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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228504/dynamic-borrowing-through-empirical-power-priors-that-control-type-i-error
#1
Stavros Nikolakopoulos, Ingeborg van der Tweel, Kit C B Roes
In order for historical data to be considered for inclusion in the design and analysis of clinical trials, prospective rules are essential. Incorporation of historical data may be of particular interest in the case of small populations where available data is scarce and heterogeneity is not as well understood, and thus conventional methods for evidence synthesis might fall short. The concept of power priors can be particularly useful for borrowing evidence from a single historical study. Power priors employ a parameter γ∈[0,1] that quantifies the heterogeneity between the historical study and the new study...
December 11, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228152/effectiveness-of-nutritional-interventions-addressed-to-elderly-persons-umbrella-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#2
Andrea Poscia, Sonja Milovanovic, Daniele Ignazio La Milia, Mariusz Duplaga, Marcin Grysztar, Francesco Landi, Umberto Moscato, Nicola Magnavita, Agnese Collamati, Walter Ricciardi
Background: The number of Europeans aged over 65 will double between 2010 and 2060, reaching 30% of the European population. Nutrition is emerging as a key element of healthy life since both obesity and malnutrition are established risk factors for morbidity and disability. The aim of this umbrella review (UR) is to summarize the findings of all current systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyzes (MAs) on the effectiveness of nutritional intervention designed to promote healthy aging in older individuals...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227920/efficacy-evaluation-of-electric-field-frequency-and-temperature-on-dielectric-properties-of-collagen-cross-linked-by-glutaraldehyde
#3
Ewa Marzec, Krystyna Pietrucha
Solid-state dielectric properties are reported for unmodified collagen (Col) and glutaraldehyde-modified collagen (Col-GA) over the frequency range from 100Hz to 100kHz and at temperatures from 25 to 145°C. In the full temperature and frequency range the average values of the relative permittivity and dielectric loss for Col samples are higher than those recorded for Col-GA samples. The peak temperature of these both parameters associated with the release of loosely bound water is around 73 and 77°C for Col and Col-GA samples, respectively...
December 7, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227866/partnerships-for-active-children-in-elementary-schools-paces-first-year-process-evaluation
#4
Cate A Egan, Collin Webster, R Glenn Weaver, Ali Brian, David Stodden, Laura Russ, Danielle Nesbitt, Spyridoula Vazou
Movement integration (MI) is a strategy within comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAP). School-university partnerships are recommended to leverage teachers' capacity to use MI. A mixed method process evaluation was conducted of the first year of implementing Partnerships for Active Children in Elementary Schools (PACES). Classroom teachers (N=12) from four schools participated. Data were collected in Fall 2014 (baseline) and Spring 2015 (∼ four months of intervention) using the System for Observing Student Movement in Academic Routines and Transitions and semi-structured interviews...
December 6, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227823/lncrna-malat1-regulates-sepsis-induced-cardiac-inflammation-and-dysfunction-via-interaction-with-mir-125b-and-p38-mapk-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#5
Hu Chen, Xiaoyun Wang, Xuetao Yan, Xiaoli Cheng, Xianghu He, Wenzhong Zheng
This study aimed to explore the role of MALAT1 in sepsis-induced cardiac inflammation and dysfunction. We constructed the rat sepsis models through cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The cardiac function, including left ventricular peak pressure (LVPP), left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and maximum rate of rise/fall of left ventricle pressure (±dp/dtmax) as well as the contents of serum cardiac troponin I (CTn-I), creatine kinase (CK), and creative kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB) were detected after modeling...
December 7, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227413/the-association-between-body-adiposity-measures-postural-balance-fear-of-falling-and-fall-risk-in-older-community-dwelling-women
#6
Silvia Gonçalves Ricci Neri, André Bonadias Gadelha, Ana Cristina de David, Aparecido Pimentel Ferreira, Marisete Peralta Safons, Anne Tiedemann, Ricardo M Lima
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent investigations demonstrate an association between obesity and the propensity of older adults to fall. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between body adiposity measures, postural balance, fear of falling, and risk of falls in older women. METHODS: One hundred forty-seven volunteers took part in this cross-sectional study. Participants underwent body composition assessment using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and had body mass index, waist circumference (WC), and body adiposity index measured...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227410/recurrent-lower-eyelid-ectropion-after-graft-surgery-using-autogenous-palmaris-longus-tendon
#7
Koji Komatsu, Hiromichi Matsuda, Yasuhiro Takahashi, Tadashi Nakano
A 78-year-old male experienced right lower eyelid ectropion following right facial trauma from a fall 5 years ago, for which he underwent autogenous palmaris longus tendon graft surgery at another clinic. Recurrence was noted 3 years after surgery. On first examination, there was outward turning of the lateral half of the right lower eyelid margin. We performed a lateral tarsal strip procedure with removal of the graft. Intraoperatively, the lateral part of the graft was located along the inferior tarsal border, whereas the medial part was located on the tarsal surface...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227337/six-nursing-care-problems-in-hospitals-a-cross-sectional-study-of-quality-of-care
#8
Doris Eglseer, Manuela Hödl, Christa Lohrmann
Investigations about the quality of nursing care on structure, process, and outcome levels relating to various nursing care problems are rare. This cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted in 30 Austrian hospitals with 2878 patients. The quality of nursing care differed significantly with respect to the individual problems (pressure ulcer, incontinence, malnutrition, falls, restraints, pain), highlighting the need for studies that focus specifically on the quality of care and not merely on single nursing care problems...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Nursing Care Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227252/-mortality-and-morbidity-from-prostate-cancer-in-the-republic-of-kazakhstan-from-2007-to-2016
#9
Е Ospanov, Т Adylkhanov, Sh Tokanova, Yu Semenova, М Dauletyarova, S Bolsynbekova, N Zhumykbaeva
Worldwide, prostate cancer is the second most common male malignancy after lung cancer. However, prostate cancer is less common for the Asian population. We performed statistical analysis of official data on newly diagnosed cases of prostate cancer based on the annual reports of cancer hospitals in the Republic of Kazakhstan for the period of 10 years (2007-2016). We observed an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer among the population of Kazakhstan for the period of 2007-2016, which may be due to the screening program, which started in 2013...
November 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227173/changes-in-platelet-function-with-inflammation-in-patients-undergoing-vascular-surgery
#10
Bartosz Olechowski, Vikram Khanna, Mark Mariathas, Alexander Ashby, Richard T Dalton, Ian Nordon, Nicola Englyst, Scott Harris, Zoe Nicholas, Kala Thayalasamy, Michael Mahmoudi, Nick Curzen
The role of platelets in ischaemic events is well established. Aspirin represents the default antiplatelet and blocks the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) at the cyclo-oxygenase enzyme (COX). AA is commonly used as a test of response to aspirin, but recent data raise uncertainty about the validity of this approach. Specifically, in some patients AA-induced clotting is not suppressed, but the level of COX-dependent AA metabolite, thromboxane B2 (TXB2) is negligible. Furthermore, AA-induced whole blood clotting varies dynamically in individuals, who are aspirin responsive according to TXB2 levels...
December 11, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226627/data-visualizations-to-detect-systematic-errors-in-laboratory-assay-results
#11
Jörn Lötsch
The measurement of concentrations of drugs and endogenous substances is widely used in basic and clinical pharmacology research and service tasks. Using data science-derived visualizations of laboratory data, it is demonstrated on a real-life example that basic statistical exploration of laboratory assay results or advised standard visual methods of data inspection may fall short in detecting systematic laboratory errors. For example, data pathologies such as generating always the same value in all probes of a particular assay run may pass undetected when using standard methods of data quality check...
December 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226458/communicating-risk-in-dementia-care-survey-of-health-and-social-care-professionals
#12
Brian J Taylor, Mabel Stevenson, Michelle McDowell
Supporting people to live at home in line with community care policies requires increasing attention to assessing, communicating and managing risks. There is a challenge in supporting client choices that include risk-taking while demonstrating professional accountability. Risk communication becomes increasingly important with the need to engage clients and families in meaningful shared decision-making. This presents particular challenges in dementia services. This survey of risk communication in dementia care was administered to all health and social care professionals in community dementia services in Northern Ireland: June-September 2016...
December 11, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226024/polymers-at-liquid-vapor-interface
#13
Brandon L Peters, Darin Q Pike, Michael Rubinstein, Gary S Grest
Polymers confined to the liquid/vapor interface are studied using molecular dynamics simulations. We show that for polymers which are weakly immiscible with the solvent, the density profile perpendicular to the liquid/vapor interface is strongly asymmetric. On the vapor side of the interface, the density distribution falls off as a Gaussian with a decay length on the order of the bead diameter, whereas on the liquid side, the density profile decays as a simple exponential. This result differs from that of a polymer absorbed from a good solvent with the density profile decaying as a power law...
October 11, 2017: ACS Macro Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225936/comparative-analysis-of-gender-differences-in-outcomes-after-trauma-in-india-and-the-usa-case-for-standardised-coding-of-injury-mechanisms-in-trauma-registries
#14
Mohini Dasari, Siddarth D David, Elizabeth Miller, Juan Carlos Puyana, Nobhojit Roy
Introduction: While females generally have better outcomes than males after traumatic injury, higher mortality has been shown to occur in females after intentional trauma in lower-income countries. However, gender differences in trauma outcomes in different countries have not been previously compared. We conducted a two-country comparative analysis to characterise gender differences in mortality for different mechanisms of injury. Methods: Two urban trauma databases were analysed from India and the USA for fall, motor vehicle collision (MVC) and assault patients between 2013 and 2015...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225763/dispersal-and-establishment-of-vascular-epiphytes-in-human-modified-landscapes
#15
Helena J R Einzmann, Gerhard Zotz
The ongoing destruction of old-growth forests puts tropical forest species under great pressure because of the resulting habitat loss. A pre-requisite for the maintenance of a viable metacommunity in a fragmented landscape is the connectivity between habitable patches. We experimentally studied four vital steps of epiphyte dispersal in different habitat types in western Panama. (i) Seed falling velocity (Vterm) is known to correlate with long-distance dispersal via convective updraft. All measured Vterm of bromeliad and orchid seeds fell into a range of velocities with a high chance of long-distance dispersal...
November 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225719/methane-optical-density-measurements-with-an-integrated-path-differential-absorption-lidar-from-an-airborne-platform
#16
Haris Riris, Kenji Numata, Stewart Wu, Brayler Gonzalez, Michael Rodriguez, Stan Scott, Stephan Kawa, Jianping Mao
We report on an airborne demonstration of atmospheric methane (CH4) measurements with an Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar using an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) and optical parametric oscillator (OPO) laser transmitter and sensitive avalanche photodiode detector. The lidar measures the atmospheric CH4 absorption at multiple, discrete wavelengths near 1650.96 nm. The instrument was deployed in the fall of 2015, aboard NASA's DC-8 airborne laboratory along with an in-situ spectrometer and measured CH4 over a wide range of surfaces and atmospheric conditions from altitudes of 2 km to 13 km...
July 2017: Journal of Applied Remote Sensing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225468/therapy-of-an-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury-by-intrathecal-injection-of-epo-and-subcutaneous-injection-of-epo-vitamin-c-and-g-csf
#17
Augustinus Bader, Martin Reinhardt, Achim Beuthe, Klaus Röhl, Shibashish Giri
Spinal cord injury is a rare disease with an incidence about 40 cases per million population in the USA. The most common reasons are traffic accidents, falls, violence and sports. A 53-year-old male patient presented with an incomplete tetraparesis as a result of a spinal cord injury after the accident. It was not possible to treat him with steroids because he was out of the therapeutic time period of 8 hours when he presented to the hospital. The main problem of spinal cord injuries is the secondary injury caused by inflammation and swelling of the spinal cord...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224695/fragility-fractures-their-impact-on-older-people
#18
REVIEW
Lídia Sànchez-Riera, Nicholas Wilson
Osteoporotic fractures, in particular hip and vertebral, are a major health burden worldwide. The majority of these fractures occur in the elderly population, resulting in one of the most important causes of mortality and disability in older ages. Their cost for societies is enormous and is forecast to steadily increase over the coming decades globally. Low bone mineral density (BMD) remains a key preventable risk factor for fractures. Screening and treatment of individuals with high risk of fracture is cost-effective...
April 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224694/chronic-musculoskeletal-pain-and-its-impact-on-older-people
#19
REVIEW
Fiona M Blyth, Naomi Noguchi
Musculoskeletal conditions are the leading cause of disability worldwide and also have a large impact on many other aspects of older people's health such as low physical activity level, poor mobility, frailty, depression, cognitive impairment, falls and poor sleep quality. Clustering of musculoskeletal pain with other pain conditions is also common, and the number of pain sites is an important prognostic factor. While musculoskeletal pain is usually nociceptive in origin, older people with musculoskeletal conditions may also experience neuropathic pain and central pain syndromes...
April 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224693/musculoskeletal-health-and-frailty
#20
REVIEW
Fiona E McGuigan, Patrik Bartosch, Kristina E Åkesson
Frailty is a consequence of advanced aging, where the frailty phenotype tries to capture overall decline in health. Frailty involves multiple physiological systems that are intrinsically inter-related and with highly complex interactions. Frailty is closely linked to musculoskeletal health; musculoskeletal functioning is a key component in quantifying frailty, while at the same time, frailty is associated with the most common age-related musculoskeletal conditions: osteoporosis, fractures, falls, osteoarthritis, and spinal conditions...
April 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
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