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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813028/detection-methodologies-for-pathogen-and-toxins-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Md Eshrat E Alahi, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay
Pathogen and toxin-contaminated foods and beverages are a major source of illnesses, even death, and have a significant economic impact worldwide. Human health is always under a potential threat, including from biological warfare, due to these dangerous pathogens. The agricultural and food production chain consists of many steps such as harvesting, handling, processing, packaging, storage, distribution, preparation, and consumption. Each step is susceptible to threats of environmental contamination or failure to safeguard the processes...
August 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812985/interventions-to-support-integrated-psychological-care-and-holistic-health-outcomes-in-paediatrics
#2
REVIEW
Roz Shafran, Sophie D Bennett, Mhairi McKenzie Smith
There are strong calls from many national and international bodies for there to be a 'holistic' and integrated approach to the understanding and management of psychological and physical health needs. Such holistic approaches are characterized by the treatment of the whole person, taking into account mental and social factors, rather than just the symptoms of a disease. Holistic approaches can impact on mental and physical health and are cost-effective. Several psychological interventions have demonstrated efficacy in improving holistic health outcomes, for example Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Behavioural Therapies and Problem Solving Therapies...
August 16, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812890/jaqpot-quattro-a-novel-computational-web-platform-for-modelling-and-analysis-in-nanoinformatics
#3
Charalampos Chomenidis, Georgios Drakakis, Georgia Tsiliki, Evangelia Anagnostopoulou, Angelos Valsamis, Philip Doganis, Pantelis Sopasakis, Haralambos Sarimveis
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly infiltrating our lives due to their applications across multiple fields. However, ENM formulations may result in the modulation of pathways and mechanisms of toxic action that endanger human health and the environment. Alternative testing methods such as in silico approaches are becoming increasingly popular for assessing the safety of ENMs as they are cost- and time- effective. Additionally, computational approaches support the industrial safer-by-design challenge and the REACH legislation objective of reducing animal testing...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812847/evidence-informed-deliberative-processes-for-universal-health-coverage-broadening-the-scope-comment-on-priority-setting-for-universal-health-coverage-we-need-evidence-informed-deliberative-processes-not-just-more-evidence-on-cost-effectiveness
#4
Unni Gopinathan, Trygve Ottersen
Universal health coverage (UHC) is high on the global health agenda, and priority setting is fundamental to the fair and efficient pursuit of this goal. In a recent editorial, Rob Baltussen and colleagues point to the need to go beyond evidence on cost-effectiveness and call for evidence-informed deliberative processes when setting priorities for UHC. Such processes are crucial at every step on the path to UHC, and hopefully we will see intensified efforts to develop and implement processes of this kind in the coming years...
November 27, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812834/cost-effectiveness-of-rural-incentive-packages-for-graduating-medical-students-in-lao-pdr
#5
Eric Keuffell, Wanda Jaskiewicz, Khampasong Theppanya, Kate Tulenko
BACKGROUND: The dearth of health workers in rural settings in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) and other developing countries limits healthcare access and outcomes. In evaluating non-wage financial incentive packages as a potential policy option to attract health workers to rural settings, understanding the expected costs and effects of the various programs ex ante can assist policy-makers in selecting the optimal incentive package. METHODS: We use discrete choice experiments (DCEs), costing analyses and recent empirical results linking health worker density and health outcomes to estimate the future location decisions of physicians and determine the cost-effectiveness of 15 voluntary incentives packages for new physicians in Lao PDR...
October 29, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812814/a-comparison-of-iran-and-uk-eq-5d-3l-value-sets-based-on-visual-analogue-scale
#6
Aliasghar A Kiadaliri
BACKGROUND: Preference weights for EQ-5D-3L based on visual analogue scale (VAS) has recently been developed in Iran. The aim of the current study was to compare performance of this value set against the UK VAS-based value set. METHODS: The mean scores for all possible 243 health states were compared using Student t test. Absolute agreement and consistency were investigated using concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) and Bland-Altman plot. Health gains for 29 403 possible transitions between pairs of EQ-5D-3L health states were compared...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812807/health-technology-assessment-global-advocacy-and-local-realities-comment-on-priority-setting-for-universal-health-coverage-we-need-evidence-informed-deliberative-processes-not-just-more-evidence-on-cost-effectiveness
#7
Kalipso Chalkidou, Ryan Li, Anthony J Culyer, Amanda Glassman, Karen J Hofman, Yot Teerawattananon
Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) can help countries attain and sustain universal health coverage (UHC), as long as it is context-specific and considered within deliberative processes at the country level. Institutionalising robust deliberative processes requires significant time and resources, however, and countries often begin by demanding evidence (including local CEA evidence as well as evidence about local values), whilst striving to strengthen the governance structures and technical capacities with which to generate, consider and act on such evidence...
August 29, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812802/diplomacy-and-health-the-end-of-the-utilitarian-era
#8
Sebastian Kevany, Marcus Matthews
Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), as a system of allocative efficiency for global health programs, is an influential criterion for resource allocation in the context of diplomacy and inherent foreign policy decisions therein. This is because such programs have diplomatic benefits and costs that can be uploaded from the recipient and affect the broader foreign policy interests of the donor and the diplomacy landscape between both parties. These diplomatic implications are vital to the long-term success of both the immediate program and any subsequent programs; hence it is important to articulate them alongside program performance, in terms of how well their interrelated interventions were perceived by the communities served...
January 8, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812792/a-case-for-open-network-health-systems-systems-as-networks-in-public-mental-health
#9
Michael Grant Rhodes, Marten W de Vries
Increases in incidents involving so-called confused persons have brought attention to the potential costs of recent changes to public mental health (PMH) services in the Netherlands. Decentralized under the (Community) Participation Act (2014), local governments must find resources to compensate for reduced central funding to such services or "innovate." But innovation, even when pressure for change is intense, is difficult. This perspective paper describes experience during and after an investigation into a particularly violent incident and murder...
January 8, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812138/-telemetric-follow-up-of-implantable-electronic-cardiac-devices-optimisation-of-care-in-clinical-practice
#10
REVIEW
Ralph Bosch, Ingrid Mutscher
Remote follow-up of patients with implantable electronic cardiac devices (IECD) is a scientifically well-evaluated and technically mature method. Advantages over conventional follow-up include rapid detection of clinically relevant events (i. e. arrhythmias) and of technical problems. Additionally, telemetric follow-up of IECDs has a high degree of acceptance among both patients as well as health care professionals and carries the potential to reduce health care costs. The implementation of a remote follow-up programme is associated with organisational, infrastructural and legal aspects, which are reviewed...
August 15, 2017: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811705/colorectal-cancer-screening-an-updated-review-of-the-available-options
#11
REVIEW
Iyad A Issa, Malak Noureddine
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, colon cancer incidence and mortality is declining over the past decade owing to adoption of effective screening programs. Nevertheless, in some parts of the world, CRC incidence and mortality remain on the rise, likely due to factors including "westernized" diet, lifestyle, and lack of health-care infrastructure and resources. Participation and adherence to different national screening programs remain obstacles limiting the achievement of screening goals...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811694/estimation-of-upper-limit-of-normal-for-serum-alanine-transaminase-in-healthy-south-indian-population
#12
Pazhanivel Mohan, Varun Sundar, Emmanuel Bhaskar, Syluvai Anthony
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is the most common and cost effective screening test for asymptomatic liver disease. There is paucity of data on normal ALT among healthy individuals in India. An observational cross sectional study was conducted from January to July 2013 to estimate the upper limit of normal for ALT in healthy south Indian population. Adults undergoing voluntary or pre-employment health screening were included. Those with current and past alcoholism or smoking, acute illness or hospitalization during preceding 12 months, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory or over the counter medication use within a month, current or past intake of herbal medications, any chronic medical illness, abnormal body mass index (BMI), fatty liver in ultrasound, abnormality in haemoglobin, platelet count, blood sugar, creatinine, lipid profile and thyroid function test and positive serology (Hepatitis B, C or HIV) were excluded...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811394/overview-and-current-management-of-computerized-adaptive-testing-in-licensing-certification-examinations
#13
Dong Gi Seo
Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has been implemented in the high stakes examinations such as National Council Licensure Examination-Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN) in the United States since 1994. After that, The National Registry Emergency Medical Technician (NREMT) in the United States adopted a CAT to certify an Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) in 2007. It aimed at introducing CAT for the implementation in the medical health licensing examinations. Most CATs are based on the item response theory (IRT) which hypothesizes that both examinee and item has own characteristics that does not change...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811343/comparative-genomics-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-skin-and-soft-tissue-and-other-extraintestinal-infections
#14
Amit Ranjan, Sabiha Shaik, Nishant Nandanwar, Arif Hussain, Sumeet K Tiwari, Torsten Semmler, Savita Jadhav, Lothar H Wieler, Munirul Alam, Rita R Colwell, Niyaz Ahmed
Escherichia coli, an intestinal Gram-negative bacterium, has been shown to be associated with a variety of diseases in addition to intestinal infections, such as urinary tract infections (UTIs), meningitis in neonates, septicemia, skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), and colisepticemia. Thus, for nonintestinal infections, it is categorized as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). It is also an opportunistic pathogen, causing cross infections, notably as an agent of zoonotic diseases. However, comparative genomic data providing functional and genetic coordinates for ExPEC strains associated with these different types of infections have not proven conclusive...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811270/developing-and-evaluating-jiapp-acceptability-and-usability-of-a-smartphone-app-system-to-improve-self-management-in-young-people-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#15
Ran A Cai, Dominik Beste, Hema Chaplin, Socrates Varakliotis, Linda Suffield, Francesca Josephs, Debajit Sen, Lucy R Wedderburn, Yiannakis Ioannou, Stephen Hailes, Despina Eleftheriou
BACKGROUND: Flare-ups in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are characterized by joint pain and swelling and often accompanied with fatigue, negative emotions, and reduced participation in activities. To minimize the impact of JIA on the physical and psychosocial development and well-being of young people (YP), it is essential to regularly monitor disease activity and side effects, as well as to support self-management such as adherence to treatment plans and engagement in general health-promoting behaviors...
August 15, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811243/preserving-the-commons-addressing-the-sustainable-use-of-antibiotics-through-an-economic-lens
#16
REVIEW
C M Morel, S E Edwards, S Harbarth
BACKGROUND: As the growth of antibiotic resistance is in large part due to the widespread use of antibiotics, every effort must be made to ensure their sustainable use. AIMS: This narrative review aims to assess the potential contribution of health economic analyses to sustainable use efforts. SOURCES: The work draws on existing literature and experience with health economic tools. CONTENT: The study examines some of the weaknesses in the health, regulatory, and industry arenas that could be contributing to inappropriate or sub-optimal prescribing of antibiotics and describes how economic analysis could be utilized to improve current practice by comparing both costs and health outcomes in order to maximize societal wellbeing over the longer-term...
August 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811119/family-planning-funding-cuts-and-teen-childbearing
#17
Analisa Packham
Publicly funded family planning clinics provide low-cost and free contraception to nearly 1.5 million teens each year. In recent years, several states have considered legislation to defund family planning services, although little is known about how these cuts affect teen pregnancy. This paper fills this knowledge gap by exploiting a policy change in Texas that reduced funding for family planning services by 67% and resulted in over 80 clinic closures. I estimate the effects of the funding cuts on teen health outcomes using a difference-in-differences approach that compares the changes in teen birth rates in Texas counties that lost family planning funding to changes in counties outside of Texas with publicly funded clinics...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811028/advanced-nanotechnologies-in-avian-influenza-current-status-and-future-trends-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Amitava Moulick, Lukas Richtera, Vedran Milosavljevic, Natalia Cernei, Yazan Haddad, Ondrej Zitka, Pavel Kopel, Zbynek Heger, Vojtech Adam
In the last decade, the control of avian influenza virus has experienced many difficulties, which have caused major global agricultural problems that have also led to public health consequences. Conventional biochemical methods are not sufficient to detect and control agricultural pathogens in the field due to the growing demand for food and subsidiary products; thus, studies aiming to develop potent alternatives to conventional biochemical methods are urgently needed. In this review, emerging detection systems, their applicability to diagnostics, and their therapeutic possibilities in view of nanotechnology are discussed...
August 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810997/cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-a-saudi-arabian-soldier-stationed-in-the-united-states
#19
Kelly Laurent, Jason Susong, Eric Fillman, Simon Ritchie
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a common parasitic disease seen in many parts of the world, especially in areas where current U.S. and international forces are deployed. Approximately 350 million people are thought to be at risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with an annual incidence of 1.5 million cases. Over 90% of cutaneous infections with Leishmania occur in the Middle East, Brazil, and Peru. Outbreaks of CL may occur in military personnel deployed to endemic areas. Since the incubation period for symptomatic CL ranges from weeks to months, symptoms may not appear until well after returning to the United States...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810960/talk-to-the-hand-u-s-army-biophysical-testing
#20
William R Santee, Adam W Potter, Karl E Friedl
BACKGROUND: Many people are unaware of the science underlying the biophysical properties of Soldier clothing and personal protective equipment, yet there is a well-refined biomedical methodology initiated by Army physiologists in World War II. This involves a methodical progression of systematic material testing technologies, computer modeling, and human testing that enables more efficient development and rapid evaluation of new concepts for Soldier health and performance. Sophisticated manikins that sweat and move are a central part of this testing continuum...
July 2017: Military Medicine
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