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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527411/trends-in-reports-of-driving-following-illicit-drug-consumption-among-regular-drug-users-in-australia-2007-2013-has-random-roadside-drug-testing-had-a-deterrent-effect
#1
Danielle Horyniak, Paul Dietze, Simon Lenton, Rosa Alati, Raimondo Bruno, Allison Matthews, Courtney Breen, Lucy Burns
INTRODUCTION: Driving following illicit drug consumption ('drug-driving') is a potential road safety risk. Roadside drug testing (RDT) is conducted across Australia with the dual aims of prosecuting drivers with drugs in their system and deterring drug-driving. We examined trends over time in self-reported past six-month drug-driving among sentinel samples of regular drug users and assessed the impact of experiences of RDT on drug-driving among these participants. METHODS: Data from 1913 people who inject drugs (PWID) and 3140 regular psychostimulant users (RPU) who were first-time participants in a series of repeat cross-sectional sentinel studies conducted in Australian capital cities from 2007 to 2013 and reported driving in the past six months were analysed...
May 17, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527389/dynamics-of-dissolved-organic-matter-in-riverine-sediments-affected-by-weir-impoundments-production-benthic-flux-and-environmental-implications
#2
Meilian Chen, Sung-Han Kim, Heon-Jae Jung, Jung-Ho Hyun, Jung Hyun Choi, Hyo-Jin Lee, In-Ae Huh, Jin Hur
In order to understand the characteristics and dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the sediment of rivers affected by impoundments, we examined the vertical profiles and the benthic fluxes of DOM in four different core sediments located at upstream sites of weirs in major rivers of South Korea. In three out of four sites, exponential accumulation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with depth was observed with the signature of seasonal variability. Except for the site displaying a below-detection limit of Fe(II), the general accumulation trends of DOC with depth was concurrent with the increases of Fe(II) and NH4(+) and the decrease of PO4(3-), signifying a close linkage of the DOM dynamics with anaerobic respiration via iron reduction, an important early diagenesis pathway...
May 12, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527212/apolipoprotein-e4-gender-body-mass-index-inflammation-insulin-resistance-and-air-pollution-interactions-recipe-for-alzheimer-s-disease-development-in-mexico-city-young-females
#3
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Suzanne M de la Monte
Given the epidemiological trends of increasing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and growing evidence that exposure and lifestyle factors contribute to AD risk and pathogenesis, attention should be paid to variables such as air pollution, in order to reduce rates of cognitive decline and dementia. Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above the US EPA standards is associated with AD risk. Mexico City children experienced pre- and postnatal high exposures to PM2.5, O3, combustion-derived iron-rich nanoparticles, metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and endotoxins...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527204/levetiracetam-alters-oscillatory-connectivity-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Christian S Musaeus, Mouhsin M Shafi, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Susan T Herman, Daniel Z Press
Seizures occur at a higher frequency in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) but overt, clinically obvious events are infrequent. Evidence from animal models and studies in mild cognitive impairment suggest that subclinical epileptic discharges may play a role in the clinical and pathophysiological manifestations of AD. In this feasibility study, the neurophysiological and cognitive effects of acute administration of levetiracetam (LEV) are measured in patients with mild AD to test whether it could have a therapeutic benefit...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527162/evaluation-of-the-association-between-cd4-cd8-and-cd25-cell-counts-and-sle-in-active-disease-and-in-remission
#5
Archana Sonawale, Vinay Bohara, L S Bichile
AIM: To evaluate the correlation between the levels of CD4, CD8 and CD25 cells and SLE disease in active phase and in remission. METHODS: A total of 25 SLE patients, aged between 18-60 years, and fulfilling the ACR criteria with preferential Renal and CNS involvement were included in this study. Baseline CD4/CD8 and CD25 counts, lab parameters etc were conducted. Approximately at the end of 6 months with the settlement of the disease activity blood sample was drawn for the CD4, CD8 and CD25 counts and other lab parameters...
April 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527153/the-rise-of-phenology-with-climate-change-an-evaluation-of-ijb-publications
#6
Alison Donnelly, Rong Yu
In recent decades, phenology has become an important tool by which to measure both the impact of climate change on ecosystems and the feedback of ecosystems to the climate system. However, there has been little attempt to date to systematically quantify the increase in the number of scientific publications with a focus on phenology and climate change. In order to partially address this issue, we examined the number of articles (original papers, reviews and short communications) containing the terms 'phenology' and 'climate change' in the title, abstract or keywords, published in the International Journal of Biometeorology in the 60 years since its inception in 1957...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527078/our-headache-fellowship-a-10-year-history
#7
Paul Rizzoli
There has been a clear trend in American medical education after World War II toward training specialization and subspecialization. After some early specialization efforts by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, further efforts were undertaken by the United Council for Neurologic Subspecialties (UCNS), leading to the introduction of the neurologic subspecialty of Headache Medicine in March, 2005. The training program at our center at the Brigham and Women's Hospital Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, in Boston, Massachusetts, was accredited in 2008 and has graduated 14 trainees since its inception...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526983/low-source-sink-ratio-reduces-reserve-starch-in-grapevine-woody-canes-and-modulates-sugar-transport-and-metabolism-at-transcriptional-and-enzyme-activity-levels
#8
Angélica Silva, Henrique Noronha, Zhanwu Dai, Serge Delrot, Hernâni Gerós
Severe leaf removal decreases storage starch and sucrose in grapevine cv. Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings and modulates the activity of key enzymes and the expression of sugar transporter genes. Leaf removal is an agricultural practice that has been shown to modify vineyard efficiency and grape and wine composition. In this study, we took advantage of the ability to precisely control the number of leaves to fruits in Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings to study the effect of source-sink ratios (2 (2L), 6 (6L) and 12 (12) leaves per cluster) on starch metabolism and accumulation...
May 19, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526796/sulfide-induced-dissimilatory-nitrate-reduction-to-ammonium-supports-anammox-in-an-open-water-unit-process-wetland
#9
Zackary L Jones, Justin T Jasper, David L Sedlak, Jonathan O Sharp
Open-water unit process wetlands host a benthic diatomaceous and bacterial assemblage capable of nitrate removal from treated municipal wastewater with unexpected contributions from anammox processes. In exploring mechanistic drivers of anammox, 16S rRNA gene sequencing profiles of the biomat revealed significant microbial community shifts along the flow path and with depth. Notably there was an increasing abundance of sulfate reducers (Desulfococcus and other Deltaproteobacteria) and anammox microorganisms (Brocadiaceae) with depth...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526790/post-epizootic-persistence-of-asymptomatic-mycoplasma-conjunctivae-infection-in-iberian-ibex
#10
Xavier Fernández-Aguilar, Oscar Cabezón, José Enrique Granados, Joachim Frey, Emmanuel Serrano, Roser Velarde, Francisco Javier Cano-Manuel, Gregorio Mentaberre, Arián Ráez-Bravo, Paulino Fandos, Jorge Ramón López-Olvera
The susceptibility of Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) to Mycoplasma conjunctivae ocular infection and the changes in their interaction over time were studied in terms of clinical outcome, molecular detection and IgG immune response in a captive population that underwent a severe infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) outbreak. Mycoplasma conjunctivae was detected for the first time in the Iberian ibexes coinciding with the IKC outbreak. Its prevalence had a decreasing trend in 2013 that was consistent with the clinical resolution (August 35...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526627/dynamic-fatigue-measurement-of-human-erythrocytes-using-dielectrophoresis
#11
Yuhao Qiang, Jia Liu, E Du
Erythrocytes must undergo severe deformation to pass through narrow capillaries and submicronic splenic slits for several hundred thousand times in their normal lifespan. Studies of erythrocyte biomechanics have been mainly focused on cell deformability and rheology measured from a single application of stress and mostly under a static or quasi-static state using classical biomechanical techniques, such as optical tweezers and micropipette aspiration. Dynamic behavior of erythrocytes in response to cyclic stresses that contributes to the membrane failure in blood circulation is not fully understood...
May 16, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526547/no-significant-gender-difference-in-hospitalizations-for-acute-coronary-syndrome-in-switzerland-over-the-time-period-of-2001-to-2010
#12
Hugo Saner, Jannette D Mollet, Claudia Berlin, Stephan Windecker, Bernhard Meier, Lorenz Räber, Marcel Zwahlen, Petra Stute
BACKGROUND: Morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases have decreased since the 1970s in most Western societies. However, it is unclear if this positive trend can also be found in younger women suffering from acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: This is a prospective single center registry study including 11.015 women and men hospitalized for a first ACS between the years 2001 and 2010. We analyzed ACS rates according to sex and age group using Poisson regression in order to assess temporal trends...
May 13, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526533/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-deficiency-predicts-long-term-poor-prognosis-among-ischemic-stroke-patients-without-hyperglycaemia
#13
Tian Xu, Chongke Zhong, Tan Xu, Yanbo Peng, Xiaoqing Bu, Chung-Shiuan Chen, Jinchao Wang, Zhong Ju, Qunwei Li, Deqin Geng, Yingxian Sun, Dongsheng Zhang, Jing Chen, Yonghong Zhang, Jiang He
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has a protective effect on long-term prognosis of ischemic stroke and whether it is affected by blood glucose levels. We aim to examine the effect of serum vitamin D especially its deficiency on 1-year poor outcome of ischemic stroke patients in total patients and by blood glucose subgroups. METHODS: A total of 3041 ischemic patients from China Antihypertensive Trial in Acute Ischemic Stroke were included...
May 16, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526452/gestational-age-at-initiation-of-17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone-caproate-and-recurrent-preterm-birth
#14
Angela Ning, Catherine J Vladutiu, Sarah K Dotters-Katz, William H Goodnight, Tracy A Manuck
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in non-anomalous neonates in the US. Women with a previous early spontaneous PTB are at highest risk for recurrence. Weekly intramuscular 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC) reduces the risk of recurrent prematurity. Though current guidelines recommend 17-OHPC initiation between 16-20 weeks', in clinical practice, 17-OHPC is started across a spectrum of gestational ages. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between the gestational age at 17-OHPC initiation and recurrent PTB among women a prior spontaneous PTB 16-28 weeks' gestation...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526393/energy-drink-consumption-and-marketing-in-south-africa
#15
Nicholas Stacey, Corné van Walbeek, Mashekwa Maboshe, Aviva Tugendhaft, Karen Hofman
Energy drinks are a fast-growing class of beverage containing high levels of caffeine and sugar. Advertising and marketing have been key to their growth in South Africa. This paper documents trends in energy drink consumption and energy drink advertising, and examines the relationship between exposure to energy drink advertising and consumption. Logistic regressions were estimated of categories of energy drink consumption on individual characteristics, as well as exposure to energy drink advertising. Exposure to advertising is measured by reported viewing of channels high in energy drink advertising...
May 16, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526388/serum-vitamin-d-and-change-in-lipid-levels-over-5%C3%A2-y-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#16
Kamil F Faridi, Di Zhao, Seth S Martin, Joshua R Lupton, Steven R Jones, Eliseo Guallar, Christie M Ballantyne, Pamela L Lutsey, Erin D Michos
OBJECTIVES: Deficiency of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, perhaps mediated through dyslipidemia. Deficient 25(OH)D is cross-sectionally associated with dyslipidemia, but little is known about longitudinal lipid changes. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of 25(OH)D deficiency to longitudinal lipid changes and risk for incident dyslipidemia. METHODS: This was a longitudinal community-based study of 13 039 participants from the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study who had 25(OH)D and lipids measured at baseline (1990-1992) and lipids remeasured in 1993 to 1994 and 1996 to 1998...
June 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526344/the-promise-of-a-specially-designed-graft-copolymer-of-acrylic-acid-onto-cellulose-as-selective-sorbent-for-heavy-metal-ions
#17
Hisham A Essawy, Magdy F Mohamed, Nabila S Ammar, Hanan S Ibrahim
A specially-designed graft copolymer of acrylic acid onto in-situ formed cellulose-fulvate hybrid showed privileged tendency for uptake of Pb(II) during competitive removal from a mixture containing Cd(II) and Ni(II) within 5min. at pH 5. This novel trend is attributed mainly to the crowded high content of coordinating centers within the designed graft copolymer along with the acquired superabsorbency. This provides an outstanding tool to separate some metal ions selectively from mixtures containing multiple ions on kinetic basis...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526289/the-howieson-s-poort-fauna-from-sibudu-cave-documenting-continuity-and-change-within-middle-stone-age-industries
#18
Jamie L Clark
The Howieson's Poort (HP; ∼65-59 ka) continues to be a source of interest to scholars studying human behavioral evolution during the Late Pleistocene. This is in large part because the HP preserves evidence for a suite of innovative technologies and behaviors (including geometric backed tools and engraved ostrich eggshell), but also because the disappearance of the innovative behaviors associated with this phase is not well understood. Here, I present taphonomic and taxonomic data on the full sample of macromammal remains excavated from the HP deposits at Sibudu Cave under the direction of Lyn Wadley...
June 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526274/dietary-patterns-and-colorectal-cancer-risk-in-middle-aged-adults-a%C3%A2-large-population-based-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Sangah Shin, Eiko Saito, Norie Sawada, Junko Ishihara, Ribeka Takachi, Akiko Nanri, Taichi Shimazu, Taiki Yamaji, Motoki Iwasaki, Shizuka Sasazuki, Manami Inoue, Shoichiro Tsugane
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A finding between dietary pattern and cancer may provide visions beyond the assessment of individual foods or nutrients. We examined the influence of dietary pattern with colorectal cancer (CRC) among a Japanese population. METHODS: A total of 93,062 subjects (43,591 men, 49,471 women) who participated in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study were followed from 1995-1998 to the end of 2012, during which 2482 cases of CRC (1514 men, 968 women) were newly identified...
May 5, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526163/new-hypnotic-drug-development-and-pharmacologic-considerations-for-clinical-anesthesia
#20
REVIEW
Mariah Kincaid Tanious, Sascha S Beutler, Alan D Kaye, Richard D Urman
Since the public demonstration of ether as a novel, viable anesthetic for surgery in 1846, the field of anesthesia has continually sought the ideal anesthetic-rapid onset, potent sedation-hypnosis with a high therapeutic ratio of toxic dose to minimally effective dose, predictable clearance to inactive metabolites, and minimal side effects. This article aims to review current progress of novel induction agent development and provide an update on the most promising drugs poised to enter clinical practice. In addition, the authors describe trends in novel agent development, implications for health care costs, and implications for perioperative care...
June 2017: Anesthesiology Clinics
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