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Camilla Kristoffersen, Rasmus B Jensen, Ekaterina Avershina, Dag Austbø, Anne-Helene Tauson, Knut Rudi
Knowledge on dynamic interactions in microbiota is pivotal for understanding the role of bacteria in the gut. We herein present comprehensive dynamic models of the horse cecal microbiota, which include short-chained fatty acids, carbohydrate metabolic networks, and taxonomy. Dynamic models were derived from time-series data in a crossover experiment in which four cecum-cannulated horses were fed a starch-rich diet of hay supplemented with barley (starch intake 2 g kg(-1) body weight per day) and a fiber-rich diet of only hay...
October 21, 2016: Microbes and Environments
Angela R Rourk, Frederick S Nolte, Christine M Litwin
OBJECTIVES: With the recent introduction of automated treponemal tests, a new reverse syphilis algorithm has been proposed and now used by many clinical laboratories. We analyzed the impact of instituting the reverse screening syphilis algorithm in a laboratory that serves a geographic area with a moderately high prevalence of syphilis infection. METHODS: Serum samples sent for syphilis testing were tested using a treponemal enzyme immunoassay (EIA) as the screening assay...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
Ennio Polilli, Federica Sozio, Paola Di Stefano, Antonina Sciacca, Tamara Ursini, Maurizio Paoloni, Jacopo Vecchiet, Dante Di Giammartino, Maria Pina Sciotti, Alessandro Grimaldi, Valerio Cortesi, Paolo Fazii, Elena Ricci, Claudio D'Amario, Giuseppe Ippolito, Lucio Pippa, Giustino Parruti
Undiagnosed cases of HIV infection in developed countries are estimated at 20-30% of individuals living with HIV. Web-based strategies may represent a new approach to easier, wider, and unrestricted access to early testing. The Abruzzo Region, Italy, developed a Web-based tool to recruit persons at high risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). At the Website , browsers found information on STIs (HIV, hepatitis B and C, and syphilis), a structured questionnaire called "risk calculator" to assess one's own risk behaviors and direct booking of their test at one of six sites throughout the region...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Miguel Pinto, Vítor Borges, Minia Antelo, Miguel Pinheiro, Alexandra Nunes, Jacinta Azevedo, Maria José Borrego, Joana Mendonça, Dina Carpinteiro, Luís Vieira, João Paulo Gomes
Insights into the genomic adaptive traits of Treponema pallidum, the causative bacterium of syphilis, have long been hampered due to the absence of in vitro culture models and the constraints associated with its propagation in rabbits. Here, we have bypassed the culture bottleneck by means of a targeted strategy never applied to uncultivable bacterial human pathogens to directly capture whole-genome T. pallidum data in the context of human infection. This strategy has unveiled a scenario of discreet T. pallidum interstrain single-nucleotide-polymorphism-based microevolution, contrasting with a rampant within-patient genetic heterogeneity mainly targeting multiple phase-variable loci and a major antigen-coding gene (tprK)...
October 17, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Li-Wan Lee, Ya-Ling Lee, Sheng-Huang Hsiao, Hung-Pin Lin
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Bacteria in the tooth root canal may cause apical periodontitis. This study examined the bacterial species present in the apical root canal of teeth with apical periodontitis. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed to evaluate whether these identified bacterial species were susceptible to specific kinds of antibiotics. METHODS: Selective media plating and biochemical tests were used first to detect the bacterial species in samples taken from the apical portion of root canals of 62 teeth with apical periodontitis...
October 10, 2016: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Pauline M Lang, Rogério C Jacinto, Tatiane S Dal Pizzol, Maria Beatriz C Ferreira, Francisco Montagner
Infected root canal or acute apical abscess exudates can harbour several species, including Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Streptococcus, Treponema, Olsenella and not-yet cultivable species. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess resistance rates to antimicrobial agents in clinical studies that isolated bacteria from acute endodontic infections. Electronic databases and the grey literature were searched up to May 2015. Clinical studies in humans evaluating the antimicrobial resistance of primary acute endodontic infection isolates were included...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Camila Faria Carrada, Flávia Almeida Ribeiro Scalioni, Dionéia Evangelista Cesar, Karina Lopes Devito, Luiz Cláudio Ribeiro, Rosangela Almeida Ribeiro
OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare salivary periodontopathic bacteria between groups of Down syndrome and non-Down syndrome children and adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included a sample of 30 Down syndrome children and adolescents (G-DS) and 30 age- and sex-matched non-Down syndrome subjects (G-ND). Clinical examination determined the gingival bleeding index (GBI) and plaque index. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from all participants...
2016: PloS One
Rajeev K Mehlotra, Noemi B Hall, Barne Willie, Catherine M Stein, Aaron Weinberg, Peter A Zimmerman, Lance T Vernon
Polymorphisms in toll-like receptor (TLR) and β-defensin (DEFB) genes have been recognized as potential genetic factors that can influence susceptibility to and severity of periodontal diseases (PD). However, data regarding associations between these polymorphisms and PD are still scarce in North American populations, and are not available in HIV+ North American populations. In this exploratory study, we analyzed samples from HIV+ adults (n = 115), who received primary HIV care at 3 local outpatient HIV clinics and were monitored for PD status...
2016: PloS One
Justin D Radolf, Ranjit K Deka, Arvind Anand, David Šmajs, Michael V Norgard, X Frank Yang
The past two decades have seen a worldwide resurgence in infections caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the syphilis spirochete. The well-recognized capacity of the syphilis spirochete for early dissemination and immune evasion has earned it the designation 'the stealth pathogen'. Despite the many hurdles to studying syphilis pathogenesis, most notably the inability to culture and to genetically manipulate T. pallidum, in recent years, considerable progress has been made in elucidating the structural, physiological, and regulatory facets of T...
October 10, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Shuguo Yang, Danmei Jiao, Changjun Liu, Ming Lv, Shan Li, Zongyun Chen, Yao Deng, Yanqing Zhao, Jian Li
BACKGROUND: Ordinary screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) among blood donors is essential for blood transfusion. Although there is several TTIs studies focus on human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, and Treponema pallidum infections in China, it is no data to illustrate any firm conclusion from Shiyan City, Central China. It aims to verify the seroprevalence of TTIs among blood donors at Shiyan. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of blood donors' information was conducted for the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T...
October 1, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Zhou Jun, Chen Zhen, Zhang QuiuLi, An YuanQi, Verónica Vocero Casado, Yuan Fan
Currently, conventional enzyme immunoassays which use manual gold, and colloidal tests (GICT) are used as a screening tool to detect Treponema pallidum (syphilis), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV 1/2) in patients undergoing surgery. The present observational, cross-sectional study compared the sensitivity, specificity and workflow characteristics of the conventional algorithm using manual GICT with a newly proposed algorithm that uses automated BIO-FLASH® technology as a screening tool in patients undergoing gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Ping Sheng, Jiangli Huang, Zhihong Zhang, Dongsheng Wang, Xiaojuan Tian, Jiannan Ding
Degradation of rice straw by cooperative microbial activities is at present the most attractive alternative to fuels and provides a basis for biomass conversion. The use of microbial consortia in the biodegradation of lignocelluloses could reduce problems such as incomplete synergistic enzymes, end-product inhibition, and so on. In this study, a cellulolytic microbial consortium was enriched from the hindgut of Holotrichia parallela larvae via continuous subcultivation (20 subcultures in total) under static conditions...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hye-Kyoung Jun, Young-Jung Jung, Bong-Kyu Choi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze whether periodontopathogens induced inflammatory cell death and the release of diverse endogenous danger molecules in THP-1-derived macrophages. METHODS: The macrophages were treated with Treponema denticola, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia. Activation of caspase-1 and caspase-4 was detected by Western blotting. Cell death of bacteria-stimulated macrophages was examined using a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and propidium iodide (PI)/annexin V (AV) staining...
September 26, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
Kurni Kurniyati, John F Kelly, Evgeny Vinogradov, Anna Robotham, Youbing Tu, Juyu Wang, Jun Liu, Susan M Logan, Chunhao Li
While protein glycosylation has been reported in several spirochetes including the syphilis bacterium Treponema pallidum and Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi, the pertinent glycan structures and their roles remain uncharacterized. Herein, we report a novel glycan with an unusual chemical composition and structure in the oral spirochete Treponema denticola, a keystone pathogen of periodontitis. The identified glycan of mass 450.2 Da is composed of a monoacetylated nonulosonic acid (Non) with a novel extended N7 acyl modification, a 2-methoxy-4,5,6-trihydroxy-hexanoyl residue in which the Non has a pseudaminic acid configuration (L-glycero-L-manno) and is β-linked to serine or threonine residues...
October 1, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Sory J Ruiz, Gary W Procop
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Fan Wu, Jing-Ping Zhang, Qian-Qiu Wang
Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (T. pallidum), the pathogen of syphilis, can invade the central nervous system (CNS) and causes a series of severe diseases collectively termed neurosyphilis (NS).(1) Recently, there are increasing reports of NS cases, especially in HIV-infected syphilis patients.(2,3) Meanwhile, the misdiagnosis rate of NS is high, that of neurosyphilitic ischemic stroke was up to 80.95%.(4) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
September 29, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Hirofumi Watanabe, Shin Goto, Hiroshi Mori, Koichi Higashi, Kazuyoshi Hosomichi, Naotaka Aizawa, Nao Takahashi, Masafumi Tsuchida, Yusuke Suzuki, Takuji Yamada, Arata Horii, Ituro Inoue, Ken Kurokawa, Ichiei Narita
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most prevalent primary chronic glomerular disease, in which the mucosal immune response elicited particularly in the tonsils or intestine has been estimated to be involved in the development of the disease. To explore the relationship between IgAN and bacterial flora in the tonsils, we conducted a comprehensive microbiome analysis. METHODS: We enrolled 48 IgAN patients, 21 recurrent tonsillitis (RT) patients without urine abnormalities and 30 children with tonsillar hyperplasia (TH) who had undergone tonsillectomy previously...
September 28, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Michelle L Parker, Simon Houston, Helena Pětrošová, Karen V Lithgow, Rebecca Hof, Charmaine Wetherell, Wei-Chien Kao, Yi-Pin Lin, Tara J Moriarty, Rhodaba Ebady, Caroline E Cameron, Martin J Boulanger
Syphilis is a chronic disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum. Treponema pallidum disseminates widely throughout the host and extravasates from the vasculature, a process that is at least partially dependent upon the ability of T. pallidum to interact with host extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Defining the molecular basis for the interaction between T. pallidum and the host is complicated by the intractability of T. pallidum to in vitro culturing and genetic manipulation. Correspondingly, few T...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Michael R Miller, Kelly A Miller, Jiang Bian, Milinda E James, Sheng Zhang, Michael J Lynch, Patrick S Callery, Justin M Hettick, Andrew Cockburn, Jun Liu, Chunhao Li, Brian R Crane, Nyles W Charon
Spirochaetes are bacteria responsible for several serious diseases, including Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), syphilis (Treponema pallidum) and leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans), and contribute to periodontal diseases (Treponema denticola)(1). These spirochaetes employ an unusual form of flagella-based motility necessary for pathogenicity; indeed, spirochaete flagella (periplasmic flagella) reside and rotate within the periplasmic space(2-11). The universal joint or hook that links the rotary motor to the filament is composed of ∼120-130 FlgE proteins, which in spirochaetes form an unusually stable, high-molecular-weight complex(9,12-17)...
2016: Nature Microbiology
LiJuan Su, LeLe Yang, Shi Huang, XiaoQuan Su, Yan Li, FengQin Wang, EnTao Wang, Ning Kang, Jian Xu, AnDong Song
Aiming at learning the association between the gut microbiota and termites with different diet habits and phylogenetic positions, the gut bacteria of three populations for each of the two higher termites (wood-feeding Mironasutitermes shangchengensis and fungus-feeding Odontotermes formosanus) and two wood-feeding lower termites (Tsaitermes ampliceps and Reticulitermes flaviceps) were analyzed by high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of 16S V1-V3 amplicons. As results, 132 bacterial genera and some unidentified operational taxonomic units within 29 phyla in the gut bacteria were detected, with Spirochaetes (11-55%), Firmicutes (7-18%), Bacteroidetes (7-31%), and Proteobacteria (8-14%) as the main phyla, and Treponema, TG5, Dysgonomonas, Tannerella, za29, Lactococcus, Pseudomonas, and SJA-88 as the common genera in all the four termites...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
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