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Faisal Akhtar, Sabah Rehman
Congenital syphilis is one of the preventable diseases caused by the gram-negative bacteria Treponema pallidum; yet, it imposes a serious global health and economic burden, with more than half of the cases resulting in serious adverse outcomes, including infant mortality. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of syphilis is estimated at 3.6 million adjusted life years (DALYs) and around $309 million in medical costs. In 2006, an estimated 9.7 million children of age less than five years died in developing countries; almost four million were neonatal deaths...
January 16, 2018: Curēus
Paula Tiittala, Matti Ristola, Kirsi Liitsola, Jukka Ollgren, Päivikki Koponen, Heljä-Marja Surcel, Eija Hiltunen-Back, Irja Davidkin, Pia Kivelä
BACKGROUND: Migrants are considered a key population at risk for sexually transmitted and blood-borne diseases in Europe. Prevalence data to support the design of infectious diseases screening protocols are scarce. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C, human immunodefiency virus (HIV) infection and syphilis in specific migrant groups in Finland and to assess risk factors for missed diagnosis. METHODS: A random sample of 3000 Kurdish, Russian, or Somali origin migrants in Finland was invited to a migrant population-based health interview and examination survey during 2010-2012...
March 20, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Tamsin Lyons, Anita Bielak, Evelyn Doyle, Björn Kuhla
Considerable interest exists both from an environmental and economic perspective in reducing methane emissions from agriculture. In ruminants, CH4 is produced by a complex community of microorganisms that is established in early life but can be influenced by external factors such as feed. Although CH4 emissions were thought to be constant once an animal reached maturity, recent studies have shown that CH4 yield significantly increases from early to late lactation in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that increases in CH4 yield over the lactation cycle are related to changes in rumen microbial community structure...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Fernando Oliveira Costa, Thaís Riberal Vieira, Sheila Cavalca Cortelli, Luís Otávio Miranda Cota, José Eustáquio Costa, Maria Cássia Ferreira Aguiar, José Roberto Cortelli
BACKGROUND: It is well established that regular compliance during periodontal maintenance therapy (PMT) maintains the stability of periodontal clinical parameters obtained after active periodontal therapy (APT). However, compliance during PMT has not yet been related to subgingival bacterial levels. Thus, this study followed individuals in PMT over 6 years and longitudinally evaluated the effects of compliance on periodontitis-associated bacterial levels and its relation to periodontal status...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Alessandro Cucchi, Federica Molè, Lucia Rinaldi, Claudio Marchetti, Giuseppe Corinaldesi
PURPOSE: The primary prevention of peri-implantitis onset is a key factor in long-term implant success, and the evaluation of the antibacterial efficacy of different implant surfaces is fundamental in this way. The aim of this study was to assess if implants with collars coated with anatase were less subjected to bacterial colonization than implants with noncoated collars, and to investigate how implant bacterial colonization varies over time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients in need of implant-supported rehabilitation were selected to have two adjacent implants placed, one with an anatase-coated collar and one with the collar uncoated...
March 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Caroline E Cameron
Syphilis, caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, continues to be a prevalent disease in low- and middle-income countries, and has re-emerged in key populations, including men who have sex with men, in high-income nations. The rising number of cases shows syphilis elimination will require augmentation of public health screening and treatment campaigns with syphilis vaccine development and implementation initiatives. Optimal vaccine candidates, deciphered from careful consideration of the pathogenic mechanisms employed by T...
March 9, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
U Kandalam, N Ledra, H Laubach, K V Venkatachalam
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pathogenic infections caused by Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia can result in the production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC's) and other toxic compounds from methionine catabolism that can lead to halitosis and periodontitis. Our aim is to block the activity of methionine gammalyase-deaminase (Mgld) of methionine catabolism to prevent halitosis/periodontitis. DESIGNS: Cloned, expressed, Mgld protein was tested for purity by SDS-PAGE and western blotting...
March 1, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Daniel Belstrøm, Maria Anastasia Grande, Maria Lynn Sembler-Møller, Nikolai Kirkby, Sean L Cotton, Bruce J Paster, Palle Holmstrup
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare subgingival and salivary microbiotas before and after periodontal treatment to learn if any changes of the subgingival microbiota were reflected in saliva. We tested the hypothesis that salivary levels of specific periopathogens correlate with corresponding subgingival levels before and after periodontal treatment. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with generalized chronic periodontitis completed the study...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Tiago F Moreira, Elias J Facury Filho, Antônio U Carvalho, Mikael L Strube, Martin W Nielsen, Kirstine Klitgaard, Tim K Jensen
Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the main causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide, and it is frequently reported in high-yielding, free stall dairy herds from regions with a temperate climate. However, DD is also observed with high prevalence in grazing cattle with a low milk yield in tropical regions. To clarify whether these differences have an impact on the etiology of the disease, we studied DD lesions from all year round grazing cattle of mixed breed in Brazil using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridization...
2018: PloS One
Anteneh Amsalu, Getachew Ferede, Demissie Assegu
BACKGROUND: Despite availability of effective treatment and the implementation of focused antenatal care (ANC), still the prevalence of syphilis persists in Ethiopia. Yet, data is not found in southern Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and associated factors of syphilis among pregnant women in Yiregalem Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women from October 2015 to August 2016...
March 6, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Lisa Becherer, Mohammed Bakheit, Sieghard Frischmann, Silvina Stinco, Nadine Borst, Roland Zengerle, Felix von Stetten
A variety of real-time detection techniques for LAMP based on the change in fluorescence intensity during DNA amplification enable simultaneous detection of multiple targets. However these techniques depend on fluorogenic probes containing target-specific sequences. That complicates the adaption to different targets leading to time-consuming assay optimization. Here, we present the first universal real-time detection technique for multiplex LAMP. The novel approach allows simple assay design and is easy to implement for various targets...
March 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Margarita N German, Kristina A Matkowskyj, Robert J Hoffman, Parul D Agarwal
While the incidence of syphilis has been persistently on the rise in the United States, hepatitis as a complication of early syphilis is relatively uncommon. We present a case of a 51-year-old homosexual, HIV-positive male who presented with acute cholestatic hepatitis with a predominantly elevated alkaline phosphatase. After lab studies and imaging were unrevealing, a liver biopsy was performed that showed expanded portal tracts with a predominantly lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and prominent bile ductular proliferation with periductal neutrophils...
March 2, 2018: Human Pathology
Boško Toljić, Alexander M Trbovich, Sanja Matić Petrović, Ibrahim Yousif Kannosh, Gordana Dragović, Djordje Jevtović, Silvio R De Luka, Jasna L Ristić-Djurović, Jelena Milašin
The importance of oral microflora composition in HIV-infected patients is well recognized. However, no studies so far have dealt with age-related changes in periodontal pathogens occurrence in HIV+ individuals. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare temporal changes of bacteria frequency in younger (≤35 years) and older (≥50 years) HIV-infected and non-infected individuals. Bacterial DNA was isolated from buccal swabs of 30 younger and 30 older subjects in both HIV+ and HIV- groups. By means of PCR the following microorganisms were detected: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Eikenella corrodens, Peptostreptococcus micros, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola...
January 2018: New Microbiologica
Yukiko Komeno, Yasunori Ota, Tomohiko Koibuchi, Yoichi Imai, Kuniko Iihara, Tomiko Ryu
BACKGROUND Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the pathogen Treponema pallidum. Prevalence continues to rise, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM). Due to changes in patterns of sexual activity, manifestations of the disease are highly variable. CASE REPORT A 27-year-old male visited the hospital for a low-grade fever and tender 5-cm mass in the right side of his neck. His right tonsil was swollen and covered with a white coating. Levofloxacin was prescribed, but ineffective. The patient's levels of liver function enzymes increased gradually...
March 4, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Brittney K Tegels, Lee D Oliver, Daniel P Miller, Richard T Marconi
Treponema denticola is a proteolytic-anaerobic spirochete whose abundance in the subgingival crevice correlates with periodontal disease severity. Treponema denticola evades serum-mediated killing through the binding of factor H (FH), a negative regulator of the complement system. The T. denticola FH receptor has been identified as FhbB, an 11.4 kDa immunodominant lipoprotein. Three distinct subfamilies of FhbB proteins have been delineated and designated as FhbB1, FhbB2 and FhbB3. In this study we demonstrate that all FhbB variants bind human plasminogen (Plg)...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
Wenzhen Lin, Wenxin Jiang, Xuchen Hu, Li Gao, Dongmei Ai, Hongfei Pan, Chenguang Niu, Keyong Yuan, Xuedong Zhou, Changen Xu, Zhengwei Huang
Pregnancy is a physiological process with pronounced hormonal fluctuations in females, and relatively little is known regarding how pregnancy influences the ecological shifts of supragingival microbiota. In this study, supragingival plaques and salivary hormones were collected from 11 pregnant women during pregnancy (P1, ≤14 weeks; P2, 20-25 weeks; P3, 33-37 weeks) and the postpartum period (P4, 6 weeks after childbirth). Seven non-pregnant volunteers were sampled at the same time intervals. The microbial genetic repertoire was obtained by 16S rDNA sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Zhaohan Zhang, Peng Gao, Jiaqi Cheng, Guohong Liu, Xiaoqi Zhang, Yujie Feng
Packing nano mediators into anaerobic system is an attractive technology to strengthen refractory pollutant removal and methane production from wastewater, but is limited by the drawbacks such as easy loss and poor mass transfer. In this study, GAC/NZVI mediator was added into EGSB reactor to investigate the enhancement effects and mechanism for anaerobic digestion of tetracycline wastewater and its impacts on microbial community structure. The results indicated that GAC/NZVI could enhance COD and TOC removal by 12...
February 15, 2018: Water Research
Li-Rong Lin, Yao Xiao, Wei Liu, Yu-Yan Chen, Xiao-Zhen Zhu, Zheng-Xiang Gao, Kun Gao, Man-Li Tong, Hui-Lin Zhang, Shu-Lian Li, Hui-Ling Lin, Wen-Dong Li, Xian-Ming Liang, Yong Lin, Li-Li Liu, Tian-Ci Yang
BACKGROUND: The inflammasome responses in Treponema pallidum infection have been poorly understood to date. This study aimed to investigate the expression of the nucleotide-binding leucine-rich receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in the development of tissue inflammation in rabbits infected with T. pallidum. METHODS: Forty-five rabbits were randomly assigned to a blank group or an infection group, and the latter was divided into no benzathine penicillin G (BPG) and BPG treatment subgroups...
March 1, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Zhenyan Wang, Li Liu, Yin-Zhong Shen, Ren-Fang Zhang, Tang-Kai Qi, Yang Tang, Wei Song, Jun Chen, Hongzhou Lu
Neurosyphilis (NS) is an important component of central nervous system diseases among HIV-infected patients. However, its characteristics are not very clear. A retrospective analysis of clinical and laboratory findings was performed in 92 NS patients with HIV infection from a tertiary hospital in Shanghai, China. The patients had a median age of 38 years and a median CD4 count of 198 cells/μL. In all, 44.6% (41/92) were diagnosed as asymptomatic NS (ANS), 23.9% (22/92) as syphilitic meningitis, 17.4% (16/92) as cerebrovascular NS, and 14...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Celia Bórquez, Ismelda Lobato, Paola Gazmuri, Romina Hurtado, Valerie Llanqui, Mauricio Vivanco, Teresa Reyes, Hilda Villanueva, Katherine Salgado, M Angélica Martínez, Juan Vega
BACKGROUND: The risk groups for sexual transmitted diseases (STDs) are sex workers, drug addicts, young people in early sexual initiation, and population in prison. AIM: To determine the prevalence of HIV, Treponema pallidum and hepatitis B Virus (HBV) in male inmates at the Preventive Detention Center (CDP) of Arica. METHODS: The study was conducted in 140 inmates, with informed consent. Epidemiological survey and blood sampling was conducted...
October 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
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