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Daniel Edsgärd, Per Johnsson, Rickard Sandberg
As methods for measuring spatial gene expression at single-cell resolution become available, there is a need for computational analysis strategies. We present trendsceek, a method based on marked point processes that identifies genes with statistically significant spatial expression trends. trendsceek finds these genes in spatial transcriptomic and sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization data, and also reveals significant gene expression gradients and hot spots in low-dimensional projections of dissociated single-cell RNA-seq data...
March 19, 2018: Nature Methods
Zoran Marinović, Jelena Lujić, Eszter Kása, Zsolt Csenki, Béla Urbányi, Ákos Horváth
Current trends in science and biotechnology lead to creation of thousands of new lines in model organisms thereby leading to the necessity for new methods for safe storage of genetic resources beyond the common practices of keeping breeding colonies. The main purpose of this study was to adapt the needle immersed vitrification (NIV) procedure to cryopreserve whole zebrafish testes. Cryopreservation of early-stage germ cells by whole testes NIV offers possibilities for the storage of zebrafish genetic resources, especially since after transplantation they can mature into both male and female gametes...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ron J Smith
BACKGROUND: Siege, a process of political domination aimed at isolating an entire population, is a unique threat to health-care provision. The aim of this study was to qualitatively examine the effects of the Israeli siege on the practices and systems that underlie health in the Gaza Strip. METHODS: Data were from participant observation between 2009 and 2017, including 20 interviews with doctors and health administrators in non-governmental organisations (NGO), government, and UN sectors...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Therese M Lynn, Ena Lynn, Eamon Keenan, Suzi Lyons
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to provide trend analysis on all deaths among drug users who injected at or around the time of their death in Ireland between 1998 and 2014. METHOD: A review of the data recorded by the National Drug-Related Deaths Index (NDRDI) was conducted to identify individuals who were known to be injecting at or around the time of their death, from 1998 to 2014. RESULTS: Between 1998 and 2014, 16,500 deaths were recorded by the NDRDI...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Yi Chen, Zhenzhu Tang, Shuai Tang, Zhiyong Shen, Qiuying Zhu, Rongjian Li, Wenbo Huang, Yuman Huang, Fuxiong Liang, Lu Wang, Huanhuan Chen, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao, Sian Hsiang-Te Tsuei, Guanghua Lan
OBJECTIVE: Since 2003, the Chinese central government has implemented several harm reduction and preventive measures to control HIV. We aim to describe epidemiological trends of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis in Guangxi drug users after the policy implementation. METHOD: A total of 12,161-15,870 drug users in Guangxi, China, were recruited annually from 2009 to 2015 through community outreach or snowball sampling. The participants' demographics, behavior, and infection status were used to characterize rates of protective behaviors and disease prevalence (HIV, syphilis, and HCV)...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Erica M Eaton, Molly Magill, Christy Capone, Margaret A Cramer, Nadine R Mastroleo, Racheal Reavy, Brian Borsari
OBJECTIVE: Colleges continue to experience a high number of referred students because of campus alcohol violations. Subsequently, there has been a trend to use peer-implemented minimal interventions (PMIs), often using motivational interviewing (MI). However, little is known about how PMIs facilitate behavior change. This study aims to examine the mechanisms of behavior change within PMIs and their influence on alcohol reduction among mandated students. METHOD: Participants (N = 146; mean age = 18...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Veronica Fassio, Sherrie L Aspinall, Xinhua Zhao, Donald R Miller, Jasvinder A Singh, Chester B Good, Francesca E Cunningham
OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence and incidence of opioid and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use before and since the start of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Opioid Safety Initiative (OSI) and to assess rates of adverse events (AEs). STUDY DESIGN: Historical cohort study. METHODS: The OSI began in August 2012 and was fully implemented by the end of fiscal year (FY) 2013. The study timeframe was categorized into baseline (FY 2011-2012), transition (FY 2013), and postimplementation (FY 2014-2015) phases...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
Ralf M Schweiggert
This perspective highlights current trends, advances, and challenges related to the replacement of artificial dyes and the insect-based carmine with alternative natural pigments. Briefly reviewing the history of food coloration, key publications and public events leading to diverse concerns about artificial dyes and carmine will be summarized. An overview about promising alternatives in the market and those under development is provided, including a separate section on coloring foodstuffs. The perspective aims at supporting readers to keep abreast with the enormous efforts undertaken by the food and beverage industry to replace certain food dyes...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Tammy Y N Tong, Fumiaki Imamura, Pablo Monsivais, Søren Brage, Simon J Griffin, Nicholas J Wareham, Nita G Forouhi
High cost of healthy foods could be a barrier to healthy eating. We aimed to examine the association between dietary cost and adherence to the Mediterranean diet in a non-Mediterranean country. We evaluated cross-sectional data from 12 417 adults in the UK Fenland Study. Responses to 130-item FFQ were used to calculate a Mediterranean diet score (MDS). Dietary cost was estimated by matching food consumption data with retail prices of five major supermarkets. Using multivariable-adjusted linear regression, we examined the association of MDS and individual foods with dietary cost in absolute and relative scales...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Maya Schulpen, Piet A van den Brandt
The evidence on a cancer-protective effect of the Mediterranean diet (MD) is still limited. Therefore, we investigated the association between MD adherence and lung cancer risk. Data were used from 120 852 participants of the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS), aged 55-69 years. Dietary habits were assessed at baseline (1986) using a validated FFQ and alternate and modified Mediterranean diet scores (aMED and mMED, respectively), including and excluding alcohol, were calculated. After 20·3 years of follow-up, 2861 lung cancer cases and 3720 subcohort members (case-cohort design) could be included in multivariable Cox regression analyses...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Scott A Goldberg, Jeremy Maggin, Michael S Molloy, Olesya Baker, Ritu Sarin, Michael Kelleher, Kevin Mont, Adedeji Fajana, Eric Goralnick
OBJECTIVE: Mass gathering events can substantially impact public safety. Analyzing patient presentation and transport rates at various mass gathering events can help inform staffing models and improve preparedness. METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients seeking medical attention across a variety of event types at a single venue with a capacity of 68,756 from January 2010 through September 2015. RESULTS: We examined 232 events with a total of 8,260,349 attendees generating 8157 medical contacts...
March 19, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Hayley B Gershengorn, Carri W Chan, Yunchao Xu, Hanxi Sun, Ronni Levy, Mor Armony, Michelle N Gong
OBJECTIVE: To understand the impact of adding a medical step-down unit (SDU) on patient outcomes and throughput in a medical intensive care unit (ICU). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Two academic tertiary care hospitals within the same health-care system. PATIENTS: Adults admitted to the medical ICU at either the control or intervention hospital from October 2013 to March 2014 (preintervention) and October 2014 to March 2015 (postintervention)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Horng-Ruey Chua, Weng-Kin Wong, Venetia Huiling Ong, Dipika Agrawal, Anantharaman Vathsala, Hui-Ming Tay, Amartya Mukhopadhyay
PURPOSE: To evaluate 1-year mortality in patients with septic acute kidney injury (AKI) and to determine association between initial AKI recovery patterns ( reversal within 5 days, beyond 5 days but recovery, or nonrecovery) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. METHODS: Prospective observational study, with retrospective evaluation of initial nonconsenters, of critically ill patients with septic AKI. RESULTS: We studied 207 patients (age, mean [SD]: 64 [16] years, 39% males), of which 56 (27%), 18 (9%), and 9 (4%) died in intensive care unit (ICU), post-ICU in hospital, and posthospitalization, respectively...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Şengül Tosun Altınöz, Ali Ercan Altınöz, Çisem Utku, Altan Eşsizoğlu, Selçuk Candansayar
Female homicides are widely prevalent in Turkey with rising trend. The aim of this study is to identify gender role attitudes, childhood trauma histories, and individual characteristics of men who have been involved in the femicide, and to compare them with men who do not exercise violence against women. Participants completed a Sociodemographic and Clinical Information form, Semistructured Interview form, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Case group was not significantly different than the control group in terms of any measured individual characteristics including childhood traumas, psychopathology, and gender attitudes...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Fei-Ya Zhao, Ai-En Tao, Cong-Long Xia
Paris is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and has antitumor, antibacterial, sedative, analgesic and hemostatic effects. It has been used as an ingredient of 81 Chinese patent medicines, with a wide application and large market demand. Based on the data retrieved from state Intellectual Property Office patent database, a comprehensive analysis was made on Paris patents, so as to explore the current features of Paris patents in the aspects of domestic patent output, development trend, technology field distribution, time dimension, technology growth rate and patent applicant, and reveal the development trend of China's Paris industry...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Meng-Die Qi, Jian Wang, Xiao-Jing Ma, Quan Zhang, Fang-Fang Wang, Ying Kang, Hui-Xin Lin, Yong Liu
Andrographolide is a main active ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine Andrographis paniculata,with a variety of pharmacological activity,widely used in clinical practice. However its biosynthetic pathway has not been resolved. Cytochrome P450 reductase provides electrons for CYP450 and plays an important role in the CYP450 catalytic process. In this study,the coding sequence of A. paniculata CPR was screened and cloned by homologous alignment,named ApCPR4. The ApCPR4 protein was obtained by prokaryotic expression...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Chun-Cai Zou, Qian-Ni Zong, Hai-Yan Yan
To investigate the spectrum-activity relationship of Trichosanthis Fructus and Trichosanthis Fructus strip pieces for rat myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. HPLC fingerprints of Trichosanthis Fructus and Trichosanthis Fructus strip pieces were established, and the values of creatinekinase-MB (CK-MB), myoglobin (MYO) and cardiac troponin-T (cTNT) in 3 dose groups (2.25, 13.5, 27.0 g·kg⁻¹, equivalent to the crude herb g·kg⁻¹) of Trichosanthis Fructus and Trichosanthis Fructus strip pieces with myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats were measured, and the grey relational analysis was used to study the spectrum-activity relationship of Trichosanthis Fructus and Trichosanthis Fructus strip pieces for rat myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Anna Mouzakiti, Constantinos Nastos, Dimitrios Vlachodimitropoulos, Constantinos Gennatas, Agathi Kondi-Pafiti, Dionisios Voros
PURPOSE: Colon cancer is one of the most common malignancies. Various prognostic markers have been proposed and individualized treatment strategies have been adapted according to tumor molecular and genetic characteristics. The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively analyze a possible association between the expression of COX- 2 and EGFR and clinical and histopathological factors of patients undergoing colon surgery in a Greek population. METHODS: Data from our department's prospectively collected database were retrieved for a total of 100 consecutive colectomies that were performed in our department...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Benjamin W Fisher, Thomas J Mowen, John H Boman
Although school security measures have become a common fixture in public schools across the United States, research on the relationship between security and adolescent victimization is mixed, with very few studies examining trends in adolescent victimization across time. Using two waves of data from the Educational Longitudinal Study 2002 (N = 7659; 50.6% female; 56.7% White, 13.3% Black, 13.5% Hispanic, 11.3% Asian American, 5.4% other race), results from a series of multi-level models demonstrate that adolescents in schools with more security measures report higher odds of being threatened with harm, and no difference in odds of being in a physical altercation or having something stolen over time...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Autumn Oczkowski, Bryan Taplin, Richard Pruell, Adam Pimenta, Roxanne Johnson, Jason Grear
Coastal ecosystems are inherently complex and potentially adaptive as they respond to changes in nutrient loads and climate. We documented the role that carbon stable isotope (δ13 C) measurements could play in understanding that adaptation with a series of three Ecostat (i.e., continuous culture) experiments. We quantified linkages among δ13 C, nutrients, carbonate chemistry, primary, and secondary production in temperate estuarine waters. Experimental culture vessels (9.1 L) containing 33% whole and 67% filtered (0...
February 14, 2018: Frontiers in Marine Science
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