giulia Franco, Siddharama Pawate, Subramaniam Sriram, Hans Lassmann, John Gore, Seth E Smith, Richard Dortch
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: An imaging biomarker of myelin integrity is an unmet need in multiple sclerosis (MS). Selective inversion recovery (SIR) quantitative magnetization transfer imaging (qMT) provides assays of myelin content in the human brain. We previously translated the SIR method to 7T and incorporated a rapid turbo field echo (TFE) readout for whole-brain imaging within clinically acceptable scan times. We herein provide histological validation and test in vivo feasibility and applicability of the SIR-TFE protocol in MS...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
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