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Chia-Wei Cheng, Valentina Villani, Roberta Buono, Min Wei, Sanjeev Kumar, Omer H Yilmaz, Pinchas Cohen, Julie B Sneddon, Laura Perin, Valter D Longo
Stem-cell-based therapies can potentially reverse organ dysfunction and diseases, but the removal of impaired tissue and activation of a program leading to organ regeneration pose major challenges. In mice, a 4-day fasting mimicking diet (FMD) induces a stepwise expression of Sox17 and Pdx-1, followed by Ngn3-driven generation of insulin-producing β cells, resembling that observed during pancreatic development. FMD cycles restore insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis in both type 2 and type 1 diabetes mouse models...
February 23, 2017: Cell
Manabu Tanaka, Yoshinori Sato, Hisao Haniu, Hiroki Nomura, Shinsuke Kobayashi, Seiji Takanashi, Masanori Okamoto, Takashi Takizawa, Kaoru Aoki, Yuki Usui, Ayumu Oishi, Hiroyuki Kato, Naoto Saito
Many recent studies have been conducted to assess the ability of composite materials containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with high bone affinity to serve as scaffolds in bone regenerative medicine. These studies have demonstrated that CNTs can effectively induce bone formation. However, no studies have investigated the usefulness of scaffolds consisting exclusively of CNTs in bone regenerative medicine. We built a three-dimensional block entity with maximized mechanical strength from multi-walled CNTs (MWCNT blocks) and evaluated their efficacy as scaffold material for bone repair...
2017: PloS One
Rémi Foissac, Phi Villageois, Bérengère Chignon-Sicard, Charalambos Georgiou, Olivier Camuzard, Christian Dani
BACKGROUND: Autologous fat grafting has become an essential procedure in breast reconstructive surgery. However, molecular knowledge of different adipose donor sites remains inadequate. Tissue regeneration studies have shown that it is essential to match the Hox code of transplanted cells and host tissues to achieve correct repair. This study aims to provide a better molecular understanding of adipose tissue. METHODS: Over the course of 1 year, the authors prospectively included 15 patients and studied seven adipose areas: chin, breast, arm, abdomen, thigh, hip, and knee...
March 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Libor Streit, Josef Jaros, Veronika Sedlakova, Miroslava Sedlackova, Lubos Drazan, Michal Svoboda, Jakub Pospisil, Tomas Vyska, Jiri Vesely, Ales Hampl
BACKGROUND: Lipomodeling is a technique that uses the patient's own fat for tissue regeneration and augmentation. The extent of regenerative effect is reported to be determined by the numbers of adipose-derived stem cells and the viability of cells in processed adipose tissue which, together with other factors, influence the degree of graft retention. This study addresses whether differences exist in properties of fat graft obtained by three commonly used techniques. METHODS: Adipose tissue harvested from the hypogastric regions of 14 patients was processed by decantation, centrifugation, and membrane-based tissue filtration...
March 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Salvatore Florio, Takanori Suzuki, Sang-Choon Cho
Maxillary sinus augmentation through a lateral window is reported as one of the most predictable bone augmentation procedures before implant placement. The elevation of the membrane represents a delicate and crucial step that allows the creation of the space for the bone graft material. If the elevation is not completed, the regenerated bone might be inadequate for the implant placement. In this case, a new intervention will be necessary to complete the bone augmentation. Reaccessing from a lateral window, however, would be challenging due to thickness of the buccal boney wall because of the first grafting procedure; therefore, a different approach has to be used...
February 23, 2017: Implant Dentistry
Farzaneh Mohamadyar-Toupkanlou, Ebrahim Vasheghani-Farahani, Hana Hanaee-Ahvaz, Masoud Soleimani, Masumeh Dodel, Parvaneh Havasi, Abdolreza Ardeshirylajimi, Elham Sadat Taherzadeh
The increasing demand for biocompatible bone substitutes has made it a priority to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine scientists. Combination of minerals, growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins with nanofibrous scaffolds is a potential promising strategy for bone reconstruction and clinical applications. In this study, nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) was incorporated in electrospun nanofibrous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds coated with fibronectin (Fn). The potential bone regeneration capacities of these scaffolds were evaluated in vitro and in vivo using mouse mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs)...
February 20, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
F Mohammadian, A Eatemadi, H Daraee
Over 278 million of people worldwide suffers from hearing loss, and this disease has significant detrimental effects emotionally and economically on individuals and the society in totality. Treatment using cochlear implant dramatically improve the perception, and production of speech, as well as the patient quality of life, with the different sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Yet, there are some challenges faced by a cochlear implant. In this review, we propose the regeneration of spiral ganglion neurons which is an interface neuron using human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (hAFMSCs), due to its high pluripotency potentials, this stem cell source can regenerate the spiral ganglion and this in-turn will bring back the inner ear hair-cells to functionality...
January 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Jennifer M McCracken, Prabhakar Chalise, Shawn M Briley, Katie L Dennis, Lu Jiang, Francesca E Duncan, Michele T Pritchard
Biological differences exist between strains of laboratory mice, and it is becoming increasingly evident that there aredifferences between substrains. In the C57BL/6 mouse, the primary substrains are called 6J and 6N. Previous studies have demonstrated that 6J and 6N mice differ in response to many experimental models of human disease. The aim of our study was to determine if differences exist between 6J and 6N mice in terms of their response to acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl<sub>4</sub>) exposure...
February 9, 2017: Gene Expression
Nélia Alberto, Hypolito José Kalinowski, Victor Neto, Rogério Nogueira
In recent years, the coating of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) with a specific material has opened up the possibility to broaden the limits of applicability of this technology. Diamond has a set of properties that makes it an attractive candidate to protect the optical fiber against chemically harsh environments, whose sensing is also a great challenge. One of the most used techniques to obtain these coatings is through the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD); in this process, the temperature reaches, typically, around 850°C-900°C...
February 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Gaurang P Bhide, Gerd Prehna, Benjamin E Ramirez, Karen J Colley
Polysialic acid (polySia) is a unique post-translational modification found on a small set of mammalian glycoproteins. Composed of long chains of α2,8-linked sialic acid, this large, negatively charged polymer attenuates protein and cell adhesion and modulates signaling mediated by its carriers and proteins that interact with these carriers. PolySia is crucial for the proper development of the nervous system, and is upregulated during tissue regeneration and in highly invasive cancers. Our laboratory has previously shown that the neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, has an acidic surface patch in its first fibronectin type III repeat (FN1) that is critical for the polysialylation of N-glycans on the adjacent immunoglobulin domain (Ig5)...
February 24, 2017: Biochemistry
Jun Sung Kim, Ji Suk Choi, Yong Woo Cho
Well-designed scaffolds provide appropriate niches that can effectively recruit the host cells and induce differentiation of recruited cells into desired cell types, facilitating the in situ tissue regeneration. Here we report a tissue-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogel composed of adipose-derived soluble ECM (sECM) and methylcellulose (MC) as a cell-free scaffold system for adipose tissue regeneration. The sECM-MC hydrogels showed a thermosensitive sol-gel phase transition and rapidly forming a soft hydrogel with the stiffness of 3...
February 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yon Jin Chuah, Yvonne Peck, Jia En Josias Lau, Hwan Tak Hee, Dong-An Wang
Hydrogels have been extensively employed as an attractive biomaterial to address numerous existing challenges in the fields of regenerative medicine and research because of their unique properties such as the capability to encapsulate cells, high water content, ease of modification, low toxicity, injectability, in situ spatial fit and biocompatibility. These inherent properties have created many opportunities for hydrogels as a scaffold or a cell/drug carrier in tissue regeneration, especially in the field of cartilaginous tissue such as articular cartilage and intervertebral discs...
February 24, 2017: Biomaterials Science
Mayyada M H El-Sayed, Amany A Mostafa, Alaa M Gaafar, Walid El Hotaby, Esmat Ma Hamzawy, Mohamed S El-Okaily, Amira M Gamal-Eldeen
This work investigates and compares the influence of the synthesis process on the in vitro bioactivity of two quaternary bioactive glasses prepared via melting and sol-gel (SG) techniques. The two glasses are named MG and SG, respectively. Powder samples were soaked in simulated body fluid for different time intervals to study the kinetics of Ca and P uptake onto their surface as well as Si release. The uptake kinetics followed the pseudo-second order model, and the kinetic parameters in addition to the initial rates were estimated...
February 24, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Naoyuki Fukuda, Kanji Tsuru, Yoshihide Mori, Kunio Ishikawa
We recently reported that when an acidic calcium phosphate solution is mixed with β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules, the resulting dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) crystals form bridges between the β-TCP granules, creating a set interconnected porous structure in approximately 1 min. Although this self-setting β-TCP granular cement (β-TCPGC) is useful for clinical applications, the short setting time is a key drawback for handling. In this study, the setting time of β-TCPGC was adjusted with the addition of citric acid, which is a known inhibiter of DCPD crystal growth...
February 24, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Lorenzo Alibardi
Lizard tail regeneration depends from growth of the apical tip and autonomous regeneration of a new spinal cord, cartilaginous tube and muscles. The presence of embryonic signaling pathways is likely involved and we have focused on immunolocalization of Wnt1 protein in regenerating tissues, a protein promoting proliferation and tumorigenesis. Western blot indicates some immunoreactive bands in the expected range at 46 and 33kDa in the regenerating tail. Immunolocalization indicates that Wnt1 is prevalently detected in the apical wound epidermis, blastema, and ependyma ampulla of the regenerating tail while it lowers in other tissues of more proximal regions close to the original tail stump...
February 20, 2017: Acta Histochemica
Xianyan Yang, Sanzhong Xu, Xiaoyi Chen, Dongshuang He, Xiurong Ke, Lei Zhang, Guojing Yang, An Liu, Xiaozhou Mou, Wei Xia, Zhongru Gou
Osteoporotic femur fractures are the most common fragility fracture and account for approximately one million injuries per year. Local intervention by intra-marrow injection is potentially a good choice for preventing osteoporotic bone loss when the osteoporotic femoral fracture was treated. Previously, it was shown that trace element co-doped calcium phosphate (teCaP) implants could stimulate osteoporotic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell activity in vitro and bone regeneration in femoral bone defects in osteoporotic animal models...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Caressa Chen, Vittavat Termglinchan, Ioannis Karakikes
Heart failure (HF), a common sequela of cardiovascular diseases, remains a staggering clinical problem, associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Advances in pharmacological, interventional and operative management have improved patient care, but these interventions are insufficient to halt the progression of HF, particularly the end-stage irreversible loss of functional cardiomyocytes. Innovative therapies that could prevent HF progression and improve the function of the failing heart are urgently needed...
February 24, 2017: Stem Cells
D Casanova, A Alliez, C Baptista, D Gonelli, Z Lemdjadi, S Bohbot
BACKGROUND: Laser therapies are used prophylactically for excessive scar formation. The Laser-Assisted Skin Healing treatment induces a controlled heat stress that promotes tissue regeneration. This comparative trial is the first to evaluate the performance of a new automated 1210-nm laser system, compatible with all Fitzpatrick scale phototypes. METHODS: Forty women undergoing bilateral breast reduction were enrolled in this double-blinded randomized controlled trial...
February 23, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Diana A Yanez, Richard K Lacher, Aurobind Vidyarthi, Oscar R Colegio
The skin and its appendages comprise the largest and fastest growing organ in the body. It performs multiple tasks and maintains homeostatic control, including the regulation of body temperature and protection from desiccation and from pathogen invasion. The skin can perform its functions with the assistance of different immune cell populations. Monocyte-derived cells are imperative for the completion of these tasks. The comprehensive role of macrophages and Langerhans cells in establishing and maintaining skin homeostasis remains incompletely defined...
February 23, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Mary Carolina García Lino, Lohengrin A Cavieres, Gerhard Zotz, Maaike Y Bader
The elevational range of the alpine cushion plant Laretia acaulis (Apiaceae) comprises a cold upper extreme and a dry lower extreme. For this species, we predict reduced growth and increased non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations (i.e. carbon sink limitation) at both elevational extremes. In a facilitative interaction, these cushions harbor other plant species (beneficiaries). Such interactions appear to reduce reproduction in other cushion species, but not in L. acaulis. However, vegetative effects may be more important in this long-lived species and may be stronger under marginal conditions...
February 23, 2017: Oecologia
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