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Guillain Barre

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214515/igg-degrading-enzyme-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-ides-prevents-disease-progression-and-facilitates-improvement-in-a-rabbit-model-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#1
Yuzhong Wang, Qiguang Shi, Hui Lv, Ming Hu, Weifang Wang, Quanquan Wang, Baojun Qiao, Guorong Zhang, Zhanyun Lv, Christian Kjellman, Sofia Järnum, Lena Winstedt, Yong Zhang, Jiao Wen, Yanlei Hao, Nobuhiro Yuki
Autoantibodies binding to peripheral nerves followed by complement deposition and membrane attack complex formation results in nerve damage in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Strategies to remove the pathogenic autoantibodies or block the complement deposition benefit most patients with GBS. Immunoglobulin G-degrading enzyme of Streptococcus pyogenes (IdeS) is a cysteine protease which cleaves IgG antibodies into F(ab')2 and Fc fragments. In this study, using a rabbit model of axonal GBS, acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), we demonstrated that IdeS treatment significantly reduced the disruption of Nav channels as well as activated C3 deposition at the anterior spinal root nodes of Ranvier in AMAN rabbits...
February 15, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211470/transient-auditory-nerve-demyelination-as-a-new-mechanism-for-hidden-hearing-loss
#2
Guoqiang Wan, Gabriel Corfas
Hidden hearing loss (HHL) is a recently described auditory neuropathy believed to contribute to speech discrimination and intelligibility deficits in people with normal audiological tests. Animals and humans with HHL have normal auditory thresholds but defective cochlear neurotransmission, that is, reduced suprathreshold amplitude of the sound-evoked auditory nerve compound action potential. Currently, the only cellular mechanism known for HHL is loss of inner hair cell synapses (synaptopathy). Here we report that transient loss of cochlear Schwann cells results in permanent auditory deficits characteristic of HHL...
February 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209311/mri-findings-of-optic-pathway-involvement-in-miller-fisher-syndrome-in-3-pediatric-patients-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#3
Ajay Malhotra, Mia Zhang, Xiao Wu, Shanu Jindal, David Durand, Naila Makhani
BACKGROUND: Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) is a rare demyelinating condition which may have involvement of cranial nerves. There are a few case reports of optic pathway involvement in children. We describe 3 patients with optic pathway enhancement in pediatric patients with MFS. CASE SERIES: We retrospectively reviewed brain imaging findings in 17 pediatric patients with of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) meeting Brighton criteria who had brain MRIs performed during their acute illness...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207688/transmission-of-zika-virus-haiti-october-12-2015-september-10-2016
#4
Ito Journel, Lesly L Andrécy, Dudley Metellus, Jean S Pierre, Rose Murka Faublas, Stanley Juin, Amber M Dismer, David L Fitter, Daniel Neptune, Marie José Laraque, Salomon Corvil, Manise Pierre, Josiane Buteau, Donald Lafontant, Roopal Patel, Jean Frantz Lemoine, David W Lowrance, Macarthur Charles, Jacques Boncy, Paul Adrien
Zika virus disease is caused by infection with a flavivirus with broad geographic distribution and is most frequently transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito. The disease was first identified in the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas in 2015 and was followed by a surge in reported cases of congenital microcephaly in Brazil; Zika virus disease rapidly spread to the rest of the region and the Caribbean (1), including Haiti. Infection with the virus is associated with adverse fetal outcomes (1) and rare neurologic complications in adults...
February 17, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194661/guillain-barre-syndrome-complicating-chikungunya-virus-infection
#5
Ayush Agarwal, Deepti Vibha, Achal Kumar Srivastava, Garima Shukla, Kameshwar Prasad
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus which presents with symptoms of fever, rash, arthralgia, and occasional neurologic disease. While outbreaks have been earlier reported from India and other parts of the world, the recent outbreak in India witnessed more than 1000 cases. Various systemic and rarely neurological complications have been reported with CHIKV. We report two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) with CHIKV. GBS is a rare neurological complication which may occur after subsidence of fever and constitutional symptoms by several neurotropic viruses...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194064/therapeutic-plasma-exchange-in-patients-with-neurologic-disorders-review-of-63-cases
#6
Anil Tombak, Mehmet Ali Uçar, Aydan Akdeniz, Arda Yilmaz, Hakan Kaleagası, Mehmet Ali Sungur, Eyup Naci Tiftik
Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is a procedure that reduces circulating autoantibodies of the patients. TPE is commonly used in neurological disorders where autoimmunity plays a major role. We report our experience with regard to the indications, adverse events and outcomes of plasma exchange in neurological disorders. Sixty-three patients were included to this retrospective study. Median age was 48 years (range 1-85), there was a predominance of males. Neurological indications included Guillain-Barrè syndrome (n = 22), myasthenia gravis (n = 21), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (n = 7), polymyositis (n = 3), multifocal motor neuropathy (n = 2), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (n = 2), neuromyelitis optica (n = 2), multiple sclerosis (n = 2), limbic encephalitis (n = 1) and transverse myelitis (n = 1)...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190705/risk-of-autoimmune-diseases-and-human-papilloma-virus-hpv-vaccines-six-years-of-case-referent-surveillance
#7
Lamiae Grimaldi-Bensouda, Michel Rossignol, Isabelle Koné-Paut, Alain Krivitzky, Christine Lebrun-Frenay, Johanna Clet, David Brassat, Caroline Papeix, Marc Nicolino, Pierre-Yves Benhamou, Olivier Fain, Nathalie Costedoat-Chalumeau, Marie-France Courcoux, Jean-François Viallard, Bertrand Godeau, Thomas Papo, Patrick Vermersch, Isabelle Bourgault-Villada, Gerard Breart, Lucien Abenhaim
BACKGROUND: Safety of HPV vaccines is still in question due to reports of autoimmune diseases (ADs) following HPV immunization. OBJECTIVES: To assess the risk of ADs associated with HPV vaccination of female adolescents/young adults in France. METHODS: Systematic prospective case-referent study conducted to assess the risks associated with real-life use of HPV vaccines. Cases were female 11-25 years old with incident ADs [central demyelination/multiple sclerosis (CD/MS), connective tissue disease (CTD), Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), type-1 diabetes (T1D), autoimmune thyroiditis (AT), and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)]...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188832/experimental-guillain-barre-syndrome-induced-by-immunization-with-gangliosides-keyhole-limpet-hemocyanin-is-required-for-disease-triggering
#8
Samanta C Funes, María Eugenia Chiari, Romina Comín, Fernando J Irazoqui, Gustavo A Nores
An experimental model of Guillain-Barré Syndrome has been established in recent years. Rabbits develop disease upon immunization with a single dose of an emulsion containing bovine brain gangliosides, KLH and complete Freund's adjuvant. Within a period of four to ten weeks after immunization, they began to produce anti-ganglioside IgG-antibodies first, and to show clinical signs of neuropathy afterwards. In addition to gangliosides, KLH is a requirement for antibody production and disease triggering. Although KLH is commonly used as an immunological carrier protein, an anti-KLH-specific immune response was necessary for induction of both events...
February 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187806/diagnosis-and-management-of-spinal-cord-emergencies
#9
E P Flanagan, S J Pittock
Most spinal cord injury is seen with trauma. Nontraumatic spinal cord emergencies are discussed in this chapter. These myelopathies are rare but potentially devastating neurologic disorders. In some situations prior comorbidity (e.g., advanced cancer) provides a clue, but in others (e.g., autoimmune myelopathies) it may come with little warning. Neurologic examination helps distinguish spinal cord emergencies from peripheral nervous system emergencies (e.g., Guillain-Barré), although some features overlap...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185126/zika-virus-and-neuroscience-the-need-for-a-translational-collaboration
#10
Lavínia Schuler-Faccini, Paulo Roehe, Eduardo R Zimmer, André Quincozes-Santos, Adriano M de Assis, Elizabeth Obino Cirne Lima, Jorge Almeida Guimarães, Cesar Victora, Vivaldo Moura Neto, Diogo O Souza
Zika virus (ZIKV) has become a major challenge for scientists and health agencies. ZIKV's involvement with human fetal microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome and its transmission through Aedes africanus and Aedes aegypti mosquitos highlighted the epidemiological and neurological risks associated to ZIKV infection. In 2013, ZIKV arrives in Brazil but the first outbreak in the country was reported in 2015. Here, we used the Web of Science as a search tool for comparing the evolution of world and Brazilian scientific research on dengue virus (DENV)-also present in mosquito-, ZIKV and microcephaly...
February 9, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182948/zika-virus-pathogenesis-and-tissue-tropism
#11
REVIEW
Jonathan J Miner, Michael S Diamond
Although Zika virus (ZIKV) was isolated approximately 70 years ago, few experimental studies had been published prior to 2016. The recent spread of ZIKV to countries in the Western Hemisphere is associated with reports of microcephaly, congenital malformations, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. This has resulted in ZIKV being declared a public health emergency and has greatly accelerated the pace of ZIKV research and discovery. Within a short time period, useful mouse and non-human primate disease models have been established, and pre-clinical evaluation of therapeutics and vaccines has begun...
February 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182667/environmental-and-social-change-drive-the-explosive-emergence-of-zika-virus-in-the-americas
#12
REVIEW
Sofia Ali, Olivia Gugliemini, Serena Harber, Alexandra Harrison, Lauren Houle, Javarcia Ivory, Sierra Kersten, Rebia Khan, Jenny Kim, Chris LeBoa, Emery Nez-Whitfield, Jamieson O'Marr, Emma Rothenberg, R Max Segnitz, Stephanie Sila, Anna Verwillow, Miranda Vogt, Adrienne Yang, Erin A Mordecai
Since Zika virus (ZIKV) was detected in Brazil in 2015, it has spread explosively across the Americas and has been linked to increased incidence of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). In one year, it has infected over 500,000 people (suspected and confirmed cases) in 40 countries and territories in the Americas. Along with recent epidemics of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV), which are also transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, the emergence of ZIKV suggests an ongoing intensification of environmental and social factors that have given rise to a new regime of arbovirus transmission...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177572/diabetes-mellitus-may-affect-short-term-outcome-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#13
Stojan Peric, Ivo Bozovic, Bogdan Bjelica, Ivana Berisavac, Olivera Stojiljkovic, Ivana Basta, Ljiljana Beslac-Bumbasirevic, Vidosava Rakocevic-Stojanovic, Dragana Lavrnic, Zorica Stevic
We sought to determine influence of diabetes mellitus on GBS course and short-term prognosis. Among the 257 GBS patients included in this retrospective study, diabetes mellitus was present in 17%. The degree of disability at admission and on discharge was assessed according to the GBS Disability Scale (mild disability = 0-3, severe disability = 4-6). Even after correction for age, diabetes mellitus was significantly associated with more severe disability at nadir (OR=3.4, P < 0.05) and on discharge (OR=2...
February 8, 2017: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174559/zika-virus-chikungunya-virus-and-dengue-virus-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-from-adults-with-neurological-manifestations-guayaquil-ecuador
#14
Nathalie Acevedo, Jesse Waggoner, Michelle Rodriguez, Lissette Rivera, José Landivar, Benjamin Pinsky, Hector Zambrano
Zika virus (ZIKV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and dengue virus (DENV) have been associated with clinical presentations that involve acute neurological complaints. In the current study, we identified ZIKV, CHIKV, and DENV in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients admitted to the Hospital Luis Vernaza (Guayaquil, Ecuador) to the Emergency Room or the Intensive Care Unit, with neurological symptoms and/or concern for acute arboviral infections. Viral RNA from one or more virus was detected in 12/16 patients...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169005/nelarabine-associated-reversible-guillain-barr%C3%A3-like-syndrome-or-myelopathy-in-an-adult-patient-with-primary-refractory-t-lymphoblastic-lymphoma
#15
Chrysavgi Lalayanni, Eirini Baldoumi, Sotiris Papayiannopoulos, Konstantia Tziola, Riad Saloum, Achilles Anagnostopoulos
Nelarabine is a purine analogue used for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma mainly as a bridge to stem cell transplantation. The water-soluble prodrug of 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl guanine (Ara-G) is phosphorylated within leukemic cells to form ara-G triphosphate (ara-GTP), which terminates DNA chain elongation, resulting in cell death. The drug received accelerated approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on October 2005 based on the induction of complete remissions in 2 phase II trials...
November 17, 2016: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167198/analysis-of-serum-interleukin-27-and-interleukin-35-concentrations-in-patients-with-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#16
Lin-Jie Zhang, Hui-Yue Guo, Da-Qi Zhang, Rong Wang, Ting Li, Li-Min Li, Dong-Mei Suo, Li Yang
BACKGROUNDS: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a postinfectious immune-mediated peripheral neuropathy. Interleukin (IL)-27 and IL-35 have been recognized as novel members of IL-12 family. We evaluated the serum and cerebral spinal fluid (CFS) concentrations of IL-27 and IL-35 in GBS and analyze their correlations with clinical characteristics. METHODS: Serum samples from 50 patients with GBS including 9 acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP), 33 acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) and 8 unclassified and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were collected...
February 4, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163843/outcome-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-children-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-upper-egypt
#17
Abdelrahim Abdrabou Sadek, Ashraf Abou-Taleb, Wafaa Ahmed Ali
INTRODUCTION: Guillain-Barré syndrome is the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis in children, and defined as an acute inflammatory polyneuropathy. The objective of this study was to assess the clinico-laboratory profile, and outcome of Guillain-Barré syndrome in children at Sohag University Hospital. METHODS: This prospective cohort observational study was conducted in 2014-2015. The included children were subjected to through medical history and detailed systemic and neurological examination...
December 2016: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162825/safety-of-quadrivalent-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-in-subjects-aged-2-49years
#18
Roger Baxter, Abigail Eaton, John Hansen, Laurie Aukes, Herve Caspard, Christopher S Ambrose
BACKGROUND: Quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (Q/LAIV) was licensed in 2012 and replaced trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine in the United States during the 2013-2014 influenza season. This study assessed the safety of Q/LAIV in children and adults aged 2-49years. METHODS: This was a prospective observational cohort study using data collected from Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Post-vaccination events of interest were any hospitalization, hospitalization for lower respiratory tract infection, and the following medically attended events: hypersensitivity, seizures/convulsions, lower respiratory tract infection, wheezing, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Bell's palsy, encephalitis, neuritis, vasculitis, and narcolepsy/cataplexy...
February 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157786/campylobacter-jejuni-and-associated-immune-mechanisms-short-term-effects-and-long-term-implications-for-infants-in-low-income-countries
#19
Amanda E Schnee, William A Petri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as one of the most common causes of food-borne gastrointestinal illness worldwide, resulting in a self-limiting dysentery in developed countries. However, it is increasingly gaining attention due to its association with postinfectious complications such as Guillain-Barré Syndrome and recently recognized importance in early childhood diarrhea in developing countries. We hypothesize that the inflammation mediated by C. jejuni infection causes environmental enteric dysfunction, and with contribution from diet and the host, microbiome may be responsible for growth faltering in children and developmental disability...
February 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156036/assessing-recording-delays-in-general-practice-records-to-inform-near-real-time-vaccine-safety-surveillance-using-the-clinical-practice-research-datalink-cprd
#20
Andreia Leite, Nick J Andrews, Sara L Thomas
PURPOSE: Near real-time vaccine safety surveillance (NRTVSS) is an option for post-licensure vaccine safety assessment. NRTVSS requires timely recording of outcomes in the database used. Our main objective was to examine recording delays in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) for outcomes of interest for vaccine safety to inform the feasibility of NRTVSS using these data. We also evaluated completeness of recording and further assessed reporting delays for hospitalized events in CPRD...
February 3, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
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