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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750078/acridine-orange-fluorescent-microscopy-is-more-sensitive-than-india-ink-light-microscopy-in-the-rapid-detection-of-cryptococcosis-among-crag-positive-hiv-patients
#1
Richard Kwizera, Andrew Akampurira, Darlisha Williams, David R Boulware, David B Meya
BACKGROUND: India ink microscopy on cerebrospinal fluid is still utilized in resource limited settings for the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis despite its poor sensitivity. We hypothesized that staining fungal nucleic acids with fluorescent dyes instead of the capsule with India ink might improve sensitivity for the diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis. METHODS: We enrolled 96 HIV-infected participants with cryptococcal meningitis who provided 194 CSF specimens at serial time points in Kampala, Uganda...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747366/cross-reacting-ustilago-maydis-causing-false-positive-cryptococcal-antigen-tests
#2
Matthew P Cheng, Tien T Nguyen, Leighanne O Parkes, Philippe J Dufresne, Donald C Sheppard
Cryptococcus neoformans is a yeast within the division Basidiomycota that may cause pulmonary and central nervous system (CNS) disease.….
July 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744276/differential-antifungal-activity-of-human-and-cryptococcal-melanins-with-structural-discrepancies
#3
Néstor Correa, Cristian Covarrubias, Paula I Rodas, Germán Hermosilla, Verónica R Olate, Cristián Valdés, Wieland Meyer, Fabien Magne, Cecilia V Tapia
Melanin is a pigment found in all biological kingdoms, and plays a key role in protection against ultraviolet radiation, oxidizing agents, and ionizing radiation damage. Melanin exerts an antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and parasites. We demonstrated an antifungal activity of synthetic and human melanin against Candida sp. The members of the Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii species complexes are capsulated yeasts, which cause cryptococcosis. For both species melanin is an important virulence factor...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736880/central-nervous-system-infection-due-to-cryptococcus-gattii-sensu-lato-in-india-analysis-of-clinical-features-molecular-profile-and-antifungal-susceptibility
#4
Shayanki Lahiri Mukhopadhyay, Veenakumari H Bahubali, Netravathi Manjunath, Aarthi Swaminathan, Sayani Maji, Marimuthu Palaniappan, Satishchandra Parthasarathy, Nagarathna Chandrashekar
Cryptococcus gattii species complex has evolved as a pathogen in the last two decades causing infection among both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. We aimed to analyse the clinical features of CNS infection caused by C. gattii sensu lato, molecular and antifungal susceptibility profile of this pathogen. Cases diagnosed to have CNS cryptococcosis were included in the study. Cryptococcus recovered from patient's specimen was identified by standard protocol. Species confirmation, mating type and molecular type determination were performed by PCR based methods...
July 23, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723333/enhanced-prophylaxis-plus-antiretroviral-therapy-for-advanced-hiv-infection-in-africa
#5
James Hakim, Victor Musiime, Alex J Szubert, Jane Mallewa, Abraham Siika, Clara Agutu, Simon Walker, Sarah L Pett, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Abbas Lugemwa, Symon Kaunda, Mercy Karoney, Godfrey Musoro, Sheila Kabahenda, Kusum Nathoo, Kathryn Maitland, Anna Griffiths, Margaret J Thomason, Cissy Kityo, Peter Mugyenyi, Andrew J Prendergast, A Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the rate of death from infection (including tuberculosis and cryptococcus) shortly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is approximately 10%. METHODS: In this factorial open-label trial conducted in Uganda, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya, we enrolled HIV-infected adults and children 5 years of age or older who had not received previous ART and were starting ART with a CD4+ count of fewer than 100 cells per cubic millimeter...
July 20, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721191/small-bowel-obstruction-due-to-mesenteric-abscess-caused-by-mycobacterium-avium-complex-in-an-hiv-patient-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
S M Mohar, Saqib Saeed, Alexius Ramcharan, Hector Depaz
Small bowel obstruction in HIV patients is reportedly caused by inflammatory pseudotumor, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptococcal lymphadenopathy and intestinal tuberculosis. The incidence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in HIV patients is 3% for CD4 cell count of 100-199 /mm(3). MAC causing small bowel obstruction is rarely reported in the literature. We report a rare case of MAC causing mesenteric abscess with small bowel obstruction in a HIV patient with a CD4 cell count of 144 /mm(3). Patient was a 35-year-old HIV-positive male on highly active antiretroviral therapy who presented with partial small bowel obstruction secondary to mesenteric abscess...
July 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720691/disseminated-cryptococcosis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#7
Pradeep Mada, Brad Nowack, Beth Cady, Andrew Stevenson Joel Chandranesan
Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection which is commonly associated with immune-compromised state. Disseminated infection in immunocompetent individuals is extremely rare. We present a case of a 56-year-old African American patient who presented with unilateral knee pain and swelling and was subsequently diagnosed with cryptococcal bone mass with dissemination of infection.
July 18, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711217/psychosis-due-to-disseminated-cryptococcal-infection-and-delirium-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Jungjin Kim, Georgina Hartzell, Neguine Rezaii, Lauren Gensler, Wendy Baer, Raymond Young, Ann C Schwartz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705181/the-impact-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-symptom-burden-among-hiv-outpatients-with-low-cd4-count-in-rural-uganda-nested-longitudinal-cohort-study
#9
Katie Wakeham, Richard Harding, Jonathan Levin, Rosalind Parkes-Ratanshi, Anatoli Kamali, David G Lalloo
BACKGROUND: Individuals with HIV have a high prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms throughout their disease course. Despite the clinical and public health implications of unresolved pain and symptoms, little is known about the effect of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) on these outcomes. This study aimed to assess the impact on symptom burden for the year after ART initiation in individuals with a CD4 count <200 cells/uL in Uganda. METHODS: HIV-infected, ART-naıve adults referred from voluntary testing and counseling services in rural Uganda for enrollment into a randomized controlled trial to test fluconazole as primary prophylaxis against cryptococcal disease were invited to complete the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale-Short Form (MSAS-SF) prior to commencing ART and at two subsequent follow up visits...
July 13, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700464/cryptococcal-meningitis-after-transnasal-transsphenoidal-pituitary-microsurgery-of-acth-secreting-pituitary-adenoma-a-case-report
#10
Yang Liu, Ming Feng, Yong Yao, Kan Deng, Xinjie Bao, Xiaohai Liu, Renzhi Wang
RATIONALE: Microbial infection should be regarded in the differential diagnosis of neurosurgical complications after transnasal transsphenoidal pituitary microsurgery, albeit cryptococcal meningitis is rare. This article will discuss the risk factors of cryptococcal meningitis in patients underwent transnasal transsphenoidal pituitary microsurgery, and summary the potential origins of infection. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSIS: Here, we report a case of 37-year-old male who had cryptococcal meningitis after transnasal transsphenoidal pituitary microsurgery of a relapsing ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693927/risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-overdrainage-in-hiv-negative-patients-with-cryptococcal-meningitis-after-the-ventriculoperitoneal-shunting-procedure
#11
Chih-Wei Hung, Wei-Che Lin, Wen-Neng Chang, Tsung-Ming Su, Chia-Te Kung, Nai-Wen Tsai, Hung-Chen Wang, Chih-Cheng Huang, Ben-Chung Cheng, Yu-Jih Su, Ya-Ting Chang, Chih-Min Su, Sheng-Yuan Hsiao, Cheng-Hsien Lu
PURPOSE: Shunt procedures used to treat cryptococcal meningitis complicated with hydrocephalus and/or increased intracranial pressure (IICP) could result in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) overdrainage, thereby presenting therapeutic challenges. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical features and neuroimaging findings after the ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt procedure in 51 HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)-negative patients with cryptococcal meningitis, to assess the risk factors associated with post-shunt CSF overdrainage...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687690/cryptococcal-meningitis-causing-obstructive-hydrocephalus-in-a-patient-on-fingolimod
#12
Chengde Pham, Iwan Bennett, Rondhir Jithoo
Cryptococcosis is a recognised opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. The long-term adverse effect profile of fingolimod, an immunomodulating agent approved for use in multiple sclerosis in 2010, is only just emerging. We report the first case to our knowledge of a patient presenting with obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to cryptococcal meningitis in the setting of fingolimod therapy. Extensive posterior fossa leptomeningeal inflammation with associated cerebellar oedema resulted in effacement of the fourth ventricle and obstructive hydrocephalus requiring urgent ventriculostomy...
July 6, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679543/tracing-genetic-exchange-and-biogeography-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-var-grubii-at-the-global-population-level
#13
Johanna Rhodes, Christopher A Desjardins, Sean M Sykes, Mathew A Beale, Mathieu Vanhove, Sharadha Sakthikumar, Yuan Chen, Sharvari Gujja, Sakina Saif, Anuradha Chowdhary, Daniel John Lawson, Vinicius Ponzio, Arnaldo Lopes Colombo, Wieland Meyer, David M Engelthaler, Ferry Hagen, Maria Teresa Illnait-Zaragozi, Alexandre Alanio, Jo-Marie Vreulink, Joseph Heitman, John R Perfect, Anastasia Litvintseva, Tihana Bicanic, Thomas S Harrison, Matthew C Fisher, Christina A Cuomo
Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is the causative agent of cryptococcal meningitis, a significant source of mortality in immunocompromised individuals, typically HIV/AIDS patients from developing countries. Despite the worldwide emergence of this ubiquitous infection, little is known about the global molecular epidemiology of this fungal pathogen. Here we sequence the genomes of 188 diverse isolates and characterized the major subdivisions, their relative diversity and the level of genetic exchange between them...
July 5, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673256/cryptococcosis-in-patients-with-hematological-diseases-a-14-year-retrospective-clinical-analysis-in-a-chinese-tertiary-hospital
#14
Rui-Ying Wang, Yan-Qiong Chen, Ji-Qin Wu, Xuan Wang, Ya-Hui Cao, Hua-Zhen Zhao, Li-Ping Zhu
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal infection has become a public health challenge globally. However, information about cryptococcal infection in patients with hematological diseases remains relatively rare. METHODS: HIV-uninfected cryptococcosis cases with hematological diseases admitted to Huashan Hospital from January 2001 to December 2014 were reviewed. RESULTS: In total, 33 cryptococcosis patients were enrolled, including 12 malignant and 21 non-malignant hematological cases...
July 3, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672999/continuous-intrathecal-administration-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-for-treatment-of-refractory-cryptococcus-neoformans-encephalitis-a-case-report
#15
Haiting Xie, Peng Luo, Zhongli Li, Rui Li, Haitao Sun, Duobin Wu
The aim of the present study was to investigate the treatment of refractory Cryptococcus neoformans encephalitis with continuous administration of liposomal amphotericin B (AmB). Liposomal AmB was administered to a 28-year-old male by intravenous injection, with daily increasing dosages up to 150 mg per day and combined use of fluconazole (0.4 g per day) and oral flucytosine tablets (1.5 g per day). Following 5 months of treatment, C. neoformans could still be detected in the ink stain of cerebrospinal fluid, but the patient could not tolerate a further increase in the dosage of liposomal AmB...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667348/cryptococcosis-in-hiv-negative-patients-with-renal-dialysis-a-retrospective-analysis-of-pooled-cases
#16
Nan Hong, Min Chen, Wenjie Fang, Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi, Teun Boekhout, Jianping Xu, Lei Zhang, Jia Liu, Weihua Pan, Wanqing Liao
Cryptococcosis is a lethal fungal infection mainly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species. Currently, our understanding of cryptococcosis episodes in HIV-negative patients during renal dialysis remains scarce and fragmented. Here, we performed an analysis of pooled cases to systemically summarize the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of cryptococcosis among HIV-negative patients with renal dialysis. Using pooled data from our hospital and studies identified in four medical databases, 18 cases were identified and analyzed...
June 30, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662028/cryptococcal-meningitis-a-neglected-ntd
#17
Síle F Molloy, Tom Chiller, Gregory S Greene, Jessica Burry, Nelesh P Govender, Cecilia Kanyama, Sayoki Mfinanga, Sokoine Lesikari, Yacouba N Mapoure, Charles Kouanfack, Victor Sini, Elvis Temfack, David R Boulware, Francoise Dromer, David W Denning, Jeremy Day, Neil R H Stone, Tihana Bicanic, Joseph N Jarvis, Olivier Lortholary, Thomas S Harrison, Shabbar Jaffar, Angela Loyse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661942/nursing-management-of-lumbar-drainage-in-cryptococcal-meningitis-a-case-report
#18
Ling Ling, Lu Guo, Jingjuan Wang, Lili Zhang, Jie Zhu, Zhiyu Huang
Raised intracranial pressure is a hallmark of cryptococcal meningitis and is associated with increased mortality. Continuous drainage of lumbar cerebrospinal fluid is suggested to control intracranial pressure. The complications induced by this treatment have been described. However, nursing care associated with identification and management of complications is less well known. We encountered a patient with human immunodeficiency virus-negative cryptococcal meningitis who developed increasing cerebrospinal fluid pressure, hearing impairment, and limb weakness...
August 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656554/fluconazole-non-susceptible-cryptococcus-neoformans-relapsing-refractory-cryptococcosis-and-long-term-use-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-in-an-aids-patient
#19
Rodrigo de Carvalho Santana, Letícia Aparecida Schiave, Alda Soares Dos Santos Quaglio, Cristiane Masetto de Gaitani, Roberto Martinez
The treatment of cryptococcosis is hampered by inefficacy or intolerance to the recommended antifungal agents. A patient diagnosed with AIDS had multiple relapses of cryptococcal infection, which became refractory to antifungal agents during the course of therapy. During the follow-up, the patient developed renal toxicity due to amphotericin B use and non-susceptibility of isolated Cryptococcus neoformans to fluconazole was detected. Thereafter, antifungal treatment was performed exclusively with liposomal amphotericin B, reaching a cumulative dose of 19,180 mg over 46 months...
June 27, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650761/cryptococcal-osteomyelitis-of-the-first-metatarsal-head-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#20
Jae Hoon Ahn, ChanJoo Park, Choong Woo Lee, Yoon-Chung Kim
Most fungal infections primarily occur in immunocompromised patients. We describe a case of osteomyelitis involving the first metatarsal head due to Cryptococcus neoformans in a previously healthy immunocompetent patient. She was treated with surgical debridement combined with antifungal drug therapy for 6 months. At 5-year follow-up, she remained symptom free with full range of motion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Fungal osteomyelitis should be considered as a possible cause in osteolytic lesions in the metatarsal bone...
May 2017: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
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