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Nareeluk Nakaew, Rungroch Sungthong
We examined abundance, bioactivity, and endophytism of cultivable actinobacteria isolated from plant interiors of two Thai pigmented rice cultivars: Hom Nin (HN) rice and Luem Pua (LP) glutinous rice. Both rice cultivars housed the same amount of endophytic actinobacteria (33 isolates each). Microbispora (76%) and Streptomyces (73%) were the predominant endophytic actinobacteria of LP glutinous rice and HN rice, respectively. Sphaerisporangium (9%) was found only in LP glutinous rice. Twelve percent of endophytic actinobacteria was the possibility of discovering novel species from both rice cultivars...
March 25, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Daisuke Ogawa, Eiji Yamamoto, Toshikazu Ohtani, Noriko Kanno, Hiroshi Tsunematsu, Yasunori Nonoue, Masahiro Yano, Toshio Yamamoto, Jun-Ichi Yonemaru
Multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) lines have broader genetic variation than bi-parental recombinant inbred lines. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) using high number of DNA polymorphisms such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is a popular tool for allele mining in MAGIC populations, in which the associations of phenotypes with SNPs are investigated; however, the effects of haplotypes from multiple founders on phenotypes are not considered. Here, we describe an improved method of allele mining using the newly developed Japan-MAGIC (JAM) population, which is derived from eight high-yielding rice cultivars in Japan...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Warangkana Pornputtapitak, Jaturavit Pantakitcharoenkul, Ratchada Panpakdee, Veerawat Teeranachaideekul, Nuttanan Sinchaipanid
Leum Pua is native Thai glutinous rice that contains antioxidants higher than white rice and other colored rice. One of the major antioxidants in rice brans is γ-oryzanol (GO). In this study, Leum Pua glutinous rice bran was extracted by different solvents. Oleic acid (~40 g/100 g extract), linoleic acid (~30 g/100 g extract), and palmitic acid (~20 g/100 g extract) were found to be major lipid components in the extracts. Methanol extract showed less variety of lipid components compared to the others. However, hexane extract showed the highest percent of γ-oryzanol compared to other solvents...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Fan Feng, Yajun Li, Xiaoliang Qin, Yuncheng Liao, Kadambot H M Siddique
China is the first country to use heterosis successfully for commercial rice production. This study compared the main quality characteristics (head rice rate, chalky rice rate, chalkiness degree, gel consistency, amylose content, and length-to-width ratio) of 635 rice varieties (not including upland and glutinous rice) released from 2000 to 2014 to establish the quality status and offer suggestions for future rice breeding for grain quality in China. In the past 15 years, grain quality in japonica rice and indica hybrid rice has improved...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Supanad Hensawang, Penradee Chanpiwat
Consumption of contaminated food is a major route of exposure to toxic contaminants for humans. To protect against potential negative health effects from rice consumption, As and Cd concentrations in rice sold in Bangkok were determined, and non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk assessments were conducted. Four types of rice (n = 97), namely, white jasmine, white, glutinous, and brown jasmine, were collected. Samples were acid-digested and analyzed for total concentrations of As and Cd by ICP-MS. The average concentrations of As and Cd were 0...
October 31, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Yanjun Zhang, Meijie Hu, Kexue Zhu, Gang Wu, Lehe Tan
Jackfruit is now receiving extensive attention as a new source of starch. However, jackfruit seeds are discarded as waste, although they are rich in starch. The functional properties of the starches were investigated from new Chinese jackfruit species. All the starches have a high amylose (26.56-38.34%) with a potential to become functional foods rich in resistant starch. The jackfruit starches varied from trigonal and tetragonal, round to semi-oval/bell shapes and showed significant variations in particle sizes (5...
February 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Zhibin Liu, Zhiyao Wang, Xucong Lv, Xiaoping Zhu, Liling Chen, Li Ni
Hong Qu, which mainly contains Monascus sp. and other microorganisms, as well as numerous microbial metabolites, is used as the fermentation starter of Hong Qu glutinous rice wine, a traditional alcoholic beverage. Two widely-used types of Hong Qu, namely Wuyi Qu (WYQ) and Gutian Qu (GTQ), were thoroughly compared for their fermentation properties, volatile profiles, and microbiota structures in this study. Significantly higher color value, glucoamylase and α-amylase activities were discovered in WYQ. And substantial variation in volatile components and microbial communities were also observed between them...
February 2018: Food Microbiology
Tao-Shan Chang, Chih-Wei Liu, Yu-Ling Lin, Chao-Yi Li, Arthur Z Wang, Min-Wei Chien, Chang-Sheng Wang, Chien-Chen Lai
Our results not only provide a comprehensive overview of the starch biosynthetic pathway in the developing endosperm but also reveal some important protein markers that regulate the synthesis of starch. In human diets, rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important source of starch, a substantial amount of which is accumulated in developing endosperm. A better understanding of the complicated pathways involved in starch biosynthesis is needed to improve the yield and quality of rice and other cereal crops through breeding...
November 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
Nausheen Sadiq, Lily Huang, Farhad Kaveh, Diane Beauchemin
Because glutinous rice flour is consumed by millions of individuals around the world, its analysis is essential to ensure its safety. Solid sampling electrothermal vaporization (ETV) coupled to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) allows for a quick analysis, precluding the need for time-consuming acid digestion that may also lead to analyte loss or contamination. However, the amount of sample that can be introduced without extinguishing the plasma is limited to about 4mg. The increase in plasma robustness resulting from the concurrent introduction of pre-evaporated water aerosol allows the introduction of 8mg of solid sample without extinguishing the plasma...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Patiwit Loypimai, Kulab Sittisuanjik, Anuchita Moongngarm, Wilawan Pimthong
This study investigated the effect of NaCl (2 and 4% (w/v)) and vacuum impregnation (VI) (150, 200, 250, and 300 Pa) on the quality parameters (water uptake, elongation ratio, visual color, and texture), tocols, γ-oryzanol and phenolic compounds of parboiled rice. Parboiling with NaCl and VI resulted in increased lightness and higher concentrations of bioactive compounds than rice parboiled by the traditional method. The highest concentration of tocopherols, γ-oryzanol, and phenolic acids (syringic, and ferulic acids) were obtained from parboiled rice with NaCl concentration at 2% (w/v) and VI at 250 and 300 Pa...
June 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Liping Yang, Yibin Zhou, Xiangyu Zheng, Haisong Wang, Naifu Wang
Optimization of the preparation of hydroxypropylated, phosphorylated and hydroxypropyl-phosphorylated glutinous rice starch was performed using a response surface methodology comprising three variables at three levels. Multi-linear regression was used to fit the degree of substitution and molar substitution against. Optimal reaction conditions were 9h, 42°C, 10% (hydroxypropylated), 148min, 150°C, 7% (phosphorylated) and 95min, 140°C, 7.8% (hydroxypropyl-phosphorylated). For hydroxypropylated, predicted optimal and experimental molar substitution values were found to be identical: 0...
December 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ming-Jen Fan, Ping-Hsuan Yeh, Jing-Pin Lin, An-Cheng Huang, Jin-Cherng Lien, Hui-Yi Lin, Jing-Gung Chung
Rice is a staple food in numerous countries around the world. Anthocyanins found in black rice have been reported to reduce the risk of certain diseases, but the effects of crude extract of anthocyanins from Asia University-selected purple glutinous indica rice (AUPGA) on immune responses have not yet been demonstrated. The current study aimed to investigate whether AUPGA treatment could affect immune responses in murine leukemia cells in vivo. Murine acute myelomonocytic leukemia WEHI-3 cells were intraperitoneally injected into normal BALB/c mice to generate leukemia mice...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Eun Jung Lee, Kyung-Ran Lee, Seung-Joo Lee
This study analyzed the dietary pattern of Southeast Asian workers (Vietnamese, Thais, Cambodians and Myanmar) living in South Korea in order to recognize the dietary changes after they moved to South Korea. Questionnaires were completed by 251 Southeast Asian workers living in South Korea. Using a self-administered questionnaire, we assessed the diets before and after living in the hometown and in South Korea. Significant changes observed in the Southeast Asian workers were decreased in consumption frequency of fresh fruits, cooked vegetables, rice noodles, green tea and glutinous rice, and increase in consumption of Kimchi, seaweed, milk, coffee and pizza...
October 1, 2017: Appetite
Yucai Lü, Yanli Gong, Yajie Li, Zejiang Pan, Yi Yao, Ning Li, Jinling Guo, Dachun Gong, Yihong Tian, Caiyun Peng
Two typical microbial communities from Chinese rice wine fermentation collected in Yichang city and Suzhou city in China were investigated. Both communities could ferment glutinous rice to rice wine in 2 days. The sugar and ethanol contents were 198.67 and 14.47 mg/g, respectively, for rice wine from Yichang city, and 292.50 and 12.31 mg/g, respectively, for rice wine from Suzhou city. Acetic acid and lactic acid were the most abundant organic acids. Abundant fungi and bacteria were detected in both communities by high-throughput sequencing...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Xu-Cong Lv, Ya-Jun Jiang, Jie Liu, Wei-Ling Guo, Zhi-Bin Liu, Wen Zhang, Ping-Fan Rao, Li Ni
Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) has become a widely used tool to examine microbial community structure. However, when DGGE is applied to evaluate the fungal community of traditional fermentation starters, the choice of hypervariable ribosomal RNA gene regions is still controversial. In the current study, several previously published fungal PCR primer sets were compared and evaluated using PCR-DGGE, with the purpose of screening a suitable primer set to study the fungal community of traditional fermentation starters for Hong Qu glutinous rice wine...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Xuewei Zhao, Hua Zhang, Ruiqian Duan, Zhiqiang Feng
Water content of glutinous rice flour were determined after equilibrium at water activity (aw) of 0.06-0.98 and temperature of 10, 20 and 30 °C. Distribution of water in different states and its evolution with aw were characterized using four composite models. Interactions of water molecules with solid matrix and themselves were further evaluated. The Park model was a more realistic and mechanism-based approach for describing water desorption of glutinous rice flour. Increased equilibrium water induced by lowering temperature existed mostly as strongly bound water with only a few parts as weakly bound water...
May 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
T Nakayama, Y Nagai, Y Uehara, Y Nakamura, S Ishii, H Kato, Y Tanaka
OBJECTIVE: We recently reported that eating glutinous brown rice (GBR) for 1 day improved the whole-day glucose profile and postprandial plasma glucose level compared with eating white rice (WR) or standard brown rice. However, it was unknown whether eating GBR could maintain improvement of glycemic control for a longer period. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of GBR intake for 8 weeks on glycemic control in outpatients with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: This was an open-label randomized crossover study in outpatients with type 2 diabetes...
May 8, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
Yuko Terashima, Yoshio Nagai, Hiroyuki Kato, Akio Ohta, Yasushi Tanaka
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether intake of non-glutinous brown rice (BR) or glutinous brown rice (GBR) for 1 day had an influence on the daily glucose profile measured by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) when compared with intake of non-glutinous white rice (WR). METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A total of 37 inpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were recruited for a 3-day randomized triple cross-over trial in which they ate WR, BR, or GBR for 1 day each...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Theerawut Thammakun, Wongsa Laohasiriwong, Ratthaphol Kraiklang, Nittaya Saengprajak
INTRODUCTION: Resistin gene (RETN) polymorphisms in humans may have a role in the pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and insulin resistance. There is still lack of evidence on association between +62 G>A polymorphism in the RETN and T2DM among Thais. AIM: To determine the effect of polymorphisms at +62 G>A of RETN on Thai T2DM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This matched case control study was conducted with a total of 360 samples from all regions of Thailand (180 Thai new T2DM cases and 180 non-T2DM Thais for control) were enrolled...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Yuan Xu, Mingcong Fan, Sumei Zhou, Li Wang, Haifeng Qian, Hui Zhang, Xiguang Qi
In this study, the thermal, pasting and gel textural properties of japonica rice starch (JRS) and glutinous rice starch (GRS) fortified with Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf pigment (VBTLP) were investigated. The results showed that VBTLP facilitated the gelatinization of JRS and GRS with earlier onsets of onset temperature (To), peak temperature (Tp), conclusion temperature (Tc), and lower values of gelatinization enthalpy (ΔHg), and retrogradation enthalpy (ΔHr), as the VBTLP level increased. For JRS, VBTLP increased the peak viscosity and breakdown, reduced the final viscosity and setback, but for GRS it increased the peak viscosity, final viscosity, breakdown and setback...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
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