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Guillain Barre

Ludovica Barbi, Antonio Victor Campos Coelho, Luiz Cláudio Arraes de Alencar, Sergio Crovella
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emergent flavivirus transmitted mainly through Aedes spp. mosquitoes that is posing challenge to healthcare services in countries experiencing an outbreak. Usually ZIKV infection is mild, but in some cases it has been reported to progress into neurological diseases such as microcephaly in infants and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in adults. GBS is a debilitating autoimmune disorder that affects peripheral nerves. Since ZIKV caused massive outbreaks in South America in the past few years, we aimed to systematically review the literature and perform a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of GBS among ZIKV-infected individuals...
March 12, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Andrea Cristine Koishi, Andréia Akemi Suzukawa, Camila Zanluca, Daria Elena Camacho, Guillermo Comach, Claudia Nunes Duarte Dos Santos
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus belonging to the genus flavivirus that comprises other important public health viruses, such as dengue (DENV) and yellow fever (YFV). In general, ZIKV infection is a self-limiting disease, however cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital brain abnormalities in newborn infants have been reported. Diagnosing ZIKV infection remains a challenge, as viral RNA detection is only applicable until a few days after the onset of symptoms. After that, serological tests must be applied, and, as expected, high cross-reactivity between ZIKV and other flavivirus serology is observed...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Hadil Ak AlOtair, Abdulaziz H Alzeer, Mohammed A Abdou, Shaden O Qasrawi
Central alveolar hypoventilation is rarely encountered. This case report describes a young woman who was recently diagnosed with hypertension and ischemic heart disease. She presented to the emergency room with hypercapnic respiratory failure, for which she was mechanically ventilated. This was preceded by an acute upper respiratory tract infection. She was initially suspected to have Guillain-Barré syndrome, but further investigations ruled out neuromuscular or autoimmune disorders. Sleep-related hypoventilation was suspected after she experienced recurrent apneas at night that resulted in re-intubation...
March 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Margarita Villar, Lourdes Mateos-Hernandez, Jose de la Fuente
BACKGROUND: Why an autoimmune disease that is the main cause of the acute neuromuscular paralysis worldwide has not yet a well-characterized cause or an effective treatment? The existence of different clinical variants for the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) coupled with the fact that a high number of pathogens can cause an infection that sometimes, but not always, precedes the development of the syndrome, confers a high degree of uncertainty for both prognosis and treatment. In the post-genomic era, the development of omics technologies for the high-throughput analysis of biological molecules is allowing the characterization of biological systems in a degree of depth unimaginable before...
March 14, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Amey Dilip Sonavane, Sanjiv Saigal, Abhishek Kathuria, Narendra S Choudhary, Neeraj Saraf
Extrahepatic syndromes are uncommon manifestations of acute and chronic hepatitis B. The pathogenesis likely involves an aberrant immunologic response to extrahepatic viral proteins. Antiviral therapy reduces the availability of these viral protein antigens and thus halts immune activation. Approximately 1% of all cases of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are associated with hepatitis B. Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a remarkably clinically diverse disorder with distinctive variants characterised by an immune-mediated attack to components of the peripheral nervous system...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Shupeng Dong, Qiming Liang
An infection by Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, broke out in South American regions in 2015, and recently showed a tendency of spreading to North America and even worldwide. ZIKV was first detected in 1947 and only 14 human infection cases were reported until 2007. This virus was previously observed to cause only mild flu-like symptoms. However, recent ZIKV infections might be responsible for the increasing cases of neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital defects, including newborn microcephaly...
March 14, 2018: Virologica Sinica
C Talero-Gutiérrez, A Rivera-Molina, C Pérez-Pavajeau, I Ossa-Ospina, C Santos-García, M C Rojas-Anaya, A de-la-Torre
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is an emergent worldwide public health problem. Historically, 84 countries have reported vector-borne ZIKV transmission, 61 of which report on-going transmission. It is a Flavivirus transmitted through arthropods belonging to the Aedes genus. Since 2015, ZIKV infections have increased dramatically; with 1.3 million people infected during 2015 in Brazil alone. This paper's objective is to highlight the conjectural epidemiological points of the virus' dissemination. The digital archives Pubmed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane were searched for papers that assessed aspects of ZIKV transmission and epidemiology...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Luis Palma-Garcia, Victor Velásquez-Rimachi, Armando Pezo-Pezo, Joseph Roig, Julio Perez-Villegas
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is an extracorporeal procedure which consists of removing the patient's plasma and replacing it with an appropriate replacement fluid. Plasma and blood cells are separated by a centrifugation process. Our department has used TPE for several years, and in 2013 we introduced an institutional apheresis protocol. The main objective of this report is to describe the TPE procedures performed between 2013 and 2016 in the Peruvian population. METHODS: We analyzed the technical and clinical aspects of 864 centrifugal TPE procedures as well as the associated complications...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
Abigail Culshaw, Juthathip Mongkolsapaya, Gavin Screaton
Zika virus (ZIKV) was initially thought to cause only mild, self-limiting symptoms. However, recent outbreaks have been associated with the autoimmune disease Guillain-Barré syndrome and causally linked to a congenital malformation known as microcephaly. This has led to an urgent need for a safe and effective vaccine. A comprehensive understanding of the immunology of ZIKV infection is required to aid in the design of such a vaccine. Whilst details of both innate and adaptive immune responses to ZIKV are emerging, further research is needed...
2018: F1000Research
Richard A Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Zhenjian He, Jiahui Chen, Shu An, Xinhuai Dong, Jianchen Yu, Shihao Zhang, Yun Wu, Ge Li, Yu Zhang, Jueheng Wu, Xun Zhu, Mengfeng Li
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus that has been identified as a cause of several severe disease manifestations, including congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningoencephalitis and myelitis. Previous studies showed that ZIKV-infected patients exhibited elevated plasma levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), indicating that ZIKV may activate inflammasomes. However, the molecular basis for its viral pathogenesis remains poorly understood. In this current study, we found that ZIKV infection caused severe inflammatory pathological changes and promoted IL-1β production in vitro as well as in vivo...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Victoria Hall, William L Walker, Nicole P Lindsey, Jennifer A Lehman, Jonathan Kolsin, Kimberly Landry, Ingrid B Rabe, Susan L Hills, Marc Fischer, J Erin Staples, Carolyn V Gould, Stacey W Martin
Zika virus is a flavivirus primarily transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (1). Zika virus infections also have been documented through intrauterine transmission resulting in congenital infection; intrapartum transmission from a viremic mother to her newborn; sexual transmission; blood transfusion; and laboratory exposure (1-3). Most Zika virus infections are asymptomatic or result in mild clinical illness, characterized by acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or nonpurulent conjunctivitis; Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningoencephalitis, and severe thrombocytopenia rarely have been associated with Zika virus infection (1)...
March 9, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Man Amanat, Mona Salehi, Nima Rezaei
Psoriasis used to be known as a skin disorder; however, it can now be considered as a systemic disease with the involvement of multiple organs. Neurological and psychiatric disorders are some of the associated problems that can be observed in patients with psoriasis. Stroke, multiple sclerosis, seizure, migraine, restless leg syndrome, Parkinson's disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and myasthenia gravis are the reported neurological diseases, while depression, bipolar mood disorder, anxiety, psychosis, cognitive impairment, personality disorders, sexual disorders, sleep disturbance, and eating disorders are the recognized psychiatric presentations in patients with psoriasis...
March 6, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Anas Alrohimi, Rajive Jassal
Headache is an uncommon symptom in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). We review four clinical settings related to GBS in which headache may be present. We focus on pathophysiological explanations, alerting the clinician to further potential investigations and treatment. Most reports of headache in GBS occur in the context of the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, an increasingly recognized dysautonomia-related GBS complication. Less frequent is headache in the setting of increased intracranial pressure and papilledema (secondary intracranial hypertension), Miller Fisher syndrome, and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis...
March 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Brenda C M De Winter, Dennis A Hesselink, Nassim Kamar
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis worldwide. Genotypes 1 and 2 (GT1 and GT2) are mainly present in developing countries, while GT3 and GT4 are prevalent in developed and high-income countries. In the majority of cases, HEV causes a self-limiting hepatitis. GT3 and GT4 can be responsible for a chronic hepatitis that can lead to cirrhosis in immunocompromized patients, i.e. solid-organ- and stem-cell-transplant-patients, human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, and patients receiving chemotherapy or immunotherapy...
February 27, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Cameron Green, Tess Baker, Ashwin Subramaniam
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature regarding the ability of clinical features to predict respiratory failure in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). DATA SOURCES: We searched the PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE databases with the search terms "guillain barre syndrome" OR "acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy" OR "acute motor axonal neuropathy" OR "acute motor sensory axonal neuropathy" AND "respiratory failure" OR "mechanical ventilation"...
March 5, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Mario Emílio Dourado
The year 2016 was the centennial anniversary of the recognition of the Guillain-Barré syndrome, which was first described by George Guillain, Jean-Alexandre Barré and André Strohl. In celebration of the centennial, this historical review describes aspects of the contributions of Guillain and the Spanish neurologist, Barraquer-Bordas and a brief account of the Fourth International Neurological Congress, which brought together Guillain and Barraquer-Bordas. There were many outstanding Brazilian physicians at that meeting...
February 2018: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Marija Sajic, Keila Kazue Ida, Ryan Canning, Norman A Gregson, Michael R Duchen, Kenneth J Smith
BACKGROUND: Small-diameter, myelinated axons are selectively susceptible to dysfunction in several inflammatory PNS and CNS diseases, resulting in pain and degeneration, but the mechanism is not known. METHODS: We used in vivo confocal microscopy to compare the effects of inflammation in experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN), a model of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), on mitochondrial function and transport in large- and small-diameter axons. We have compared mitochondrial function and transport in vivo in (i) healthy axons, (ii) axons affected by experimental autoimmune neuritis, and (iii) axons in which mitochondria were focally damaged by laser induced photo-toxicity...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Araz Al-Saffar, Bassam Al-Fatly
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute peripheral neuropathy that develops as a result of post-infectious immune-mediated nerve injury. It can be classified into classic and variant GBS. Acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) is a subtype of GBS with the key clinical features of pure motor weakness, areflexia, absence of sensory symptoms, and lack of neurophysiologic evidence of demyelination. We reported a case of acute motor axonal neuropathy in association with hepatitis E infection. A young woman was referred to us after a period of nausea, fever, and diarrhea...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Raj K Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Rekha Khandia, Ashok Munjal, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Ruchi Tiwari, Sandip Chakraborty, Yashpal S Malik, Rubén Bueno-Marí
Zika virus (ZIKV) is the most recent intruder that acquired the status of global threat creating panic and frightening situation to public owing to its rapid spread, attaining higher virulence and causing complex clinical manifestations including microcephaly in newborns and Guillain Barré Syndrome. Alike other flaviviruses, the principal mode of ZIKV transmission is by mosquitoes. Advances in research have provided reliable diagnostics for detecting ZIKV infection, while several drug/therapeutic targets and vaccine candidates have been identified recently...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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