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Amit K Das, Sila Bhattacharya, Vasudeva Singh
Nixtamalization is a well-known pre-treatment technique in the tortilla industry. Nixtamalized maize (nixtamal) is known for its modified physicochemical as well as nutritional attributes. In the present study, two types of nixtamalization processes (traditional and ecological) were employed for the development of whole-grain-maize-based noodles using Dent and Flint maize genotypes. Results showed that ecological nixtamalization had resulted in better cooking and textural qualities of noodles compared to the one prepared traditionally...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Orranuch Norkaew, Pittayaporn Boontakham, Kanchana Dumri, Acharaporn Na Lampang Noenplab, Phumon Sookwong, Sugunya Mahatheeranont
Because black rice is rich in antioxidants, appropriate methods of post-harvest treatment are necessary for maintaining these bioactive phytochemicals. Drying methods, storage temperatures, storage duration, and packaging methods affected the contents of some bioactive compounds in the two varieties of Thai black rice used in this research. Sun drying reduces the loss of anthocyanins and γ-oryzanols more than does hot air drying. Glutinous black rice stored as paddy at cool room temperature retains more anthocyanins, γ-oryzanols, and vitamin E than does paddy stored at room temperature...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Sangeeta Gope, Duyi Samyor, Atanu Kumar Paul, Amit Baran Das
In the present study chemical modification of glutinous rice starch was carried out using 1-Buatnol-hydrochloric acid with varying time and temperature. The changes in physico-chemical, dynamic rheological and morphological properties of starch during hydrolysis was investigated. There was a significant increase in water solubility of starch due to modification; however, swelling and sedimentation value decrease after modification. The peak, hold and final viscosity of modified starches were decreased significantly as compared to native starch...
September 16, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Feifei Xu, Jinsong Bao, Qiang He, Yong-Jin Park
BACKGROUND: Starch and protein are two major components of polished rice, and the amylose and protein contents affect eating and cooking qualities (ECQs). In the present study, genome-wide association study with high-quality re-sequencing data was performed for 10 ECQs in a panel of 227 non-glutinous rice accessions and four derived panels. RESULTS: Population structure accounted for high phenotypic variation in three routine panels and had minor effects on subspecies-based panels...
2016: BMC Genomics
Yang Qin, Chengzhen Liu, Suisui Jiang, Jinmiao Cao, Liu Xiong, Qingjie Sun
Glutinous rice flour (GRF) and glutinous rice starch (GRS) were modified by dry-heat treatment and their rheological, thermal properties and freeze-thaw stability were evaluated. Compared with the native GRF and GRS, the water-holding ability of modified GRF and GRS were enhanced. Both the onset and peak temperatures of the modified samples increased while the endothermic enthalpy change decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, dry heating remarkably increased the apparent viscosities of both GRF and GRS...
2016: PloS One
H J Dai, Y M Zhang, X Q Sun, J Y Xue, M M Li, M X Cao, X L Shen, Y Y Hang
Colocasia esculenta cv. Xinmaoyu is an eddoe-type taro cultivar local to Taicang, Jiangsu Province, China; it is characterized by its pure flavor, glutinous texture, and high nutritional value. Due to its excellent qualities, the Trademark Office of the State Administration for Industry and Commerce of the People's Republic of China awarded Xinmaoyu, a geographical indication certification in 2014. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop an efficient molecular marker for the specific identification of this cultivar, which would greatly facilitate the conservation and utilization of this unique germplasm resource...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Sumitahnun Chunthaburee, Anoma Dongsansuk, Jirawat Sanitchon, Wattana Pattanagul, Piyada Theerakulpisut
Salinity tolerance levels and physiological changes were evaluated for twelve rice cultivars, including four white rice and eight black glutinous rice cultivars, during their seedling stage in response to salinity stress at 100 mM NaCl. All the rice cultivars evaluated showed an apparent decrease in growth characteristics and chlorophyll accumulation under salinity stress. By contrast an increase in proline, hydrogen peroxide, peroxidase (POX) activity and anthocyanins were observed for all cultivars. The K(+)/Na(+) ratios evaluated for all rice cultivars were noted to be highly correlated with the salinity scores thus indicating that the K(+)/Na(+) ratio serves as a reliable indicator of salt stress tolerance in rice...
July 2016: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Tingting Zhu, Xiao Liu, Xiaoli Wang, Gang Cao, Kunming Qin, Ke Pei, Hui Zhu, Hao Cai, Minjie Niu, Baochang Cai
Rhubarb is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines and has been used for thousands of years in many Asian countries. Prepared rhubarb is obtained by steaming raw rhubarb with glutinous rice wine until it turned black in appearance both inside and outside. After processing, the therapeutic effects of prepared rhubarb change a lot. To find out the exact compound changes of the chemical profile in a decoction of rhubarb after processing and to clarify the material basis of the changed therapeutic effects, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method coupled with automated data analysis software and statistical strategy was developed...
August 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Kiyosumi Hori, Keitaro Suzuki, Ken Iijima, Kaworu Ebana
The eating quality of cooked rice is important and determines its market price and consumer acceptance. To comprehensively describe the variation of eating quality in 183 rice germplasm accessions, we evaluated 33 eating-quality traits including amylose and protein contents, pasting properties of rice flour, and texture of cooked rice grains. All eating-quality traits varied widely in the germplasm accessions. Principal-components analysis (PCA) revealed that allelic differences in the Wx gene explained the largest proportion of phenotypic variation of the eating-quality traits...
March 2016: Breeding Science
Yohana Dwi Setyawati, Sitti Faika Ahsan, Lu Ki Ong, Felycia Edi Soetaredjo, Suryadi Ismadji, Yi-Hsu Ju
In this study, a modified aqueous leaching method by complex formation of amylose with glycerol was employed for reducing the amylose content of starch in broken white rice to less than 2%, so that the resulting starch can be classified to that of glutinous rice flour. By employing ultrasonication in alkaline condition, extraction of amylose could be performed by washing at lower temperature in shorter time compared to the existing aqueous leaching method. The effects of glycerol concentration, alkali concentration, ultrasonication and treatment time on the amylose content of the treated starch were systematically investigated...
July 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Zhenping Yang, Wenping Yang, Shengcai Li, Jiaomin Hao, Zhifeng Su, Min Sun, Zhiqiang Gao, Chunlai Zhang
As the major crops in north China, spring crops are usually planted from April through May every spring and harvested in fall. Wheat is also a very common crop traditionally planted in fall or spring and harvested in summer year by year. This continuous cropping system exhibited the disadvantages of reducing the fertility of soil through decreasing microbial diversity. Thus, management of microbial diversity in the rhizosphere plays a vital role in sustainable crop production. In this study, ten common spring crops in north China were chosen sole-cropped and four were chosen intercropped with peanut in wheat fields after harvest...
2016: PloS One
Bin Teng, Ying Zhang, Shiyun Du, Jingde Wu, Zefu Li, Zhixiang Luo, Jianbo Yang
BACKGROUND: In rice, five common Wx alleles, wx, Wx(t) , Wx(g1) , Wx(g2) , and Wx(g3) , had been identified according to their apparent amylose content (AAC) phenotypes. Previous studies revealed that this Wx allelic variation may also affects other starch properties. However, so far, to what extent the five Wx alleles influence the crystalline structure, thermal and swelling properties of rice starch is still unclear. For this purpose, a set of single-segment substitution lines (SSSLs) harboring five different Wx alleles, varying widely in AAC, were used for comparative studies...
March 1, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Zhiqing Huang, Xinxin Ke, Xiaodan Lv, Zhibin Liu, Li Ni
A major limiting factor for DGGE-based microbial community studies is that the fragments should not be much longer than 500 bp for successful analysis. However, relatively high-resolution was achieved based on DGGE of the long 18S rDNA fragment (>1500 bp), which might be surprising due to the known decrease in DGGE resolution of DNA molecules with large melted regions. A unique sequence characteristic was found in a specific region (ca. 275 bp, named the NS1-end region) of 18S rDNAs, and fungal communities separated from Hong Qu glutinous rice wine brewing system was used to reveal the relationship between high resolution capacity and the unique sequence characteristics...
March 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Sirithon Siriamornpun, Ekkarat Tangkhawanit, Niwat Kaewseejan
Green and ripe mango peel powders (MPP) were added to normal rice flour (NRF) and glutinous rice flour (GRF) at three levels (400, 800 and 1200 ppm) and their effects on physicochemical properties and lipid oxidation inhibition were investigated. Overall, MPP increased the breakdown viscosity and reduced the final viscosity in rice flours when compared to the control. Decreasing in retrogradation was observed in both NRF and GRF with MPP added of all levels. MPP addition also significantly inhibited the lipid oxidation of all flours during storage (30 days)...
June 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
T Vongpichayapaiboon, P Pongsawasdi, K Krusong
AIMS: To increase yield of starch conversion to large-ring cyclodextrins (LR-CDs) by amylomaltase from Corynebacterium glutamicum (CgAM). METHODS AND RESULTS: In this work, LR-CDs produced from pea, tapioca, corn, potato, rice and glutinous-rice starch by the recombinant CgAM were analysed by High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography Using Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC-PAD). Among these, pea starch gave the highest yield of LR-CDs. Pretreatment of pea starch with isoamylase prior to incubation with CgAM resulted in the increase in LR-CD products by 20%...
April 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Huijuan Zhang, Jing Wang, Yingli Liu, Baoguo Sun
The pharmacological effects of glutinous rice (GR) and GR amylopectin (GRA) on the gastrointestine were investigated in rhubarb-induced spleen deficiency rats by determining the levels of gastrointestinal hormones such as the peptides serum gastrin, amylase motilin, and somatostatin. GR and GRA were given by gavage at various doses of GR (7.5, 15, and 30 g per kg body weight) and GRA (3.8, 7.6, and 15 g per kg body weight) every day for 4 weeks, respectively. The results indicated that the final body weight of rats in the highest-dose GR (GRH) group and all the GRA groups significantly (P < 0...
February 2016: Food & Function
Liping Yang, Yibin Zhou, Yiming Wu, Xin Meng, Yamei Jiang, Haiwei Zhang, Haisong Wang
Hydroxypropylated, phosphorylated, and hydroxypropyl-phosphorylated starches were prepared from glutinous rice starch, and their physicochemical and structural properties were investigated. With increasing reaction time, the molar or degree of substitution of modified starches increased. SEM micrographs revealed that phosphorylated starch granules retained their relative integrity, while some cracks appeared on the surface of hydroxypropylated and hydroxypropyl-phosphorylated starch granules. RVA analyses revealed that pasting properties improved after chemical modification...
February 10, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Pornpisanu Thammapat, Naret Meeso, Sirithon Siriamornpun
The impacts of traditional and alternative parboiling processes on the concentrations of fatty acids, tocopherol, tocotrienol, γ-oryzanol and phenolic acids in glutinous rice were investigated. Differences between the two methods were the soaking temperatures and the steaming methods. Results showed that parboiling processes significantly increased the concentrations of saturated fatty acids (SFA), mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), γ-oryzanol, γ-tocotrienol and total phenolic acids (TPA) in glutinous rice, while α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decreased (p<0...
March 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Jia Sun, Hang Xun, Jin Yu, Feng Tang, Yong-De Yue, Xue-Feng Guo
The glutinous rice dumpling named "Zongzi" in Chinese is a type of traditional food that is popular in East Asian countries. "Zongzi" is made of glutinous rice and wrapped in the leaves of Indocalamus latifolius McClure as the packaging material. Four new compounds, latifoliusine A (2), (7S,8R) syringylglycerol-8-O-4'-sinapyl ether 4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (7), (7S,8S) syringylglycerol-8-O-4'-sinapyl ether 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (8), and (7R,8S) syringylglycerol-8-O-4'-sinapyl ether 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (10), along with six known compounds (1, 3-6 and 9) were isolated from I...
2015: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Eun-Suk Park, Je-Hyuk Lee, Myung-Hee Kim
This study investigated the dietary habits and food preferences of elementary school students. The survey was conducted by means of a questionnaire distributed to 4th and 5th grade elementary school students (400 boys and 400 girls) in urban and suburban areas of Daejeon. The results of this study were as follows: male students in urban areas ate breakfast, unbalanced diets, and dairy products more frequently than male students in suburban areas (p < 0.05). Female students in urban areas ate dairy products (p < 0...
July 2015: Clinical Nutrition Research
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