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Space medicine

Mingeon Kim, Wook Jae Yoo, Bongsoo Lee
In nuclear medicine, obtaining information on the exact location, size, and dose of radiopharmaceuticals distributed on lesions is critically important. Therefore, we have fabricated a novel fiber-optic gamma endoscope (FOGE) to measure the shape and size of the radioisotope as well as the gamma-ray distribution simultaneously. To evaluate the performance of the novel FOGE, we obtained optical images and gamma images by using a USAF 1951 target and radioisotope sources, respectively. The experimental results demonstrated that the FOGE could be utilized to obtain both the location and the distribution of the radioactive isotope that emitted gamma-rays...
August 21, 2017: Optics Express
A J Dicken, J P O Evans, K D Rogers, D Prokopiou, S X Godber, M Wilson
We demonstrate a novel imaging architecture to collect range encoded diffraction patterns from overlapping samples in a single conical shell projection. The patterns were measured in the dark area encompassed by the beam via a centrally positioned aperture optically coupled to a pixelated energy-resolving detector. We show that a single exposure measurement of 0.3 mAs enables d-spacing values to be calculated. The axial positions of the samples were not required and the resultant measurements were robust in the presence of crystallographic textures...
September 4, 2017: Optics Express
Stelian Nicola, Flavia-Laura Handrea, Mihaela Crişan-Vida, Lăcrămioara Stoicu-Tivadar
The work described in this paper summarizes the development process and presents the results of a human genetics training application, studying the 20 amino acids formed by the combination of the 3 nucleotides of DNA targeting mainly medical and bioinformatics students. Currently, the domain applications using recognized human gestures of the Leap Motion sensor are used in molecules controlling and learning from Mendeleev table or in visualizing the animated reactions of specific molecules with water. The novelty in the current application consists in using the Leap Motion sensor creating new gestures for the application control and creating a tag based algorithm corresponding to each amino acid, depending on the position in the 3D virtual space of the 4 nucleotides of DNA and their type...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Julianna D Ianni, E Brian Welch, William A Grissom
PURPOSE: To correct line-to-line delays and phase errors in echo-planar imaging (EPI). THEORY AND METHODS: EPI-trajectory auto-corrected image reconstruction (EPI-TrACR) is an iterative maximum-likelihood technique that exploits data redundancy provided by multiple receive coils between nearby lines of k-space to determine and correct line-to-line trajectory delays and phase errors that cause ghosting artifacts. EPI-TrACR was efficiently implemented using a segmented FFT and was applied to in vivo brain data acquired at 7 T across acceleration (1×-4×) and multishot factors (1-4 shots), and in a time series...
October 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Nazneen Rahman, Haseebur Rahman, Mir Haris, Riaz Mahmood
Thevetia peruviana is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of external wounds, infected area, ring worms, tumours etc. in traditional system of medicine. The aim of the study was to evaluate the wound healing potentials of T. peruviana leaves hexane (LH) and fruit rind (FW) water extracts and to prove the folkloric claims. The antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials could be important strategies in defining potent wound healing drug. Based on these approaches the current study was designed using incision, excision and dead space wound models with the biochemical, antioxidant enzymes and inflammatory marker analysis...
October 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Hyejin Cho, Wonjun Choi, Hyunju Lee
BACKGROUND: In biomedical articles, a named entity recognition (NER) technique that identifies entity names from texts is an important element for extracting biological knowledge from articles. After NER is applied to articles, the next step is to normalize the identified names into standard concepts (i.e., disease names are mapped to the National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings disease terms). In biomedical articles, many entity normalization methods rely on domain-specific dictionaries for resolving synonyms and abbreviations...
October 13, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
Jin-Jing Shen, Xing-Chu Gong, Jian-Yang Pan, Hai-Bin Qu
Design space approach was applied in this study to optimize the lime milk precipitation process of Lonicera Japonica (Jinyinhua) aqueous extract. The evaluation indices for this process were total organic acid purity and amounts of 6 organic acids obtained from per unit mass of medicinal materials. Four critical process parameters (CPPs) including drop speed of lime milk, pH value after adding lime milk, settling time and settling temperature were identified by using the weighted standardized partial regression coefficient method...
March 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Xing-Chu Gong, Teng Chen, Hai-Bin Qu
Quality by design (QbD) concept is an advanced pharmaceutical quality control concept. The application of QbD concept in the research and development of pharmaceutical processes of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) mainly contains five parts, including the definition of critical processes and their evaluation criteria, the determination of critical process parameters and critical material attributes, the establishment of quantitative models, the development of design space, as well as the application and continuous improvement of control strategy...
March 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Bing Xu, Xin-Yuan Shi, Zhi-Sheng Wu, Yan-Ling Zhang, Yun Wang, Yan-Jiang Qiao
The pharmaceutical quality was built by design, formed in the manufacturing process and improved during the product's lifecycle. Based on the comprehensive literature review of pharmaceutical quality by design (QbD), the essential ideas and implementation strategies of pharmaceutical QbD were interpreted. Considering the complex nature of Chinese medicine, the "4H" model was innovated and proposed for implementing QbD in pharmaceutical development and industrial manufacture of Chinese medicine product. "4H" corresponds to the acronym of holistic design, holistic information analysis, holistic quality control, and holistic process optimization, which is consistent with the holistic concept of Chinese medicine theory...
March 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Sanjeeva Dissanayake, Mark Nagel, Emanuela Falaschetti, Jason Suggett
INTRODUCTION: The European Medicines Agency (EMA) requires that a specific valved holding chamber (VHC) is designated for use with a given pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI). No other regulatory authorities impose similar requirements, implying that VHCs are interchangeable. This in vitro study, employing EMA assessment criteria, assessed the equivalence of four anti-static VHCs (aVHCs) versus the non-conducting VHC most widely referenced in pMDI monographs, the AeroChamber Plus™ (AC+) VHC...
October 9, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Michael L Gross
Medical rules of eligibility permit severely injured Iraqi and Afghan nationals to receive care in Coalition medical facilities only if bed space is available and their injuries result directly from Coalition fire. The first rule favors Coalition soldiers over host-nation nationals and contradicts the principle of impartial, needs-based medical care. To justify preferential care for compatriots, wartime medicine invokes associative obligations of care that favor friends, family, and comrades-in-arms. Associative obligations have little place in peacetime medical care but significantly affect wartime medicine...
October 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Sreenath P Kyathanahally, Victor Mocioiu, Nuno Pedrosa de Barros, Johannes Slotboom, Alan J Wright, Margarida Julià-Sapé, Carles Arús, Roland Kreis
PURPOSE: To investigate and compare human judgment and machine learning tools for quality assessment of clinical MR spectra of brain tumors. METHODS: A very large set of 2574 single voxel spectra with short and long echo time from the eTUMOUR and INTERPRET databases were used for this analysis. Original human quality ratings from these studies as well as new human guidelines were used to train different machine learning algorithms for automatic quality control (AQC) based on various feature extraction methods and classification tools...
October 10, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Arno K Kumagai
Although educators embrace the values that are nominally included in the idea of "the art and science of medicine," the arts and humanities have remained at the edges of medical education. One reason for this exile is the overwhelming emphasis in the curriculum on biomedical science over the social sciences and humanities. Other causes are self-inflicted-a frequent lack of theoretical rigor in the design of educational offerings and, more important, no clear answer to the question of how the humanities can make better physicians...
October 3, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Caterina Caminiti, Elisa Iezzi, Rodolfo Passalacqua
INTRODUCTION: Our group previously demonstrated the feasibility of the HuCare Quality Improvement Strategy (HQIS), aimed at integrating into practice six psychosocial interventions recommended by international guidelines. This trial will assess whether the introduction of the strategy in oncology wards improves patient's health-related quality of life (HRQoL). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Multicentre, incomplete stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial, conducted in three clusters of five centres each, in three equally spaced time epochs...
October 6, 2017: BMJ Open
Heemin Kang, Minkyu Kim, Qian Feng, Sien Lin, Kongchang Wei, Rui Li, Chan Ju Choi, Tae-Hyun Kim, Gang Li, Jae-Min Oh, Liming Bian
Cellular behaviors, such as differentiation, are regulated by complex ligation processes involving cell surface receptors, which can be activated by various divalent metal cations. The design of nanoparticle for co-delivery of ligand and ligation activator can offer a novel strategy to synergistically stimulate ligation processes in vivo. Here, we present a novel layered double hydroxide (LDH)-based nanohybrid (MgFe-Ado-LDH), composed of layered MgFe hydroxide nanocarriers sandwiching the adenosine cargo molecule, maintained through an electrostatic balance, to co-deliver the adenosine (Ado) ligand from the interlayer spacing and the Mg(2+) ion (ligation activator) through the dissolution of the MgFe nanocarrier itself...
September 29, 2017: Biomaterials
Akshay Ashok Shah, Lois K Chenard, Joseph Tucker, Christopher J Helal
A novel Parallel Medicinal Chemistry (PMC)-enabled synthesis of 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines is developed employing condensation of easily accessible N-pyrazolylamides and nitriles. The presented studies describe singleton and library enablements that allowed rapid generation of molecular diversity to examine C4 and C6 vectors. Chemistry enabled access to challenging alkyl substituents expanding overall chemical space beyond that available via typical Csp2- Csp2 coupling and SnAr transformations. Furthermore, monomer group interconversions are discussed allowing use of larger and more diverse amides and carboxylic acids as precursors to nitriles...
October 6, 2017: ACS Combinatorial Science
Daniel J Foley, Philip G E Craven, Patrick M Collins, Richard G Doveston, Anthony Aimon, Romain Talon, Ian Churcher, Frank von Delft, Stephen P Marsden, Adam Nelson
The productive exploration of chemical space is an enduring challenge in chemical biology and medicinal chemistry. Natural products are biologically relevant, and their frameworks have facilitated chemical tool and drug discovery. A "top-down" synthetic approach is described that enabled a range of complex bridged intermediates to be converted with high step efficiency into 26 diverse sp(3) -rich scaffolds. The scaffolds have local natural product-like features, but are only distantly related to specific natural product frameworks...
October 6, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Dinghui Wang, Nicholas R Zwart, James G Pipe
PURPOSE: Most previous approaches to spiral Dixon water-fat imaging perform the water-fat separation and deblurring sequentially based on the assumption that the phase accumulation and blurring as a result of off-resonance are separable. This condition can easily be violated in regions where the B0 inhomogeneity varies rapidly. The goal of this work is to present a novel joint water-fat separation and deblurring method for spiral imaging. METHODS: The proposed approach is based on a more accurate signal model that takes into account the phase accumulation and blurring simultaneously...
October 5, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Stephen J Chawner, Manuel J Cases-Thomas, James A Bull
Cyclopropanes provide important design elements in medicinal chemistry and are widely present in drug compounds. Here we describe a strategy and extensive synthetic studies for the preparation of a diverse collection of cyclopropane-containing lead-like compounds, fragments and building blocks exploiting a single precursor. The bifunctional cyclopropane (E/Z)-ethyl 2-(phenylsulfanyl)-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate was designed to allow derivatization through the ester and sulfide functionalities to topologically varied compounds designed to fit in desirable chemical space for drug discovery...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Mitesh J Borad, Patricia M LoRusso
The advent of next-generation sequencing has accelerated the implementation of genomic profiling in the care and management of patients with cancer. Initial efforts have focused on target identification in patients with advanced cancer. Prognostication, resistance detection, disease monitoring, and early detection efforts are also underway. This review highlights some of the challenges in this evolving space. This includes choosing between gene-panel and comprehensive approaches, DNA and transcriptome data integration, reduction of false-positive variants, addressing tumor heterogeneity, establishment of workflows to address unsolicited findings, and data sharing and privacy concerns...
October 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
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