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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930615/role-for-apolipoprotein-e-in-neurodegeneration-and-mercury-intoxication
#1
Gabriela de Paula Fonseca Arrifano, Marcus Augusto de Oliveira, Jose Rogerio Souza-Monteiro, Ricardo Oliveira Paraense, Andrea Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Jose Richardo Dos Santos Vieira, Artur Luis da Costa Silva, Barbarella de Matos Macchi, Jose Luiz Martins do Nascimento, Rommel Mario Rodriguez Burbano, Maria Elena Crespo-Lopez
Mercury intoxication is a serious public health problem and a worldwide concern. The Minamata Convention on Mercury has been signed by 128 countries and endorsed by the World Health Organization with the recommendation of promoting the management of epidemiological information. The Central Nervous System is the main target organ for mercury. Symptoms of intoxication include altered motor coordination, visual and tactile dysfunction and paralysis, caused by neurodegeneration with a key role for oxidative damage...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930607/transcriptomics-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#2
Marios G Krokidis, Panagiotis Vlamos
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset, incurable neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective death of upper and lowers motor neurons in the spinal cord, brainstem and motor cortex, which ultimately leads to paralysis and death within 2-3 years of onset. ALS is poorly understood, although multiple studies have been proposed to explain the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disorder. The development of microarray technology, for simultaneous analysis of the transcriptional expression of thousands of genes, has provided new possibilities to get better insights into the pathogenesis of ALS, and most important, potential new candidate targets for novel treatments...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930582/hypothesis-on-interactions-of-macromolecules-based-on-molecular-vibration-patterns-in-cells-and-tissues
#3
Werner Jaross
The molecular vibration patterns of structure-forming macromolecules in the living cell create very specific electromagnetic frequency patterns which might be used for information on spatial position in the three-dimensional structure as well as the chemical characteristics. Chemical change of a molecule results in a change of the vibration pattern and thus in a change of the emitted electromagnetic frequency pattern. These patterns have to be received by proteins responsible for the necessary interactions and functions...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928949/plasmapheresis-in-neurological-disorders-six-years-experience-from-university-clinical-center-tuzla
#4
Osman Sinanović, Sanela Zukić, Adnan Burina, Nermina Pirić, Renata Hodžić, Mirza Atić, Mirna Alečković-Halilović, Enisa Mešić
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is an extracorporeal blood purification technique that is designed to remove substances with a large molecular weight. The TPE procedure includes removal of antibodies, alloantibodies, immune complexes, monoclonal protein, toxins or cytokines, and involves the replenishment of a specific plasma factor. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical response to TPE in various neurological patients, and to assess the clinical response to this therapy...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928941/computational-design-of-molecular-motors-as-nanocircuits-in-leishmaniasis
#5
Dipali Kosey, Shailza Singh
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of lesihmaniasis, caused by Leishmania major and is spread by the bite of a sandfly .This species infects the macrophages and dendritic cells Due to multi-drug resistance, there is a need for a new therapeutic technique. Recently, a novel molecular motor of Leishmania, Myosin XXI, was classified and characterized. In addition, the drug resistance in this organism has been linked with the overexpression of ABC transporters. Systems biology aims to study the simulation and modeling of natural biological systems whereas synthetic biology deals with building novel and artificial biological parts and devices  Together they have contributed enormously to drug discovery, vaccine design and development, infectious disease detection and diagnostics...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928676/effects-of-immune-activation-during-early-or-late-gestation-on-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-measures-in-adult-rat-offspring
#6
Tasnim Rahman, Katerina Zavitsanou, Tertia Purves-Tyson, Lauren R Harms, Crystal Meehan, Ulrich Schall, Juanita Todd, Deborah M Hodgson, Patricia T Michie, Cyndi Shannon Weickert
BACKGROUND: Glutamatergic receptor [N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)] alterations within cortex, hippocampus, and striatum are linked to schizophrenia pathology. Maternal immune activation (MIA) is an environmental risk factor for the development of schizophrenia in offspring. In rodents, gestational timing of MIA may result in distinct behavioral outcomes in adulthood, but how timing of MIA may impact the nature and extent of NMDAR-related changes in brain is not known. We hypothesize that NMDAR-related molecular changes in rat cortex, striatum, and hippocampus are induced by MIA and are dependent on the timing of gestational inflammation and sex of the offspring...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927719/sex-dependent-behavioral-impairments-in-the-hdhq350-mouse-line
#7
Jessica K Cao, Peter J Detloff, Richard G Gardner, Nephi Stella
Huntington's Disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by gradual deterioration of motor and cognitive functions and development of psychiatric deficits. Animal models provide powerful means to study the pathological processes, molecular dysfunctions and symptoms associated with HD. We performed a longitudinal behavioral study of the newly developed HdhQ350/+ mouse line, a knock-in model that expresses a repeat of 350 glutamines. We found remarkable sex-dependent differences on symptom onset and severity...
September 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926223/supramolecular-motors-on-graphite-surface-stabilized-by-charge-states-and-hydrogen-bonds
#8
Kai Sun, Ji-Yong Luo, Xin Zhang, Zhi-Jian Wu, Ying Wang, Hong-Kuan Yuan, Zu-Hong Xiong, Shao-Chun Li, Qi-Kun Xue, Jun-Zhong Wang
Molecular motors are nanoscale machines that convert external energies into controlled mechanical movements. In supramolecular motors, the rotator and stator are held together mechanically, and thus the rotation can be essentially barrier free when molecular conformation is negligible. However, nearly all the supramolecular motors appeared in solutions or host-guest complexes. Surface-mounted supramolecular motors have rarely been addressed, even though they are easily manipulated by external fields. Here we report a surface-mounted supramolecular motor assembled by charge states and hydrogen bonds...
September 19, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924363/thrombospondin-1-gene-deficiency-worsens-the-neurological-outcomes-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#9
Chongjie Cheng, Zhanyang Yu, Song Zhao, Zhengbu Liao, Changhong Xing, Yinghua Jiang, Yong-Guang Yang, Michael J Whalen, Eng H Lo, Xiaochuan Sun, Xiaoying Wang
Background: Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is an extracellular matrix protein that plays multiple physiological and pathophysiological roles in the brain. Experimental reports suggest that TSP-1 may have an adverse role in neuronal function recovery under certain injury conditions. However, the roles of TSP-1 in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have not been elucidated. In this study we for the first time investigated the roles of TSP-1 in a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of TBI in TSP-1 knockout (TSP-1 KO) and wild type (WT) mice...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923922/trkb-neurotrophic-activities-are-blocked-by-%C3%AE-synuclein-triggering-dopaminergic-cell-death-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Seong Su Kang, Zhentao Zhang, Xia Liu, Fredric P Manfredsson, Matthew J Benskey, Xuebing Cao, Jun Xu, Yi E Sun, Keqiang Ye
BDNF/TrkB neurotrophic signaling is essential for dopaminergic neuronal survival, and the activities are reduced in the substantial nigra (SN) of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, whether α-Syn (alpha-synuclein) aggregation, a hallmark in the remaining SN neurons in PD, accounts for the neurotrophic inhibition remains elusive. Here we show that α-Syn selectively interacts with TrkB receptors and inhibits BDNF/TrkB signaling, leading to dopaminergic neuronal death. α-Syn binds to the kinase domain on TrkB, which is negatively regulated by BDNF or Fyn tyrosine kinase...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923065/the-heat-shock-response-in-neurons-and-astroglia-and-its-role-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Rebecca San Gil, Lezanne Ooi, Justin J Yerbury, Heath Ecroyd
Protein inclusions are a predominant molecular pathology found in numerous neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington's disease. Protein inclusions form in discrete areas of the brain characteristic to the type of neurodegenerative disease, and coincide with the death of neurons in that region (e.g. spinal cord motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). This suggests that the process of protein misfolding leading to inclusion formation is neurotoxic, and that cell-autonomous and non-cell autonomous mechanisms that maintain protein homeostasis (proteostasis) can, at times, be insufficient to prevent protein inclusion formation in the central nervous system...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919442/structural-and-functional-analysis-of-the-c-terminal-region-of-flig-an-essential-motor-component-of-vibrio-na-driven-flagella
#12
Yohei Miyanoiri, Atsushi Hijikata, Yuuki Nishino, Mizuki Gohara, Yasuhiro Onoue, Seiji Kojima, Chojiro Kojima, Tsuyoshi Shirai, Masatsune Kainosho, Michio Homma
The flagellar motor protein complex consists of rotor and stator proteins. Their interaction generates torque of flagellum, which rotates bidirectionally, clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise. FliG, one of the rotor proteins, consists of three domains: N-terminal (FliGN), middle (FliGM), and C-terminal (FliGC). We have identified point mutations in FliGC from Vibrio alginolyticus, which affect the flagellar motility. To understand the molecular mechanisms, we explored the structural and dynamic properties of FliGC from both wild-type and motility-defective mutants...
September 6, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918840/neuroprotective-effects-of-eexenatide-in-a-rotenone-induced-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Dürdane Aksoy, Volkan Solmaz, Türker Çavuşoğlu, Ayfer Meral, Utku Ateş, Oytun Erbaş
BACKROUND: Several studies suggest an association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus; these 2 diseases are both known to affect the common molecular pathways. As a synthetic agonist for the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor, exenatide has been evaluated as a neuroprotective agent in multiple animal models. Rotenone models of PD have great potential for the investigation of PD pathology and motor and nonmotor symptoms, as well as the role of gene-environment interactions in PD causation and pathogenesis...
September 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918744/intracellular-cargo-transport-by-kinesin-3-motors
#14
REVIEW
N Siddiqui, A Straube
Intracellular transport along microtubules enables cellular cargoes to efficiently reach the extremities of large, eukaryotic cells. While it would take more than 200 years for a small vesicle to diffuse from the cell body to the growing tip of a one-meter long axon, transport by a kinesin allows delivery in one week. It is clear from this example that the evolution of intracellular transport was tightly linked to the development of complex and macroscopic life forms. The human genome encodes 45 kinesins, 8 of those belonging to the family of kinesin-3 organelle transporters that are known to transport a variety of cargoes towards the plus end of microtubules...
July 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916614/dysregulated-molecular-pathways-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-frontotemporal-dementia-spectrum-disorder
#15
REVIEW
Fen-Biao Gao, Sandra Almeida, Rodrigo Lopez-Gonzalez
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD), the second most common form of dementia in people under 65 years of age, is characterized by progressive atrophy of the frontal and/or temporal lobes. FTD overlaps extensively with the motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), especially at the genetic level. Both FTD and ALS can be caused by many mutations in the same set of genes; the most prevalent of these mutations is a GGGGCC repeat expansion in the first intron of C9ORF72 As shown by recent intensive studies, some key cellular pathways are dysregulated in the ALS-FTD spectrum disorder, including autophagy, nucleocytoplasmic transport, DNA damage repair, pre-mRNA splicing, stress granule dynamics, and others...
September 15, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915323/hair-cell-transduction-tuning-and-synaptic-transmission-in-the-mammalian-cochlea
#16
Robert Fettiplace
Sound pressure fluctuations striking the ear are conveyed to the cochlea, where they vibrate the basilar membrane on which sit hair cells, the mechanoreceptors of the inner ear. Recordings of hair cell electrical responses have shown that they transduce sound via submicrometer deflections of their hair bundles, which are arrays of interconnected stereocilia containing the mechanoelectrical transducer (MET) channels. MET channels are activated by tension in extracellular tip links bridging adjacent stereocilia, and they can respond within microseconds to nanometer displacements of the bundle, facilitated by multiple processes of Ca2+-dependent adaptation...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914606/nanoscale-architecture-of-the-schizosaccharomyces-pombe-contractile-ring
#17
Nathan A McDonald, Abigail L Lind, Sarah E Smith, Rong Li, Kathleen Gould
The contractile ring is a complex molecular apparatus important for dividing many eukaryotic cells. Despite knowledge of its composition, the molecular architecture of the ring is not known. Here we applied super-resolution microscopy and FRET to determine the nanoscale spatial organization of Schizosaccharomyces pombe contractile ring components relative to the plasma membrane. As in other membrane-tethered actin structures, contractile ring proteins are stratified relative to the membrane. The lowest layer (0-80 nm) contains membrane-binding scaffolds, formin, and the myosin-II tail...
September 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912834/molecular-and-clinical-characterization-of-new-patient-with-1-08%C3%A2-mb-deletion-in-10p15-3-region
#18
Anna Poluha, Joanna Bernaciak, Ilona Jaszczuk, Marta Kędzior, Beata Anna Nowakowska
BACKGROUND: Three distinct contiguous gene deletion syndromes are located at 10p chromosomal region. The deletion, involving 10p15.3 region, has been characterized by (DeScipio et al., Am J Med Genet A 158A:2152-61, 2012). However, because of the variation in size of the described deletions and lack of knowledge about the involved genes, the correlation between genotypes and patients' phenotypes remains unknown. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe female patient with de novo 1,08 Mb deletion in 10p15...
2017: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912602/kinetic-adaptation-of-human-myo19-for-active-mitochondrial-transport-to-growing-filopodia-tips
#19
Marko Ušaj, Arnon Henn
Myosins are actin-based molecular motors which are enzymatically adapted for their cellular functions such as transportation and membrane tethering. Human Myo19 affects mitochondrial motility, and promotes their localization to stress-induced filopodia. Therefore, studying Myo19 enzymology is essential to understand how this motor may facilitate mitochondrial motility. Towards this goal, we have purified Myo19 motor domain (Myo19-3IQ) from a human-cell expression system and utilized transient kinetics to study the Myo19-3IQ ATPase cycle...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902195/driving-and-photo-regulation-of-myosin-actin-motors-at-molecular-and-macroscopic-levels-by-photo-responsive-high-energy-molecules
#20
Halley M Menezes, Md Jahirul Islam, Masayuki Takahashi, Nobuyuki Tamaoki
We employed an azobenzene based non-nucleoside triphosphate, AzoTP, in a myosin-actin motile system and demonstrated its efficiency as an energy molecule to drive and photo-regulate the myosin-actin motile function at the macroscopic level along with an in vitro motility assay. The AzoTP in its trans state induced shortening of a glycerinated muscle fibre whilst a cis isomer had no significant effect. Direct photoirradiation of a cis-AzoTP infused muscle fibre induced shortening triggered by a locally photo-generated trans-AzoTP in the muscle fibre...
September 13, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
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