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Space medicine

Olga Gusliakova, Elena N Atochina-Vasserman, Olga Sindeeva, Sergey Sindeev, Sergey Pinyaev, Nikolay Pyataev, Viktor Revin, Gleb B Sukhorukov, Dmitry Gorin, Andrew J Gow
Nano- and microencapsulation has proven to be a useful technique for the construction of drug delivery vehicles for use in vascular medicine. However, the possibility of using these techniques within the lung as an inhalation delivery mechanism has not been previously considered. A critical element of particle delivery to the lung is the degree of penetrance that can be achieved with respect to the airway tree. In this study we examined the effectiveness of near infrared (NIR) dye (Cy7) labeled calcium carbonate (vaterite) particles of 3...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
James F Stark
Regeneration is a concept that has fascinated humans for centuries. Whether we have been trying to bring things back to life, extract additional resources from the world, or remodel our living spaces-domestic and urban-it is often presented as an unproblematic force for good. But what exactly does it mean to regenerate a body, mind or space? This paper, which introduces a collection of contributions on the theme of human regeneration, explores the limits and possibilities of regeneration as a conceptual tool for understanding the biological realm...
June 12, 2018: Palgrave Communications
Morgan Meyer
Do-it-yourself (DIY) biology and medicine are based on various practices and logics: amateur and DIY practices, the ethics of hacking and open source, the drive to domesticate molecular biology and genetics, the ideal of participation and citizen science. The article shows that this democratization is a process that is at once spatial (construction of new spaces), technical (creative workarounds equipment), social (establishment of accessible networks/laboratories) and political. It is therefore through their practices, gestures and questions - tinkering, experimenting, working around, amaterializing, ethicizing, comparing, valuating, etc...
May 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Caroline Roveri Marin, Renata Cristina Gasparino, Ana Claudia Puggina
OBJECTIVES: 1) To identify the patient's perception of invasion of territorial and personal space and 2) to evaluate whether personal characteristics, housing conditions and characteristics of the hospital unit affect this perception. METHODS: Analytical, cross-sectional and quantitative study. An adapted version of the "Anxiety Due to Territory and Space Intrusion Questionnaire" was applied with patients hospitalized in the internal medicine and maternity wards and in the ward for patients with private health insurance of a university hospital in the state of São Paulo...
2018: PloS One
Abass Tanhaiean, Marjan Azghandi, Jamshid Razmyar, Elyass Mohammadi, Mohammad Hadi Sekhavati
Over the last decades, poultry industry faced to the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria as a global concern. Antimicrobial peptide (AMPs) known as potential antibiotic alternative and were considered as a new antimicrobial agent. Current methods of production and purification of AMPs have several limitations such as: costly, time-consuming and killing the producing host cells in recombinant form. In the present study, a chimeric peptide derived from camel lactoferrin was produced in Escherichia coli periplasmic space using a pET-based expression system and its antibacterial activity was determined on some avian pathogens in vitro...
June 8, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Sara M Nardinger, Thuy D Tran, Tiffinee Swanson, Lacey Ellingson, Courtney Solberg, Michael K O'Connor, Carrie B Hruska
Molecular breast imaging (MBI) is a nuclear medicine test that uses dedicated gamma cameras designed for imaging of the breast. Despite growing adoption of MBI, there is currently a lack of guidance on appropriate quality control procedures for MBI systems. Tests designed for conventional gamma cameras either do not apply or must be modified for dedicated detectors. Our objective was to provide practical guidance for physics testing of MBI systems by adapting existing quality control procedures for conventional systems...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
Tasneem F Hasan, Walter Duarte, Oluwaseun O Akinduro, Eric D Goldstein, Rebecca Hurst, Neil Haranhalli, David A Miller, Robert E Wharen, Rabih G Tawk, William D Freeman
BACKGROUND: Acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a medical and neurosurgical emergency from ruptured brain aneurysm. Aneurysmal SAH is identified on brain computed tomography (CT) as increased density of basal cisterns and subarachnoid spaces from acute blood products. Aneurysmal SAH-like pattern on CT appears as an optical illusion effect of hypodense brain parenchyma and/or hyperdense surrounding cerebral cisterns and blood vessels termed as "pseudo-subarachnoid hemorrhage" (pseudo-SAH)...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Cynthia A Connolly, Janet Golden
In April 1918, President Woodrow Wilson, alarmed at the high draftee rejection rate, proclaimed the second year of American engagement in World War I as "Children's Year." The motto of the nationwide program was to "Save 100,000 Babies." Children's Year represented a multipronged child welfare campaign aimed at gathering data on best practices regarding maternal and child health promotion, documenting the effects of poverty on ill health, reducing the school drop-out rate, ensuring safe play spaces for children, and addressing the unique needs of targeted populations such as orphans and delinquents...
July 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Sébastien De Landtsheer, Philippe Lucarelli, Thomas Sauter
Understanding the functional properties of cells of different origins is a long-standing challenge of personalized medicine. Especially in cancer, the high heterogeneity observed in patients slows down the development of effective cures. The molecular differences between cell types or between healthy and diseased cellular states are usually determined by the wiring of regulatory networks. Understanding these molecular and cellular differences at the systems level would improve patient stratification and facilitate the design of rational intervention strategies...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Shraddha H Thakkar, Andrea Di Luca, Sabrina Zaccaria, Frank P T Baaijens, Carlijn V C Bouten, Patricia Y W Dankers
Dual electrospinning can be used to make multifunctional scaffolds for regenerative medicine applications. Here, two supramolecular polymers with different material properties are electrospun simultaneously to create a multifibrous mesh. Bisurea (BU)-based polycaprolactone, an elastomer providing strength to the mesh, and ureido-pyrimidinone (UPy) modified poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), a hydrogelator, introducing the capacity to deliver compounds upon swelling. The dual spun scaffolds are modularly tuned by mixing UPyPEG hydrogelators with different polymer lengths, to control swelling of the hydrogel fiber, while maintaining the mechanical properties of the scaffold...
June 5, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Vinita Agarwal
AIMS: The study aim was to understand the patient description of the therapeutic relationship with their CAM provider in the context of pain self-management. BACKGROUND: Because pain is a subjective state, its assessment depends on patient perception of and response to pain. For nurses to provide empathetic and compassionate care, there is a need to explicate patient perceptions of the therapeutic relationship to (re)conceptualize models of patient-centered care...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Chayaporn Suphavilai, Denis Bertrand, Niranjan Nagarajan
Motivation: As we move towards an era of precision medicine, the ability to predict patient-specific drug responses in cancer based on molecular information such as gene expression data represents both an opportunity and a challenge. In particular, methods are needed that can accommodate the high-dimensionality of data to learn interpretable models capturing drug response mechanisms, as well as providing robust predictions across datasets. Results: We propose a method based on ideas from "recommender systems" (CaDRReS) that predicts cancer drug responses for unseen cell-lines/patients based on learning projections for drugs and cell-lines into a latent "pharmacogenomic" space...
June 1, 2018: Bioinformatics
Michael I Miller, Sylvain Arguillère, Daniel J Tward, Laurent Younes
The nonlinear systems models of computational anatomy that have emerged over the past several decades are a synthesis of three significant areas of computational science and biological modeling. First is the algebraic model of biological shape as a Riemannian orbit, a set of objects under diffeomorphic action. Second is the embedding of anatomical shapes into the soft condensed matter physics continuum via the extension of the Euler equations to geodesic, smooth flows with inverses, encoding divergence for the compressibility of atrophy and expansion of growth...
June 4, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Unni Gopinathan, Nick Watts, Alexandre Lefebvre, Arthur Cheung, Steven J Hoffman, John-Arne Røttingen
This comparative case study investigated how two intergovernmental organisations without formal health mandates - the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) - have engaged with global health issues. Triangulating insights from key institutional documents, ten semi-structured interviews with senior officials, and scholarly books tracing the history of both organisations, the study identified an evolving and broadened engagement with global health issues in UNDP and WTO...
May 31, 2018: Global Public Health
Julian Sienkiewicz, Krzysztof Soja, Janusz A Hołyst, Peter M A Sloot
We study scientific collaboration at the level of universities. The scope of this study is to answer two fundamental questions: (i) can one indicate a category (i.e., a scientific discipline) that has the greatest impact on the rank of the university and (ii) do the best universities collaborate with the best ones only? Restricting ourselves to the 100 best universities from year 2009 we show how the number of publications in certain categories correlates with the university rank. Strikingly, the expected negative trend is not observed in all cases - for some categories even positive values are obtained...
May 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bin Wu, Yue Wang, Xiaorui Wu, Dong Liu, Dong Xu, Fei Wang
Sufficient sleep duration and good sleep quality are crucial to ensure normal physical and mental health, cognition and work performance for the common people, as well as astronauts. On-orbit sleep problem is very common among astronauts and has potential detrimental influences on the health of crewmembers and the safety of flight missions. Sleep in space is becoming a new medical research frontier. In this review we summarized on-orbit sleep problems of astronauts and six kinds of causes, and we presented the effects of lack of sleep on performance as well as mental and physical health, then we proposed seven kinds of countermeasures for sleep disturbance in spaceflight, including pharmacologic interventions, light treatment, crew selection and training, Traditional Chinese Medicine and so on...
May 30, 2018: Military Medical Research
Xiaoning Zhao, Yiran Li, Jiaxin Huai, Congcong Cheng, Teng Zhang, Linlin Xie, Siqi Wang, Meng Zhang, Ronghua Dai
Phellodendri chinensis cortex (P.C.cortex) and Anemarrhenae rhizoma (A. rhizoma) herb pair is a core component of traditional Chinese medicines used to treat inflammation and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The present study was designed to profile the arachidonic acid (AA) metabolomic characters in rat plasma and prostate after being treated with P.C.cortex and A.rhizoma as well as their combination. The plasma and prostate samples from sham group, BPH model group, herb pair group and two single herb groups were collected on days 7, 14, 21 and 28...
May 28, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
David W Price, David B Swanson, Mira B Irons, Richard E Hawkins
Longitudinal assessment (LA) involves the regular, spaced delivery of a limited number of questions on practice relevant content on a computer or mobile internet platform. Depending on the platform, participants may indicate relevance of the content to their practice and confidence in their answer prior to receiving immediate feedback (including critiques) on each question. Individual dashboards may be included to assist participants in tracking progress and identifying areas of strength and weaknesss across a content blueprint...
May 24, 2018: Medical Teacher
Peter J Wermuth, Sonsoles Piera-Velazquez, Joel Rosenbloom, Sergio A Jimenez
The discovery and validation of biomarkers resulting from technological advances in the analysis of genomic, transcriptomic, lipidomic and metabolomic pathways involved in the pathogenesis of complex human diseases have led to the development of personalized and rationally designed approaches for the clinical management of such disorders. Although some of these approaches have been applied to systemic sclerosis (SSc), an unmet need remains for validated, non-invasive biomarkers to aid in the diagnosis of SSc, as well as in the assessment of disease progression and response to therapeutic interventions...
May 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
George Dedes, Robert P Johnson, Mark Pankuch, Nick Detrich, Willemijn M A Pols, Simon Rit, Reinhard W Schulte, Katia Parodi, Guillaume Landry
PURPOSE: This experimental study is aimed at demonstrating, using a simple cylindrical water phantom, the feasibility of fluence modulated proton computed tomography (FMpCT) by pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton computed tomography (pCT). METHODS: The phase II pCT prototype of the Loma Linda U. and U. C. Santa Cruz was operated using the PBS beam line of the Northwestern Medicine Chicago Proton Center. A 20x10 grid of 1.37 cm full width half maximum pencil beams (PB) equally spaced by 1 cm was used to acquire 45 projections in step and shoot mode...
May 22, 2018: Medical Physics
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