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Space medicine

Nina Naquiah, Md Eaqub Ali, M A Motalib Hossain, Sharmin Sultana, Mohammad Nasir Uddin Ahamad
The demand for crocodile meat is quickly growing because of its exotic and organoleptic appeal and also low content of cholesterol and lipids. Moreover, crocodile oil and blood have been used in alternative medicines for treating asthma and several other ailments since ancient times. Furthermore, crocodile hides have great demand in leather industries. All of these have collectively contributed to the extensive hunting, illegal trading and consequent decline of crocodiles in most parts of the world. To keep space with the growing demands, some crocodile species such as Crocodylus porosus have been raised in farms and its commercial trades have been legalized...
February 15, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Min He, Pan Yan, Zhi-Yu Yang, Zhi-Min Zhang, Tian-Biao Yang, Liang Hong
Head Space/Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (HS-SPME) coupled with Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) was used to determine the volatile/heat-labile components in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort - Cyperus rotundus rhizomes. Facing co-eluting peaks in k samples, a trilinear structure was reconstructed to obtain the second-order advantage. The retention time (RT) shift with multi-channel detection signals for different samples has been vital in maintaining the trilinear structure, thus a modified multiscale peak alignment (mMSPA) method was proposed in this paper...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Shruti Sevak, Ashley Woodfin, Zachary Hothem, Rose Callahan, James Robbins, Kathryn Ziegler
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to develop an ultrasound-guided training curriculum for continuous infusion catheter placement in the paravertebral space and to create a gelatin thoracic spine-rib model for use in this training. We sought to create a model that was inexpensive and reusable such that multiple participants could use one model during training. DESIGN: The model was prepared by embedding a firm foam thoracic spine replica with bilateral attached ribs into an opaque gelatin mixture...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Robert G W Kirk, Edmund Ramsden
Seeking a scientific basis for understanding and treating mental illness, and inspired by the work of Ivan Pavlov, American physiologists, psychiatrists and psychologists in the 1920s turned to nonhuman animals. This paper examines how new constructs such as "experimental neurosis" emerged as tools to enable psychiatric comparison across species. From 1923 to 1962, the Cornell "Behavior Farm" was a leading interdisciplinary research center pioneering novel techniques to experimentally study nonhuman psychopathology...
February 7, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Benet Reid, Nina Laurie, Matt Baillie Smith
Trans-national medicine, historically associated with colonial politics, is now central to discourses of global health and development, thrust into mainstream media by catastrophic events (earthquakes, disease epidemics), and enshrined in the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals. Volunteer human-resource is an important contributor to international health-development work. International Voluntary Health Networks (IVHNs, that connect richer and poorer countries through healthcare) are situated at a meeting-point between geographies and sociologies of health...
February 1, 2018: Health & Place
Haribabu Palneedi, Jung Hwan Park, Deepam Maurya, Mahesh Peddigari, Geon-Tae Hwang, Venkateswarlu Annapureddy, Jong-Woo Kim, Jong-Jin Choi, Byung-Dong Hahn, Shashank Priya, Keon Jae Lee, Jungho Ryu
Recent technological advances in developing a diverse range of lasers have opened new avenues in material processing. Laser processing of materials involves their exposure to rapid and localized energy, which creates conditions of electronic and thermodynamic nonequilibrium. The laser-induced heat can be localized in space and time, enabling excellent control over the manipulation of materials. Metal oxides are of significant interest for applications ranging from microelectronics to medicine. Numerous studies have investigated the synthesis, manipulation, and patterning of metal oxide films and nanostructures...
February 7, 2018: Advanced Materials
Isabel A Barata, Joriane M Stadnyck, Meredith Akerman, Kate OʼNeill, Jill Castaneda, Anupama Subramony, Paula Fessler, Charles Schleien, John DʼAngelo
STUDY OBJECTIVE: A gap analysis of emergency departments' (EDs') pediatric readiness across a health system was performed after the appointment of a service line health system pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) quality director. METHODS: A 55-question survey was completed by each eligible ED to generate a weighted pediatric readiness score (WPRS). The survey included questions regarding volume, ED configuration, presence of a pediatric emergency care coordinator (PECC), quality initiatives, policies and procedures, and equipment...
February 5, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Yu I Pigolkin, Yu V Lomakin, E N Leonova
Russia joined the Bologna process in 2003 and since that time has become integrated into the unified European educational space. The key element of the new form of the higher education process is the self-guided unsupervised work of the students. Motivation is needed to promote the involvement of the students in the educational process which implies the necessity of the goal-oriented initiative for the acquisition of professional knowledge and practical experience in the field of forensic medicine. To achieve this goal, the Department of Forensic Medicine of I...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Linda Le-Wendling, Wesley Glick, Patrick Tighe
As newer pharmacologic and procedural interventions, technology, and data on outcomes in pain management are becoming available, effective acute pain management will require a dedicated Acute Pain Service (APS) to help determine the most optimal pain management plan for the patients. Goals for pain management must take into consideration the side effect profile of drugs and potential complications of procedural interventions. Multiple objective optimization is the combination of multiple different objectives for acute pain management...
December 2017: Techniques in Orthopaedics: TIO
Alice E Barsoumian, Heather C Yun
Background: The San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium Infectious Disease Fellowship program historically included a monthly short-answer and multiple-choice quiz. The intent was to ensure medical knowledge in relevant content areas that may not be addressed through clinical rotations, such as operationally relevant infectious disease. After completion, it was discussed in a small group with faculty. Over time, faculty noted increasing dissatisfaction with the activity...
January 1, 2018: Military Medicine
Lina Humbeck, Sebastian Weigang, Till Schäfer, Petra Mutzel, Oliver Koch
A common issue during drug design and development is the discovery of novel scaffolds for protein targets. On the one hand the chemical space of purchasable compounds is rather limited and on the other hand artificially generated molecules suffer from a grave lack of accessibility in practice. Therefore, we generated a novel virtual library of small molecules which are synthesizable from purchasable educts, called CHIPMUNK (CHemically feasible In silico Public Molecular UNiverse Knowledge base). Altogether CHIPMUNK covers over 95 million compounds and encompasses regions of the chemical space that are not covered by existing databases...
February 1, 2018: ChemMedChem
Dino Oglic, Steven A Oatley, Simon J F Macdonald, Thomas Mcinally, Roman Garnett, Jonathan D Hirst, Thomas Gärtner
We consider lead discovery as active search in a space of labelled graphs. In particular, we extend our recent data-driven adaptive Markov chain approach, and evaluate it on a focused drug design problem, where we search for an antagonist of an αv integrin, the target protein that belongs to a group of Arg-Gly-Asp integrin receptors. This group of integrin receptors is thought to play a key role in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a chronic lung disease of significant pharmaceutical interest. As an in silico proxy of the binding affinity, we use a molecular docking score to an experimentally determined αvβ6 protein structure...
February 1, 2018: Molecular Informatics
Michael I Koukourakis, Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Konstantina Fylaktakidou, Efthimios Sivridis, Christos E Zois, Dimitra Kalamida, Achilleas Mitrakas, Stamatia Pouliliou, Ilias V Karagounis, Konstantinos Simopoulos, David J P Ferguson, Adrian L Harris
Effective cytoprotectors that are selective for normal tissues could decrease radiotherapy and chemotherapy sequelae and facilitate the safe administration of higher radiation doses. This could improve the cure rates of radiotherapy for cancer patients. Autophagy is a cytoplasmic cellular process that is necessary for the clearance of damaged or aged proteins and organelles. It is a strong determinant of post-irradiation cell fate. In this study, we investigated the effect of the mTOR-independent small molecule enhancer of autophagy (SMER28) on mouse liver autophagy and post-irradiation recovery of mouse bone marrow and liver...
January 31, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Pawan Kapoor, Deepak Gaur
All facets of activity in the speciality of Aviation Medicine are essentially aimed at enhancing aerospace safety. This paper highlights some innovative changes brought about by Aerospace Medicine in the three major fields of the speciality namely, medical evaluation, aeromedical training and research. Based on lab and field studies, military aircrew are now permitted flying with Modifinil as 'Go' Pill and Zolpidem as 'No-Go' Pill during sustained operations. Several other drugs for disabilities like Hypertension and CAD are now permitted for aviators...
October 2017: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Vivienne Ng, Jennifer Plitt, David Biffar
Introduction: Peritonsillar abscess (PTA) is the most common deep space infection of the head and neck presenting to emergency departments.1 No commercial PTA task trainer exists for simulation training. Thus, resident physicians often perform their first PTA needle aspiration in the clinical setting, knowing that carotid artery puncture and hemorrhage are serious and devastating complications. While several low-fidelity PTA task trainers have been previously described, none allow for ultrasound image acquisition...
January 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Christian Agatemor, Kelly N Ibsen, Eden E L Tanner, Samir Mitragotri
Advances in the field of ionic liquids have opened new applications beyond their traditional use as solvents into other fields especially healthcare. The broad chemical space, rich with structurally diverse ions, and coupled with the flexibility to form complementary ion pairs enables task-specific optimization at the molecular level to design ionic liquids for envisioned functions. Consequently, ionic liquids now are tailored as innovative solutions to address many problems in medicine. To date, ionic liquids have been designed to promote dissolution of poorly soluble drugs and disrupt physiological barriers to transport drugs to targeted sites...
January 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
R Nishanth Rao, Balamurali Mm, Barnali Maiti, Ranjit Thakuria, Kaushik Chanda
An expeditious catalyst free heteroannulation reaction for imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines/pyrimidines /pyrazines was developed in green solvent under microwave irradiation. Using H2O-IPA as the reaction medium, various substituted 2-aminopyridines/pyrazines/pyrimidines underwent annulation reaction with α-bromoketones under microwave irradiation to provide the corresponding imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines/pyrimidines/pyrazines in excellent yields. The synthetic methodology appears to be very simple and superior to the already reported procedures with the high abundance of commercial reagents and great ability in expanding the molecular diversity...
January 26, 2018: ACS Combinatorial Science
Joshua M Goldenberg, Mark D Pagel, Julio Cárdenas-Rodríguez
PURPOSE: We sought to investigate the potential of D-maltose, D-sorbitol, and D-mannitol as T2 exchange magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. We also sought to compare the in vivo pharmacokinetics of D-maltose with D-glucose with dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) MRI. METHODS: T1 and T2 relaxation time constants of the saccharides were measured using eight pH values and nine concentrations. The effect of echo spacing in a multiecho acquisition sequence used for the T2 measurement was evaluated for all samples...
January 25, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Abdul Hameed, Mariya Al-Rashida, Maliha Uroos, Syed Abid Ali, Arshia, Marium Ishtiaq, Khalid Mohammed Khan
Quinazoline and quinazolinone scaffolds represent an important class of biologically active nitrogen heterocyclic compounds. A variety of marketed drugs are based on these moieties. A diverse range of molecules with quinazoline/quinazolinone moieties have been reported to exhibit broad spectrum of biological activities. Area covered: This review covers recent efforts in the synthesis and biological screening of quinazoline/quinazolinone based compounds from 2011-2016. Expert Opinion: Quinazoline and quinazolinones represent a diverse class of biologically active nitrogen heterocyclic compounds with immense therapeutic potential...
January 25, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Olga Solomon, Mary C Lawlor
Research on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and on Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and other types of dementia describes a behaviour called 'wandering', a term that denotes movement through space lacking intention or exact destination, as when a person is disoriented or not self-aware. In the U.S., 'wandering' in both ASD and AD has been examined mostly from a management and prevention perspective. It prioritizes safety while primarily overlooking personal experiences of those who 'wander' and their families, thus limiting the range of potentially effective strategies to address this issue...
January 24, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
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