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Monica D Prakash, Sarah Miller, Sarron Randall-Demllo, Kulmira Nurgali
Cancer development is often associated with chronic inflammation. To date, research into inflammation-induced cancer has largely focused on chemokines, cytokines, and their downstream targets. These inflammatory mediators may promote tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and facilitate angiogenesis. However, the exact mechanisms by which inflammation promotes neoplasia remain unclear. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by recurrent, idiopathic intestinal inflammation, the complications of which are potentially fatal...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
So Ra Kwon, Sang Ook Ha, Young Taeck Oh, You Dong Sohn
The typical presentation of intussusception includes intermittent severe abdominal pain, vomiting, rectal bleeding, and the presence of an abdominal mass. We present a case of intussusception after abdominal blunt trauma along with a literature review. A 4-year-old girl was admitted to the emergency department after a bicycle accident. She complained of progressively worsening abdominal pain, but there was no vomiting, fever, bloody stool, or abdominal mass. She was finally diagnosed with traumatic intussusception by ultrasonography and treated with air reduction...
March 2016: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Li-Ping Xia, Xu Chen, Yi Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical effect of high-dose gamma globulin pulse therapy for abdominal Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP). METHODS: Thirty-three children with abdominal HSP were randomly assigned to dexamethasone group (15 children) and gamma globulin group (18 children). The children in the dexamethasone group were treated with dexamethasone and conventional treatment, and those in the gamma globulin group were treated with high-dose gamma globulin pulse therapy in addition to the conventional treatment...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Ingrid Palma-Martínez, Andrea Guerrero-Mandujano, Manuel J Ruiz-Ruiz, Cecilia Hernández-Cortez, José Molina-López, Virgilio Bocanegra-García, Graciela Castro-Escarpulli
Shiga-like toxins (Stx) represent a group of bacterial toxins involved in human and animal diseases. Stx is produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae type 1, Citrobacter freundii, and Aeromonas spp.; Stx is an important cause of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The aim of this study was to identify the stx1/stx2 genes in clinical strains and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Aeromonas spp., 66 strains were isolated from children who live in Mexico City, and Stx effects were evaluated in Vero cell cultures...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Andrew Mitchell, Alexandre Dugas
BACKGROUND: Perforation of the colon occurring during or shortly following colonoscopy or barium enema is a rare complication of collagenous colitis (CC). "Spontaneous" perforation in CC, in which no instigating factor is identified, is even less common, with only five cases reported to date. We report herein an additional case of spontaneous perforation in previously undiagnosed CC and review the clinical and pathological features of previously reported cases. CASE PRESENTATION: An 80 year old woman presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain preceded by approximately one month of frequent non-bloody diarrhea...
October 6, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
Nitya Sarjapuram, Niharika Mekala, Meetali Singh, Utpal Tatu
Travellers' diarrhoea caused by enteric protozoa like Entamoeba histolytica is among the most common protozoan diseases in developing countries. In developing countries, amoebiasis is the second most prevalent protozoan disease. This protozoan parasite is often known to coexist as a part of the normal gut microbiota. It is estimated that around 50-60 % of population in developing countries might be harbouring Entamoeba in an asymptomatic manner. Due to physiological perturbation or upon immuno-compromise, it can become virulent and then cause diarrhoea, bloody stools and may invade other organs if left untreated...
October 5, 2016: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Michael Krease, Jeff Stroup, Mousumi Som, Benjamin Shepard
Severe ulcerative colitis is defined by more than six bloody stools daily and evidence of toxicity, demonstrated by fever, tachycardia, anemia, or an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Fulminant disease represents a subset of severe disease with signs and symptoms suggestive of increased toxicity. Treatment of severe colitis includes intravenous corticosteroid administration, with consideration of intravenous infliximab 5 mg/kg. Failure to show improvement after 3 to 5 days is an indication for colectomy or treatment with intravenous cyclosporine...
October 2016: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Mohaddese Mahboubi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In Iranian Traditional Medicine, M. communis is a famous plant in treatment of oral ulcers and "Gholaa"- the ancient name of aphthous. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to create a bridge between the traditional claims about the application of M. communis in treatment of "Gholaa" and its prescription for aphthous, the current form of "Gholaa" in modern medicine. METHODS: We extracted the information about the application of M...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Hans Linde Nielsen, Henrik Nielsen, Mia Torpdahl
The emerging enteric pathogen Campylobacter concisus is associated with prolonged diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease. Previous studies have shown that C. concisus strains are very genetically diverse. Nevertheless, C. concisus strains have been divided into two genomospecies, where GS1 strains have been isolated predominantly from healthy individuals, while the GS2 cluster consists of isolates primarily from diarrheic individuals. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic diversity of C...
2016: Gut Pathogens
Cinzia Germinario, Alfredo Caprioli, Mario Giordano, Maria Chironna, Maria Serena Gallone, Silvio Tafuri, Fabio Minelli, Antonella Maugliani, Valeria Michelacci, Luisa Santangelo, Onofrio Mongelli, Cosimo Montagna, Gaia Scavia
In summer 2013, an excess of paediatric cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) in a southern region of Italy prompted the investigation of a community-wide outbreak of Shiga toxin 2-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26:H11 infections. Case finding was based on testing patients with HUS or bloody diarrhoea for STEC infection by microbiological and serological methods. A case-control study was conducted to identify the source of the outbreak. STEC O26 infection was identified in 20 children (median age 17 months) with HUS, two of whom reported severe neurological sequelae...
September 22, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Keisuke Hata, Soichiro Ishihara, Hiroaki Nozawa, Kazushige Kawai, Tomomichi Kiyomatsu, Toshiaki Tanaka, Junko Kishikawa, Hiroyuki Anzai, Toshiaki Watanabe
Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis has been the surgical treatment of choice for patients with ulcerative colitis who require surgery. The quality of life after this procedure is satisfactory in most cases; however, pouchitis is a troublesome condition involving inflammation of the ileal pouch. When a patient presents with symptoms of pouchitis, such as increased bowel movements, mucous and/or bloody exudates, abdominal cramps, and fever, endoscopy is essential for a precise diagnosis...
September 28, 2016: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
Xiaoming Yuan, Guangrong Zhou, Yan He, Aiwen Feng
BACKGROUND: Epithelial dysplasia and adenomatous polyps of colorectum are precancerous lesions. Surgical removal is still one of the important treatment approaches for colorectal polyps. CASE PRESENTATION: A male patient over 78 years was admitted due to bloody stool and abdominal pain. Colonoscopic biopsy showed a high-grade epithelial dysplasia in an adenomatous polyp of sigmoid colon. Anemia, COPD, ischemic heart disease (IHD), arrhythmias, and hypoproteinemia were comorbidities...
September 26, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Öznur Küçük, Suat Biçer, Meltem Ugraş, Defne Çöl, Tuba Giray, Gülay Çiler Erdag, Yeşim Gürol, Gülden Yilmaz, Zerrin Yalvaç, Ayça Vitrinel, Çigdem Kaspar
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory data of children with acute gastroenteritis caused by non-typhoid Salmonella spp. infections. Clinical (demographic data, symptoms and findings) and laboratory data (stool microscopy, rapid antigen tests, culture, multiplex polymerase chain reaction and blood test results) of children with acute gastroenteritis caused by non-typhoid Salmonella spp. between January 2010 and October 2012 were evaluated. Differences between the groups for categorical variables were estimated with a chi-square or Fisher exact test; for continuous variables with two independent samples a t test was used...
September 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Hossein Rahmani, Iraj Javadi, Saeed Shirali
Sulfur mustard (SM) or bis (2-chloroethyl) sulfide is a vesicant and alkylating chemical weapon. SM was used in the 1980s against Iran by Iraqi forces. After exposure to SM in initial acute phase the greatest damage is incurred by the eyes, skin and lungs and the highest damage is caused to the lungs. This injury not only in the acute phase but also in the long-term has the highest prevalence among these patients. Clinical symptoms of people after exposure to SM start with irritation of the nose and sinuses in the mild doses to the runny nose and pain at higher doses and even irritation of the airways and bronchial engagement in very high doses...
June 2016: Int J Curr Res Acad Rev
Jessica A Rotman, George I Getrajdman, Majid Maybody, Joseph P Erinjeri, Hooman Yarmohammadi, Constantinos T Sofocleous, Stephen B Solomon, F Edward Boas
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to determine whether larger abdominopelvic abscess drains reduce the time required for abscess resolution or the probability of tube occlusion. METHODS: 144 consecutive patients who underwent abscess drainage at a single institution were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: Larger initial drain size did not reduce drainage time, drain occlusion, or drain exchanges (P > .05). Subgroup analysis did not find any type of collection that benefitted from larger drains...
August 17, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Michael Pinkawa, Vanessa Berneking, Liane König, Dilini Frank, Marilou Bretgeld, Michael J Eble
PURPOSE: Injection of a hydrogel spacer before prostate cancer radiotherapy (RT) is known to reduce the dose to the rectal wall. Clinical results from the patient's perspective are needed to better assess a possible benefit. METHODS: A group of 167 consecutive patients who received prostate RT during the years 2010 to 2013 with 2‑Gy fractions up to 76 Gy (without hydrogel, n = 66) or 76-80 Gy (with hydrogel, n = 101) were included. The numbers of interventions resulting from bowel problems during the first 2 years after RT were compared...
September 8, 2016: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
Jenny L Donovan, Freddie C Hamdy, J Athene Lane, Malcolm Mason, Chris Metcalfe, Eleanor Walsh, Jane M Blazeby, Tim J Peters, Peter Holding, Susan Bonnington, Teresa Lennon, Lynne Bradshaw, Deborah Cooper, Phillipa Herbert, Joanne Howson, Amanda Jones, Norma Lyons, Elizabeth Salter, Pauline Thompson, Sarah Tidball, Jan Blaikie, Catherine Gray, Prasad Bollina, James Catto, Andrew Doble, Alan Doherty, David Gillatt, Roger Kockelbergh, Howard Kynaston, Alan Paul, Philip Powell, Stephen Prescott, Derek J Rosario, Edward Rowe, Michael Davis, Emma L Turner, Richard M Martin, David E Neal
Background Robust data on patient-reported outcome measures comparing treatments for clinically localized prostate cancer are lacking. We investigated the effects of active monitoring, radical prostatectomy, and radical radiotherapy with hormones on patient-reported outcomes. Methods We compared patient-reported outcomes among 1643 men in the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial who completed questionnaires before diagnosis, at 6 and 12 months after randomization, and annually thereafter...
October 13, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Mitsuaki Kimura, Masaki Shimomura, Hideaki Morishita, Takaaki Meguro, Shiro Seto
BACKGROUND: Many Japanese infants with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) show eosinophilia, which has been thought to be a characteristic of food protein-induced proctocolitis (FPIP). METHODS: To elucidate the characteristics of eosinophilia in Japanese FPIES patients, 113 infants with non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy due to cow's milk were enrolled and classified into FPIES (n = 94) and FPIP (n = 19). RESULTS: The percentage of peripheral blood eosinophils (Eo) was increased in most FPIES patients (median, 7...
September 10, 2016: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
Naw April Phaw, Her Hsin Tsai
The patient presented with bloody diarrhoea, and crampy abdominal pains. She was diagnosed with eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) after the finding of persistently high peripheral eosinophil counts and histology of endoscopic biopsies. She responded to steroids but became dependent on it and her symptoms recurred on steroid tapering. There was little improvement with alternative treatment such as budesonides, azathioprine and montelukast. Surprisingly her symptoms improved significantly after she was treated with clarithromycin for chest infection and she was continued on clarithromycin...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Masaki Ikeda, Yoshitake Murata, Ryoko Ohnishi, Tatsuo Kato, Akira Hara, Takuji Fujinaga
Congenital esophagobronchial fistula (EBF) is rarely seen in adults. We report a case of EBF detected in adulthood with a destroyed lung. A 67-year-old man experienced repeated pneumonia during his childhood. Since the age of 38, he had often suffered from bloody phlegm and always had a cough and sputum during oral intake. Before cardiac surgery for atrial fibrillation and valvular disease, computed tomography (CT) detected bronchiectasis, which could cause pulmonary bleeding during heart surgery, and the patient was introduced to our hospital for lung resection...
December 2016: Surgical Case Reports
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