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Molecular motor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782494/ubiquitin-dependent-proteolysis-of-cxcl7-leads-to-posterior-longitudinal-ligament-ossification
#1
Michiyo Tsuru, Atsushi Ono, Hideaki Umeyama, Masahiro Takeuchi, Kensei Nagata
Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), a spinal ligament, reduces the range of motion in limbs. No treatment is currently available for OPLL, which is why therapies are urgently needed. OPLL occurs in obesity, is more common in men, and has an onset after 40 years of age. The mechanisms underlying OPLL remain unclear. In this study, we performed a serum proteomic analysis in both OPLL patients and healthy subjects to identify factors potentially involved in the development of OPLL, and found reduced levels of a protein that might underlie the pathology of OPLL...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779945/moderate-uv-exposure-enhances-learning-and-memory-by-promoting-a-novel-glutamate-biosynthetic-pathway-in-the-brain
#2
Hongying Zhu, Ning Wang, Lei Yao, Qi Chen, Ran Zhang, Junchao Qian, Yiwen Hou, Weiwei Guo, Sijia Fan, Siling Liu, Qiaoyun Zhao, Feng Du, Xin Zuo, Yujun Guo, Yan Xu, Jiali Li, Tian Xue, Kai Zhong, Xiaoyuan Song, Guangming Huang, Wei Xiong
Sunlight exposure is known to affect mood, learning, and cognition. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that moderate UV exposure elevated blood urocanic acid (UCA), which then crossed the blood-brain barrier. Single-cell mass spectrometry and isotopic labeling revealed a novel intra-neuronal metabolic pathway converting UCA to glutamate (GLU) after UV exposure. This UV-triggered GLU synthesis promoted its packaging into synaptic vesicles and its release at glutamatergic terminals in the motor cortex and hippocampus...
May 7, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777101/supramolecularly-directed-rotary-motion-in-a-photoresponsive-receptor
#3
Sander J Wezenberg, Ben L Feringa
Stimuli-controlled motion at the molecular level has fascinated chemists already for several decades. Taking inspiration from the myriad of dynamic and machine-like functions in nature, a number of strategies have been developed to control motion in purely synthetic systems. Unidirectional rotary motion, such as is observed in ATP synthase and other motor proteins, remains highly challenging to achieve. Current artificial molecular motor systems rely on intrinsic asymmetry or a specific sequence of chemical transformations...
May 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777056/the-extracellular-loop-of-pendrin-and-prestin-modulates-their-voltage-sensing-property
#4
Makoto F Kuwabara, Koichiro Wasano, Satoe Takahashi, Justin Bodner, Tomotaka Komori, Sotaro Uemura, Jing Zheng, Tomohiro Shima, Kazuaki Homma
Pendrin and prestin belong to the solute carrier 26 (SLC26) family of anion transporters. Prestin is unique among the SLC26 family members in that it displays voltage-driven motor activity (electromotility) and concurrent gating currents that manifests as nonlinear cell membrane electrical capacitance (NLC). Although the anion transport mechanism of the SLC26 proteins has begun to be elucidated, the molecular mechanism of electromotility, which is thought to be evolved from an ancestral ion transport mechanism, still remains largely elusive...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776169/effects-of-nucleosome-stability-on-remodeler-catalyzed-repositioning
#5
Aaron M Morgan, Sarah E LeGresley, Koan Briggs, Gada Al-Ani, Christopher J Fischer
Chromatin remodelers are molecular motors that play essential roles in the regulation of nucleosome positioning and chromatin accessibility. These machines couple the energy obtained from the binding and hydrolysis of ATP to the mechanical work of manipulating chromatin structure through processes that are not completely understood. Here we present a quantitative analysis of nucleosome repositioning by the imitation switch (ISWI) chromatin remodeler and demonstrate that nucleosome stability significantly impacts the observed activity...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776081/active-processes-in-one-dimension
#6
Thibaut Demaerel, Christian Maes
We consider the thermal and athermal overdamped motion of particles in one-dimensional geometries where discrete internal degrees of freedom (spin) are coupled with the translational motion. Adding a driving velocity that depends on the time-dependent spin constitutes the simplest model of active particles (run-and-tumble processes) where the violation of the equipartition principle and of the Sutherland-Einstein relation can be studied in detail even when there is generalized reversibility. We give an example (with four spin values) where the irreversibility of the translational motion manifests itself only in higher-order (than two) time correlations...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774639/controlling-dual-molecular-pumps-electrochemically
#7
Cristian Pezzato, Minh T Nguyen, Dong Jun Kim, Ommid Anamimoghadam, Lorenzo Mosca, Fraser Stoddart
Artificial molecular machines can be operated using either physical or chemical inputs. Light-powered motors display clean and autonomous operations, whereas chemically-driven machines generate waste products and are intermittent in their motions. Herein, we show that controlled changes in applied electrochemical potentials can drive the operation of artificial molecular pumps in a semi-autonomous manner - that is, without the need for consecutive additions of chemical fuel(s). The electroanalytical approach described in this communication promotes the assembly of cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) rings along a positively charged oligomeric chain, providing easy access to the formation of multiple mechanical bonds by means of a controlled supply of electricity...
May 18, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772246/preterm-birth-disrupts-cerebellar-development-by-affecting-granule-cell-proliferation-program-and-bergmann-glia
#8
Igor Y Iskusnykh, Randal K Buddington, Victor V Chizhikov
Preterm birth is a leading cause of long-term motor and cognitive deficits. Clinical studies suggest that some of these deficits result from disruption of cerebellar development, but the mechanisms that mediate cerebellar abnormalities in preterm infants are largely unknown. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether preterm birth and precocious exposure to the ex-utero environment directly disrupt cerebellar development or indirectly by increasing the probability of cerebellar injury, including that resulting from clinical interventions and protocols associated with the care of preterm infants...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771342/recent-progress-in-structural-biology-lessons-from-our-research-history
#9
Ryo Nitta, Tsuyoshi Imasaki, Eriko Nitta
The recent 'resolution revolution' in structural analyses of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has drastically changed the research strategy for structural biology. In addition to X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, cryo-EM has achieved the structural analysis of biological molecules at near-atomic resolution, resulting in the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2017. The effect of this revolution has spread within the biology and medical science fields affecting everything from basic research to pharmaceutical development by visualizing atomic structure...
May 16, 2018: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770773/highly-ordered-molecular-rotor-matrix-on-a-nanopatterned-template-titanyl-phthalocyanine-molecules-on-feo-pt-111
#10
Shuangzan Lu, Min Huang, Zhihui Qin, Yinghui Yu, Qinmin Guo, Gengyu Cao
Molecular rotors, motors and gears plays important roles in artificial molecular machines, in which rotor and motor matrices are much desirable for large scale bottom-up fabrication of molecular machines. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a highly ordered molecular rotor matrix by depositing nonplanar dipolar titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc, C<sub>32</sub>H<sub>16</sub>N<sub>8</sub>OTi) molecules on Moiré patterned dipolar FeO/Pt(111) substrate...
May 17, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769405/%C3%AE-synuclein-stimulation-of-monoamine-oxidase-b-and-legumain-protease-mediates-the-pathology-of-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Seong Su Kang, Eun Hee Ahn, Zhentao Zhang, Xia Liu, Fredric P Manfredsson, Ivette M Sandoval, Susov Dhakal, P Michael Iuvone, Xuebing Cao, Keqiang Ye
Dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with abnormal dopamine metabolism by MAO-B (monoamine oxidase-B) and intracellular α-Synuclein (α-Syn) aggregates, called the Lewy body. However, the molecular relationship between α-Syn and MAO-B remains unclear. Here, we show that α-Syn directly binds to MAO-B and stimulates its enzymatic activity, which triggers AEP (asparagine endopeptidase; legumain) activation and subsequent α-Syn cleavage at N103, leading to dopaminergic neurodegeneration...
May 16, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769041/cortical-atrophy-and-hypofibrinogenemia-due-to-fgg-and-tbcd-mutations-in-a-single-family-a-case-report
#12
Joshi Stephen, Sheela Nampoothiri, K P Vinayan, Dhanya Yesodharan, Preetha Remesh, William A Gahl, May Christine V Malicdan
BACKGROUND: Blended phenotypes or co-occurrence of independent phenotypically distinct conditions are extremely rare and are due to coincidence of multiple pathogenic mutations, especially due to consanguinity. Hereditary fibrinogen deficiencies result from mutations in the genes FGA, FGB, and FGG, encoding the three different polypeptide chains that comprise fibrinogen. Neurodevelopmental abnormalities have not been associated with fibrinogen deficiencies. In this study, we report an unusual patient with a combination of two independently inherited genetic conditions; fibrinogen deficiency and early onset cortical atrophy...
May 16, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763923/bidirectional-connections-between-depression-and-ataxia-severity-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3-patients
#13
Min-Ting Lin, Jin-Shan Yang, Ping-Ping Chen, Mei-Zhen Qian, Hui-Xia Lin, Xiao-Ping Chen, Xian-Jin Shang, Dan-Ni Wang, Yu-Chao Chen, Bin Jiang, Yi-Jun Chen, Wan-Jin Chen, Ning Wang, Shi-Rui Gan
BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), which is the most common subtype of SCA worldwide, exhibits common neuropsychological symptoms such as depression. However, the contribution of depression to the severity of SCA3 has not yet been thoroughly investigated. METHODS: The present study investigated the prevalence of depression using Beck depression inventory in 104 molecularly confirmed SCA3 patients from China. The putative risk factors for depression and whether the depression could affect the severity of ataxia were established by multivariable linear regression models...
May 15, 2018: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762713/snap23-kif5-complex-controls-mglu1-receptor-trafficking
#14
Fabrice Raynaud, Vincent Homburger, Martial Seveno, Oana Vigy, Enora Moutin, Laurent Fagni, Julie Perroy
Metabotropic glutamate receptors are expressed at excitatory synapses and control synaptic transmission in mammalian brain. These receptors are involved in numerous patho-physiological functions. However, little is known about the molecular determinants responsible for their intracellular transport and membrane targeting. Here we investigated the nature of the molecular motor and adaptor protein responsible for trafficking and membrane localization of the group I metabotropic glutamate mGlu1 post-synaptic receptor in cultured hippocampal neurons...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761115/depdc5-knockdown-causes-mtor-dependent-motor-hyperactivity-in-zebrafish
#15
Hortense de Calbiac, Adriana Dabacan, Elise Marsan, Hervé Tostivint, Gabrielle Devienne, Saeko Ishida, Eric Leguern, Stéphanie Baulac, Raul C Muresan, Edor Kabashi, Sorana Ciura
Objective: DEPDC5 was identified as a major genetic cause of focal epilepsy with deleterious mutations found in a wide range of inherited forms of focal epilepsy, associated with malformation of cortical development in certain cases. Identification of frameshift, truncation, and deletion mutations implicates haploinsufficiency of DEPDC5 in the etiology of focal epilepsy. DEPDC5 is a component of the GATOR1 complex, acting as a negative regulator of mTOR signaling. Methods: Zebrafish represents a vertebrate model suitable for genetic analysis and drug screening in epilepsy-related disorders...
May 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760063/elastic-coupling-power-stroke-mechanism-of-the-f-1-atpase-molecular-motor
#16
James L Martin, Robert Ishmukhametov, David Spetzler, Tassilo Hornung, Wayne D Frasch
The angular velocity profile of the 120° F1 -ATPase power stroke was resolved as a function of temperature from 16.3 to 44.6 °C using a ΔμATP = -31.25 k B T at a time resolution of 10 μs. Angular velocities during the first 60° of the power stroke (phase 1) varied inversely with temperature, resulting in negative activation energies with a parabolic dependence. This is direct evidence that phase 1 rotation derives from elastic energy (spring constant, κ = 50 k B T ·rad-2 ). Phase 2 of the power stroke had an enthalpic component indicating that additional energy input occurred to enable the γ-subunit to overcome energy stored by the spring after rotating beyond its 34° equilibrium position...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758660/mechanical-transduction-via-a-single-soft-polymer
#17
Ruizheng Hou, Nan Wang, Weizhu Bao, Zhisong Wang
Molecular machines from biology and nanotechnology often depend on soft structures to perform mechanical functions, but the underlying mechanisms and advantages or disadvantages over rigid structures are not fully understood. We report here a rigorous study of mechanical transduction along a single soft polymer based on exact solutions to the realistic three-dimensional wormlike-chain model and augmented with analytical relations derived from simpler polymer models. The results reveal surprisingly that a soft polymer with vanishingly small persistence length below a single chemical bond still transduces biased displacement and mechanical work up to practically significant amounts...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758603/quantifying-fluctuations-in-reversible-enzymatic-cycles-and-clocks
#18
Harmen Wierenga, Pieter Rein Ten Wolde, Nils B Becker
Biochemical reactions are fundamentally noisy at a molecular scale. This limits the precision of reaction networks, but it also allows fluctuation measurements that may reveal the structure and dynamics of the underlying biochemical network. Here, we study nonequilibrium reaction cycles, such as the mechanochemical cycle of molecular motors, the phosphorylation cycle of circadian clock proteins, or the transition state cycle of enzymes. Fluctuations in such cycles may be measured using either of two classical definitions of the randomness parameter, which we show to be equivalent in general microscopically reversible cycles...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758221/inhibition-of-striatal-cholinergic-interneuron-activity-by-the-kv7-opener-retigabine-and-the-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-diclofenac
#19
Rodrigo Manuel Paz, Cecilia Tubert, Agostina Stahl, Analía López Díaz, Roberto Etchenique, Mario Gustavo Murer, Lorena Rela
Striatal cholinergic interneurons provide modulation to striatal circuits involved in voluntary motor control and goal-directed behaviors through their autonomous tonic discharge and their firing "pause" responses to novel and rewarding environmental events. Striatal cholinergic interneuron hyperactivity was linked to the motor deficits associated with Parkinson's disease and the adverse effects of chronic antiparkinsonian therapy like l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Here we addressed whether Kv7 channels, which provide negative feedback to excitation in other neuron types, are involved in the control of striatal cholinergic interneuron tonic activity and response to excitatory inputs...
May 11, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755516/synaptic-paths-to-neurodegeneration-the-emerging-role-of-tdp-43-and-fus-in-synaptic-functions
#20
REVIEW
Shuo-Chien Ling
TAR DNA-binding protein-43 KDa (TDP-43) and fused in sarcoma (FUS) as the defining pathological hallmarks for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), coupled with ALS-FTD-causing mutations in both genes, indicate that their dysfunctions damage the motor system and cognition. On the molecular level, TDP-43 and FUS participate in the biogenesis and metabolism of coding and noncoding RNAs as well as in the transport and translation of mRNAs as part of cytoplasmic mRNA-ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) granules...
2018: Neural Plasticity
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