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Wei-Hsin Yuan, Anna Fen-Yau Li, Yi-Hong Chou, Hui-Chen Hsu, Ying-Yuan Chen
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine clinical and ultrasonographic characteristics of male breast tumors. METHODS: The medical records of male patients with breast lesions were retrieved from an electronic medical record database and a pathology database and retrospectively reviewed. A total of 112 men (125 breast masses) with preoperative breast ultrasonography (US) were included (median age, 59.50 years; age range, 15-96 years). Data extracted included patient age, if the lesions were bilateral, palpable, and tender, and the presence of nipple discharge...
2018: PloS One
Asa Auta, Brian O Ogbonna, Emmanuel O Adewuyi, Davies Adeloye, Barry Strickland-Hodge
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence and determine the factors associated with the use of antibiotics in the management of non-bloody diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of demographic and health survey data sets from 30 countries in SSA. Pooled prevalence estimates were calculated using random effects model. Χ2 tests were employed to determine the factors associated with the antibiotic use...
March 19, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Firdausi Qadri, Mohammad Ali, Julia Lynch, Fahima Chowdhury, Ashraful Islam Khan, Thomas F Wierzba, Jean-Louis Excler, Amit Saha, Md Taufiqul Islam, Yasmin A Begum, Taufiqur R Bhuiyan, Farhana Khanam, Mohiul I Chowdhury, Iqbal Ansary Khan, Alamgir Kabir, Baizid Khoorshid Riaz, Afroza Akter, Arifuzzaman Khan, Muhammad Asaduzzaman, Deok Ryun Kim, Ashraf U Siddik, Nirod C Saha, Alejandro Cravioto, Ajit P Singh, John D Clemens
BACKGROUND: A single-dose regimen of inactivated whole-cell oral cholera vaccine (OCV) is attractive because it reduces logistical challenges for vaccination and could enable more people to be vaccinated. Previously, we reported the efficacy of a single dose of an OCV vaccine during the 6 months following dosing. Herein, we report the results of 2 years of follow-up. METHODS: In this placebo-controlled, double-blind trial done in Dhaka, Bangladesh, individuals aged 1 year or older with no history of receipt of OCV were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of inactivated OCV or oral placebo...
March 14, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Satoru Kondo, Toshimitsu Araki, Yoshiki Okita, Akira Yamamoto, Yasuhiko Hamada, Masaki Katsurahara, Noriyuki Horiki, Misaki Nakamura, Takahiro Shimoyama, Takayuki Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki Takei, Masato Kusunoki
Orally administered Qing-dai, called indigo naturalis in Latin, is reportedly useful for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. We herein describe two patients with ulcerative colitis who developed colitis with wall thickening and edematous changes during oral administration of the powdered form of Qing-dai. In Case 1, a 35-year-old man developed colitis similar to ischemic colitis with bloody stool that recurred each time he ingested Qing-dai. He had no signs of recurrence upon withdrawal of Qing-dai. In Case 2, a 43-year-old woman underwent ileocecal resection for treatment of an intussusception 2 months after beginning oral administration of Qing-dai...
March 16, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Vanessa A Thomas, Heather L Crouse, Kristy O Murray, Deborah C Hsu, Elizabeth A Camp, Andrea T Cruz
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to perform a needs assessment of pediatric (PEM) and general emergency medicine (EM) provider knowledge, comfort, and current practice patterns in the evaluation of pediatric tropical infectious diseases. METHODS: An online survey was developed based on educational priorities identified by an expert panel via modified Delphi methodology. The survey included assessment of providers' typical evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of tropical diseases and was distributed to PEM and EM providers in 2 large professional organizations...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Prabhleen Chahal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Ji Young Bang, Udayakumar Navaneethan, Muhammad K Hasan, Robert Hawes, Shyam Varadarajulu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Outcomes of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) evaluation vary with technique, needles, and methods of specimen evaluation. We performed a direct comparison of diagnostic yields of EUS-FNA samples collected using different gauge needles (22- vs 25-gauge), with or without suction. METHODS: We performed a randomized controlled study of 352 patients with suspected pancreatic masses, referred for EUS-FNA at a tertiary referral center...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Kinnosuke Yahiro, Sayaka Nagasawa, Kimitoshi Ichimura, Hiroki Takeuchi, Kohei Ogura, Hiroyasu Tsutsuki, Takeshi Shimizu, Sunao Iyoda, Makoto Ohnishi, Hirotaro Iwase, Joel Moss, Masatoshi Noda
Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) are responsible for a worldwide foodborne disease, which is characterized by severe bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is a novel AB5 toxin, which is produced by Locus for Enterocyte Effacement (LEE)-negative STEC. Cleavage of the BiP protein by SubAB induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, followed by induction of cytotoxicity in vitro or lethal severe hemorrhagic inflammation in mice. Here we found that steroids and diacylglycerol (DAG) analogues (e...
December 2018: Cell Death Discovery
Guangming Wang, Jinlu Yu
INTRODUCTION: Chronic subdural hematoma(CSDH) can be treated by a relatively simple burr hole surgery. Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) occurring after surgery for CSDH has been reported as a rare but severe complication. CASE REPORT: An 88-year-old female complained of progressive headache and dizziness for one month. A right fronto-temporo-parietal CSDH with a shift in the midline structures and lateral ventricle compression was shown by computed tomography (CT) scans...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
David L Diehl, Shaffer R S Mok, Harshit S Khara, Amitpal S Johal, H Lester Kirchner, Fan Lin
Background and study aims:  Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) or biopsy (FNB) is an indispensable diagnostic tool. Improvements in needling technique have led to increasing tissue yields. Blood clogging of the needle can cause difficulties with specimen handling and stylet passage, which improves when the needle is primed with heparin before use. However, the effect of heparin on cytology, histology or immunochemistry (IHC) of FNA and FNB specimens is unknown...
March 2018: Endoscopy International Open
Hiroto Inoue, Yuto Sato, Shuuhei Shintani, Hiroki Tanabe, Hiromichi Bamba, Yasunobu Komai, Tomoaki Nakamura, Takayuki Imai, Akira Andou
We report the case of a 61-year-old man who experienced severe adverse effects of capecitabine because of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency. In 2016, he visited our hospital for adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction and was prescribed neoadjuvant chemotherapy with capecitabine, cisplatin, and trastuzumab. On day 14 of chemotherapy, he developed severe diarrhea, canker sores, enterocolitis, febrile neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. He was then urgently hospitalized, and anticancer treatment was stopped...
2018: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
Yushiro Endo, Tomohiro Koga, Midori Ishida, Yuya Fujita, Sosuke Tsuji, Ayuko Takatani, Toshimasa Shimizu, Remi Sumiyoshi, Takashi Igawa, Masataka Umeda, Shoichi Fukui, Ayako Nishino, Shin-Ya Kawashiri, Naoki Iwamoto, Kunihiro Ichinose, Mami Tamai, Hideki Nakamura, Tomoki Origuchi, Atsushi Kawakami
A 72-year-old Japanese woman diagnosed with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis was admitted to our hospital with hearing loss, temporal pain, and sudden blindness. We finally diagnosed recurrent granulomatosis with polyangiitis and initiated methyl-prednisolone pulse therapy (1,000 mg) followed by prednisolone (30 mg/day) and rituximab (RTX). After the third RTX administration, she developed bloody stools along with acute thrombocytopenia and low complement levels. We diagnosed rituximab-induced acute thrombocytopenia (RIAT), and her platelet counts spontaneously recovered...
March 9, 2018: Internal Medicine
Michael Auld, Andrew Keller
A 77-year-old man presented with watery, bloody diarrhoea, symptomatic anaemia and signs of sepsis. He was well known to our unit with a history of extensive low-grade urothelial carcinoma involving a solitary kidney. CT performed on admission demonstrated a new finding of renocolic fistula. Due to his multiple medical and surgical comorbidities conservative management was elected. He passed away after 1 year of follow-up.
March 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Sareh Shahmohammadi, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Abootorab Shahmohammadi, Rozita Doosti, Ali Zare-Mirzaie, Abdorreza Naser Moghadasi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most important demyelinating diseases that affects the central nervous system. Its treatment often involves a long-term disease modifying therapy. According to some studies, the prevalence of autoimmune disorders, such as autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and ulcerative colitis (UC) is higher in MS patients than in the normal population. There are also few studies that have reported the onset of UC after rituximab therapy. The present study presents a report of a 31-years old female patient suffering from aggressive multiple sclerosis, which developed into autoimmune hepatitis during the MS therapy...
March 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Bin Yang, Shaomeng Wang, Jianxiao Huang, Zhiqiu Yin, Lingyan Jiang, Wenqi Hou, Xiaomin Li, Lu Feng
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major human enteric pathogen capable of causing large outbreaks of severe infections that induce bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Its genome contains 177 unique O islands (OIs) including those carrying the main virulence elements, Shiga toxin-converting phages (OI-45 and OI-93) and locus for enterocyte effacement (OI-148). However, many of these islands harbor only genes of unknown function. Here, we demonstrate that OI-29 encodes a newly discovered transcriptional activator, Z0639 (named GmrA), that is required for motility and flagellar synthesis in O157:H7...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Cheng-Ju Kuo, Sin-Tian Wang, Chia-Mei Lin, Hao-Chieh Chiu, Cheng-Rung Huang, Der-Yen Lee, Geen-Dong Chang, Ting-Chen Chou, Jenn-Wei Chen, Chang-Shi Chen
The enteric pathogen enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is responsible for outbreaks of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) worldwide. Several molecular mechanisms have been described for the pathogenicity of EHEC; however, the role of bacterial metabolism in the virulence of EHEC during infection in vivo remains unclear. Here we show that aerobic metabolism plays an important role in the regulation of EHEC virulence in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our functional genomic analyses showed that disruption of the genes encoding the succinate dehydrogenase complex (Sdh) of EHEC, including the sdhA gene, attenuated its toxicity toward C...
March 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Michelle Go, J Niklas Ulrich, David Fleischman
Purpose: To report a rare complication of non-valved glaucoma drainage device surgery. Observations: An 85-year-old pseudophakic white male presented with painless vision loss and bloody tears. He was 5 weeks removed from uncomplicated non-valved glaucoma drainage device (Baerveldt 101-350, [AMO, Santa Clara, CA]). There was serosanguinous discharge without apparent source and a 25% layering hyphema in the anterior chamber. The tube was unobstructed in the anterior chamber and not abutting the iris...
April 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Tomasy Sarosiek, Małgorzata Stelmaszuk
Small intestine tumors are rarely diagnosed as they constitute only 0.6% of all malignant tumors, including about 1-3% of malignant neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. They also advocate for 0.2% of deaths caused by malignant tumors. Factors that increase the risk of disease include Crohn's disease, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), Lynch syndrome (HNPCC - hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer), Peuz-Jeghers syndrome, celiac disease and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Diagnosis of small intestinal tumors is difficult because the symptoms reported by patients are not characteristic...
February 23, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Hiromu Morikubo, Daisuke Saito, Miki Miura, Taro Sato, Shintaro Minowa, Osamu Ikezaki, Tatsuya Mitsui, Akihito Sakuraba, Mari Hayashida, Masachika Fujiwara, Kengo Tokunaga, Junji Shibahara, Hideaki Mori, Tadahiko Masaki, Shin Kawai, Tadakazu Hisamatsu
We herein report a case of simultaneous amebic colitis and cytomegalovirus (CMV) enteritis in an HIV-infected patient. The patient was a 40-year-old man who developed bloody stool and diarrhea. We diagnosed him with severe amebic colitis associated with HIV infection and administered metronidazole. While his symptoms began to improve, the patient then developed CMV enteritis. We administered ganciclovir, and his symptoms improved. However, despite control of the infection, stenosis of the descending colon caused intestinal obstruction, and colostomy was performed...
February 28, 2018: Internal Medicine
Adriana Albanese, Flavia Sacerdoti, E Abril Seyahian, Maria Marta Amaral, Gabriela Fiorentino, Romina Fernandez Brando, Daniel A Vilte, Elsa C Mercado, Marina S Palermo, Angel Cataldi, Elsa Zotta, Cristina Ibarra
E. coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen responsible for bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The objective of the present work was to evaluate the ability of colostral IgG obtained from Stx2-immunized cows to prevent against E. coli O157:H7 infection and Stx2 cytotoxicity. Hyperimmune colostrum (HC) was obtained from cows intramuscularly immunized with inactivated Stx2 or vehicle for controls. Colostral IgG was purified by affinity chromatography. Specific IgG antibodies against Stx2 and bovine lactoferrin (bLF) levels in HC and the corresponding IgG (HC-IgG/bLF) were determined by ELISA...
February 23, 2018: Vaccine
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