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Pain clinics, acute pain, chronic pain, cancer pain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884758/magnesium-enhances-opioid-induced-analgesia-what-we-have-learnt-in-the-past-decades
#1
REVIEW
Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrożny, Jan Tatarkiewicz, Kamila Kulik, Małgorzata Filip, Marek Naruszewicz
Opioids are increasingly used in alleviating pain, including cancer-related pain and postoperative pain. Unfortunately, the development of tolerance, the resistance of neuropathic pain on opioid analgesia or other undesirable effects may limit their utility. In order to reduce opioid doses, and thereby to avoid the risk of side effects and sudden deaths due to overdosing, attempts have been made to introduce co-analgesics. Due to an increasing amount of data concerning a potential enhance of opioid analgesia by the physiological antagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, magnesium ions (Mg(2+)), a concomitant use of such a combination seems to be interesting from a clinical point of view...
November 21, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760797/the-effects-of-music-on-pain-a-meta-analysis
#2
Jin Hyung Lee
BACKGROUND: Numerous meta-analyses have been conducted on the topic of music and pain, with the latest comprehensive study published in 2006. Since that time, more than 70 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been published, necessitating a new and comprehensive review. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine published RCT studies investigating the effect of music on pain. METHODS: The present study included RCTs published between 1995 and 2014...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Music Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755490/effect-of-topical-morphine-on-acute-and-chronic-postmastectomy-pain-what-is-the-optimum-dose
#3
Sahar Abdel-Baky Mohamed, Hala Saad Abdel-Ghaffar, Shereen Mamdouh Kamal, Khaled Mohamed Fares, Hesham Mahmoud Hamza
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Poorly controlled postoperative pain is strongly associated with the development of chronic pain. We aimed to investigate the effect of topical morphine (in 1 of 3 doses: 5, 10, or 15 mg) on acute and chronic neuropathic pain after modified radical mastectomy for cancer breast. METHODS: In this registered clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02462577), 90 patients were allocated to receive 10 mL plain bupivacaine 0.5% plus either 5, 10, or 15 mg morphine (designated by the group names Morphine5, Morphine10, and Morphine15, respectively)...
October 11, 2016: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566722/pain-management-strategies-for-patients-on-methadone-maintenance-therapy-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#4
Mel Clark Taveros, Elizabeth J Chuang
CONTEXT: Prescription opioid and heroin abuse has increased substantially in recent years. Enrolment on opioid agonist therapy programmes is consequently increasing as well. As a result of these trends, more patients who present with acute pain secondary to a malignancy are also on chronic methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) for substance abuse. This combination of diagnoses presents a pain management challenge for palliative care providers. OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to gather and review the available medical literature pertaining to the use of opioid analgesia in methadone-maintained patients...
August 26, 2016: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534963/comparison-of-oxaliplatin-and-paclitaxel-induced-neuropathy-alliance-a151505
#5
Deirdre R Pachman, Rui Qin, Drew Seisler, Ellen M Lavoie Smith, Suneetha Kaggal, Paul Novotny, Kathryn J Ruddy, Jacqueline M Lafky, Lauren E Ta, Andreas S Beutler, Nina D Wagner-Johnston, Nathan P Staff, Axel Grothey, Patrick M Dougherty, Guido Cavaletti, Charles L Loprinzi
PURPOSE: Oxaliplatin and paclitaxel are commonly used chemotherapies associated with acute and chronic neuropathies. There is a need to better understand the similarities and differences of these clinical syndromes. METHODS: Neuropathy data were pooled from patients receiving adjuvant oxaliplatin and weekly paclitaxel or every 3 weeks of paclitaxel. Patients completed daily questionnaires after each chemotherapy dose and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality-of-life questionnaire for patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy before each chemotherapy cycle and for 12 months post-treatment...
August 18, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27290716/the-clinical-applications-of-extended-release-abuse-deterrent-opioids
#6
REVIEW
Nalini Vadivelu, Erika Schermer, Gopal Kodumudi, Jack M Berger
Opioids are the mainstay for treatment of acute pain and cancer pain, and also have a role in the treatment of chronic non-malignant pain. There has been, however, a growing public health problem stemming from the misuse of opioid analgesics leading to serious consequences. To deter abuse, new formulations of extended-release opioid analgesics and tamper-resistant opioids have recently been developed. The concept of abuse-deterrent extended-release opioids is relatively new and, although abuse may not be completely prevented, the utilization of such abuse-deterrent extended-release opioids could reduce this risk...
July 2016: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27175953/top-20-research-studies-of-2015-for-primary-care-physicians
#7
Mark H Ebell, Roland Grad
In 2015, a group of primary care clinicians with expertise in evidence-based practice performed monthly surveillance of more than 110 English-language clinical research journals. They identified 251 studies that addressed a primary care question and had the potential to change practice if valid (patient-oriented evidence that matters, or POEMs). Each study was critically appraised and disseminated to subscribers via e-mail, including members of the Canadian Medical Association who had the option to use a validated tool to assess the clinical relevance of each POEM and the benefits they expect for their practice...
May 1, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27125804/using-opioids-in-general-practice-for-chronic-non-cancer-pain-an-overview-of-current-evidence
#8
David C Currow, Jane Phillips, Katherine Clark
Chronic non-cancer pain (lasting more than 3 months) is highly prevalent in Australia (17% of males and 20% of females) and its optimal management is crucial to the health and wellbeing of the community. For 5% of the population, such pain interferes markedly with daily function. Part of the treatment for acute non-cancer pain for many people will include opioid analgesics at least for days to weeks. However, as pain becomes chronic, evidence to support ongoing prescription of opioids is lacking. There is increasing pressure to ensure that prescribing opioid analgesics is minimised to reduce not only the risk of dependence and illicit diversion but also the potential harms associated with tolerance, side effects and complications...
May 2, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27059127/lysophosphatidic-acid-receptors-lpars-potential-targets-for-the-treatment-of-neuropathic-pain
#9
María Velasco, Catherine O'Sullivan, Graham K Sheridan
Neuropathic pain can arise from lesions to peripheral or central nerve fibres leading to spontaneous action potential generation and a lowering of the nociceptive threshold. Clinically, neuropathic pain can manifest in many chronic disease states such as cancer, diabetes or multiple sclerosis (MS). The bioactive lipid, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), via activation of its receptors (LPARs), is thought to play a central role in both triggering and maintaining neuropathic pain. In particular, following an acute nerve injury, the excitatory neurotransmitters glutamate and substance P are released from primary afferent neurons leading to upregulated synthesis of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), the precursor for LPA production...
April 5, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26920012/sodium-channels-in-pain-and-cancer-new-therapeutic-opportunities
#10
REVIEW
Ana Paula Luiz, John N Wood
Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) underpin electrical activity in the nervous system through action potential propagation. First predicted by the modeling studies of Hodgkin and Huxley, they were subsequently identified at the molecular level by groups led by Catterall and Numa. VGSC dysfunction has long been linked to neuronal and cardiac disorders with some nonselective sodium channel blockers in current use in the clinic. The lack of selectivity means that side effect issues are a major impediment to the use of broad spectrum sodium channel blockers...
2016: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26912385/cannabinoids-medical-implications
#11
Richard J Schrot, John R Hubbard
Herbal cannabis has been used for thousands of years for medical purposes. With elucidation of the chemical structures of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) and with discovery of the human endocannabinoid system, the medical usefulness of cannabinoids has been more intensively explored. While more randomized clinical trials are needed for some medical conditions, other medical disorders, like chronic cancer and neuropathic pain and certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis, have substantial evidence supporting cannabinoid efficacy...
2016: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26856482/applicability-of-the-nursing-outcomes-classification-noc-to-the-evaluation-of-cancer-patients-with-acute-or-chronic-pain-in-palliative-care
#12
Bruna S Mello, Tânia M Massutti, Vanessa K Longaray, Daniela F Trevisan, Amália de Fátima Lucena
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to verify the clinical applicability of the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) to the evaluation of cancer patients with a nursing diagnosis of acute or chronic pain in a palliative care unit. METHOD: A prospective longitudinal study performed on a sample of 13 adult cancer patients in a palliative care unit. Patients were followed for at least 4days. Data were collected with an instrument containing eight nursing outcomes and nineteen NOC indicators...
February 2016: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26830195/depression-and-postoperative-complications-an-overview
#13
REVIEW
Mohamed M Ghoneim, Michael W O'Hara
BACKGROUND: The interaction of depression and anesthesia and surgery may result in significant increases in morbidity and mortality of patients. Major depressive disorder is a frequent complication of surgery, which may lead to further morbidity and mortality. LITERATURE SEARCH: Several electronic data bases, including PubMed, were searched pairing "depression" with surgery, postoperative complications, postoperative cognitive impairment, cognition disorder, intensive care unit, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease...
February 2, 2016: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26797541/outcomes-associated-with-3-treatment-schedules-of-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-monotherapy-for-favorable-risk-prostate-cancer
#14
Maha Saada Jawad, Joshua T Dilworth, Gary S Gustafson, Hong Ye, Michelle Wallace, Alvaro Martinez, Peter Y Chen, Daniel J Krauss
PURPOSE: We report the outcomes associated with 3 high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy regimens used as monotherapy for favorable-risk prostate cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Four hundred ninety-four patients with stage ≤T2b prostate cancer, Gleason score ≤7, and prostate-specific antigen levels ≤15 ng/mL underwent HDR brachytherapy as monotherapy. Of those, 319 received 38 Gy in 4 fractions, 79 received 24 Gy in 2 fractions, and 96 received 27 Gy in 2 fractions...
March 15, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26507535/the-prescription-opioid-epidemic-an-overview-for-anesthesiologists
#15
REVIEW
Asim Alam, David N Juurlink
PURPOSE: The objectives for preparing this article were to review the historical context and epidemiology surrounding the North American prescription opioid crisis, to summarize the evidence regarding the benefits and harms of long-term opioid therapy for non-cancer pain, and to outline ways in which anesthesiologists may help ameliorate the problem. SOURCE: We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, and EMBASE™ for relevant articles using various search terms, including pain, opioid epidemic, history of opioid use, perioperative care, and addiction...
January 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26387928/a-clinical-decision-instrument-for-30-day-death-after-an-emergency-department-visit-for-atrial-fibrillation-the-atrial-fibrillation-in-the-emergency-room-after-study
#16
Clare L Atzema, Paul Dorian, Jiming Fang, Jack V Tu, Douglas S Lee, Alice S Chong, Peter C Austin
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The high volume of patients treated in an emergency department (ED) for atrial fibrillation is predicted to increase significantly in the next few decades. Currently, 11% of these patients die within a year. We sought to derive and validate a complex model and a simplified model that predicts mortality in ED patients with atrial fibrillation. METHODS: This population-based, retrospective cohort study included 3,510 adult patients with a primary diagnosis of atrial fibrillation who were treated at 24 hospital EDs in Ontario, Canada, between April 2008 and March 2009...
December 2015: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26379550/traditional-japanese-herbal-medicines-for-treatment-of-odontopathy
#17
REVIEW
Kojiro Yamaguchi
This article highlights several refractory oral diseases, such as stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome (BMS), glossalgia, atypical facial pain (AFP), oral cancer, dry mouth, and Sjögren's syndrome (SJS), in which use of Japanese herbal medicines, Kampo medicines (KM), on the basis of Kampo theory could exert the maximum effects on human body. (1) In acute stomatitis, heat because of agitated vital energy may affect the head, chest, and middle abdominal region. Stomatitis is also related to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
2015: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26341467/onco-nephrology-a-decalogue
#18
REVIEW
Laura Cosmai, Camillo Porta, Maurizio Gallieni, Mark A Perazella
Onco-nephrology is an evolving subspecialty that focuses on the complex relationships existing between kidney and cancer. In this opinion piece, we propose a 'decalogue of onco-nephrology', in order to highlight the areas where the nephrologist and oncologist should work closely over the ensuing years to provide cutting-edge care for patients afflicted with cancer and kidney disease. The 10 points we have highlighted include (1) acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease in cancer patients; (2) nephrotoxic effects of anticancer therapy, either traditional chemotherapeutics or novel molecularly targeted agents; (3) paraneoplastic renal manifestations; (4) management of patients nephrectomized for a kidney cancer; (5) renal replacement therapy and active oncological treatments; (6) kidney transplantation in cancer survivors and cancer risk in ESRD patients; (7) oncological treatment in kidney transplant patients; (8) pain management in patients with cancer and kidney disease, (9) development of integrated guidelines for onco-nephrology patients and (10) clinical trials designed specifically for onco-nephrology...
April 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26332001/opioid-receptors
#19
REVIEW
Christoph Stein
Opioids are the oldest and most potent drugs for the treatment of severe pain. Their clinical application is undisputed in acute (e.g., postoperative) and cancer pain, but their long-term use in chronic pain has met increasing scrutiny. This article reviews mechanisms underlying opioid analgesia and other opioid actions. It discusses the structure, function, and plasticity of opioid receptors; the central and peripheral sites of analgesic actions and side effects; endogenous and exogenous opioid receptor ligands; and conventional and novel opioid compounds...
2016: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26325482/medical-marijuana-and-chronic-pain-a-review-of-basic-science-and-clinical-evidence
#20
REVIEW
Bjorn Jensen, Jeffrey Chen, Tim Furnish, Mark Wallace
Cannabinoid compounds include phytocannabinoids, endocannabinoids, and synthetics. The two primary phytocannabinoids are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), with CB1 receptors in the brain and peripheral tissue and CB2 receptors in the immune and hematopoietic systems. The route of delivery of cannabis is important as the bioavailability and metabolism are very different for smoking versus oral/sublingual routes. Gold standard clinical trials are limited; however, some studies have thus far shown evidence to support the use of cannabinoids for some cancer, neuropathic, spasticity, acute pain, and chronic pain conditions...
October 2015: Current Pain and Headache Reports
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