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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322063/neurological-sequelae-of-adult-meningitis-in-africa-a-systematic-literature-review
#1
REVIEW
Drew W Goldberg, Mark W Tenforde, Hannah K Mitchell, Joseph N Jarvis
The high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa has markedly changed the epidemiology and presentation of adult meningitis. We conducted a systematic review using PubMed, Embase, Ovid, CENTRAL, and African Index Medicus to identify studies in Africa with data on neurological outcomes in adults after meningitis. We found 22 articles meeting inclusion criteria. From 4 studies with predominately pneumococcal meningitis, a median of 19% of survivors experienced hearing loss up to 40 days...
January 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319242/clinical-diversity-of-cns-cryptococcosis
#2
J M Koshy, S Mohan, D Deodhar, M John, A Oberoi, A Pannu
Background: Though cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is recognized as a disease of the immunocompromised, studies have implicated that it also affect immunocompetent patients. Methodology: This was a cross sectional study conducted in the Department of Medicine of a tertiary teaching institution in North India. All the patients diagnosed with CM on the basis of detection of cryptococcal antigen or the presence of capsulated budding yeast cells on India ink preparation, from April 2009 to March2015 were included in the study...
October 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317510/the-f-box-protein-fbp1-shapes-the-immunogenic-potential-of-cryptococcus-neoformans
#3
Jorge Masso-Silva, Vanessa Espinosa, Tong-Bao Liu, Yina Wang, Chaoyang Xue, Amariliz Rivera
Cryptococcus neoformans is the main etiologic agent of cryptococcal meningitis and causes a significant number of deadly infections per year. Although it is well appreciated that host immune responses are crucial for defense against cryptococcosis, our understanding of factors that control the development of effective immunity to this fungus remains incomplete. In previous studies, we identified the F-box protein Fbp1 as a novel determinant of C. neoformans virulence. In this study, we found that the hypovirulence of the fbp1Δ mutant is linked to the development of a robust host immune response...
January 9, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311092/pharmacodynamics-of-flubendazole-for-cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis-repurposing-and-reformulation-of-an-anti-parasitic-agent-for-a-neglected-fungal-disease
#4
Gemma L Nixon, Laura McEntee, Adam Johnson, Nikki Farrington, Sarah Whalley, Joanne Livermore, Cristien Natal, Gina Washbourn, Jaclyn Bibby, Neil Berry, Jodi Lestner, Megan Truong, Andrew Owen, David Lalloo, Ian Charles, William Hope
Current therapeutic options for cryptococcal meningitis are limited by toxicity, global supply and emergence of resistance. There is an urgent need to develop additional antifungal agents that are fungicidal within the central nervous system and preferably orally bioavailable. The benzimidazoles have broad-spectrum anti-parasitic activity, but also have in vitro antifungal activity that includes Cryptococcus neoformans Flubendazole (a benzimidazole) has been reformulated by Janssen Pharmaceutica as an amorphous solid drug nanodispersion to develop an orally bioavailable medicine for the treatment of neglected tropical diseases such as onchocerciasis...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307925/magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-central-nervous-system-cryptococcosis-comparison-between-immunocompetent-and-immunocompromised-patients
#5
Stenio Bruno Leal Duarte, Mariana Mari Oshima, João Vitor do Amaral Mesquita, Felipe Barjud Pereira do Nascimento, Paula Christina de Azevedo, Fabiano Reis
Objective: To assess the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns associated with central nervous system infection with Cryptococcus sp. in relation to patient immune status. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of MRI data for 19 patients with neurocryptococcosis who underwent the examination between January 2000 and March 2014. The MRI characteristics examined included lesion topography, aspects of diffusion, T1-weighted images, T2-weighted images, and contrast enhancement patterns...
November 2017: Radiologia Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304090/evaluation-of-a-point-of-care-immunoassay-test-kit-strongstep-for-cryptococcal-antigen-detection
#6
Edward Mpoza, Liliane Mukaremera, Didas Atwebembere Kundura, Andrew Akampurira, Tonny Luggya, Kiiza Kandole Tadeo, Katelyn A Pastick, Sarah C Bridge, Lillian Tugume, Reuben Kiggundu, Abdu K Musubire, Darlisha A Williams, Conrad Muzoora, Elizabeth Nalintya, Radha Rajasingham, Joshua Rhein, David R Boulware, David B Meya, Mahsa Abassi
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis is the leading cause of adult meningitis in Sub-Saharan Africa, accounting for 15%-20% of AIDS-attributable mortality. The development of point-of-care assays has greatly improved the screening and diagnosis of cryptococcal disease. We evaluated a point-of-care immunoassay, StrongStep (Liming Bio, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China) lateral flow assay (LFA), for cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma. METHODS: We retrospectively tested 143 CSF and 77 plasma samples collected from HIV-seropositive individuals with suspected meningitis from 2012-2016 in Uganda...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302817/characterization-of-a-long-chain-%C3%AE-galactosidase-from-papiliotrema-flavescens
#7
Barbora Stratilová, Jaroslav Klaudiny, Pavel Řehulka, Eva Stratilová, Csilla Mészárosová, Soňa Garajová, Barbora Pavlatovská, Helena Řehulková, Stanislav Kozmon, Sergej Šesták, Zuzana Firáková, Renáta Vadkertiová
α-Galactosidases are assigned to the class of hydrolases and the subclass of glycoside hydrolases (GHs). They belong to six GH families and include the only characterized α-galactosidases from yeasts (GH 27, Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The present study focuses on an investigation of the lactose-inducible α-galactosidase produced by Papiliotrema flavescens. The enzyme was present on the surface of cells and in the cytosol. Its temperature optimum was about 60 °C and the pH optimum was 4.8; the pH stability ranged from 3...
January 4, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302151/cryptococcal-meningitis-masquerading-as-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-in-an-immune-competent-adult
#8
Hitesh Raheja, Ankur Sinha, Pavan Kumar Irukulla, Yizhak Kupfer
We report a case of acute cryptococcal meningitis (CM) masquerading as normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) in an immune-competent female. An 85-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-negative female presented to the emergency room for altered mental status and difficulty walking. She was increasingly lethargic, with urinary incontinence and gait instability. A previous computed tomography was reported to have ventricular dilatation out of proportion to the degree of cortical atrophy. Magnetic resonance scan of the brain revealed ventricular dilatation and subtle debris layering the occipital horns of the lateral ventricles...
October 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285049/innate-immune-evasion-strategies-against-cryptococcal-meningitis-caused-by-cryptococcus-neoformans
#9
Cheng-Liang Yang, Jun Wang, Li-Li Zou
As an infectious fungus that affects the respiratory tract, Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) commonly causes asymptomatic pulmonary infection. C. neoformans may target the brain instead of the lungs and cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the early phase of infection; however, this is dependent on successful evasion of the host innate immune system. During the initial stage of fungal infection, a complex network of innate immune factors are activated. C. neoformans utilizes a number of strategies to overcome the anti-fungal mechanisms of the host innate immune system and cross the BBB...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284182/cryptococcosis-and-cryptococcal-meningitis-new-predictors-and-clinical-outcomes-at-a-united-states-academic-medical-center
#10
Bahar H Kashef Hamadani, Carlos Franco-Paredes, Bruce McCollister, Leland Shapiro, David Beckham, Andrés F Henao-Martínez
Since the diagnosis of cryptococcosis is challenging in low prevalence settings, uncovering predictive factors can improve early diagnosis and timely treatment. The aim of the study was to relate clinical outcomes to predictive variables for the presence of cryptococcosis. A retrospective case-control study matching by collection date, age, and gender at a 1:2 ratio (55 cases and 112 controls) was performed in case patients diagnosed with Cryptococcus infection at the University of Colorado Hospital between 2000 and 2017 (n=167)...
December 28, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251529/infectious-complications-in-patients-on-treatment-with-ruxolitinib-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Maria Veronica Dioverti, Omar M Abu Saleh, Aaron J Tande
BACKGROUND: Primary myelofibrosis is a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm that may cause debilitating symptoms, which can be improved with the use of Ruxolitinib, a Janus kinase 2 inhibitor. However, this agent has significant immunomodulatory effects which may increase the risk for infections. METHODS: We searched the literature and our institutional electronic medical record for reported cases of infections in adult patients on ruxolitinib treatment. RESULTS: We found 28 cases in our literature search and 4 cases from our Institution for a total of 32 cases...
December 18, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245963/identification-of-potential-metabolic-biomarkers-of-cerebrospinal-fluids-that-differentiate-tuberculous-meningitis-from-other-types-of-meningitis-by-a-metabolomics-study
#12
Yi-Ning Dai, Hai-Jun Huang, Wen-Yuan Song, Yong-Xi Tong, Dan-Hong Yang, Ming-Shan Wang, Yi-Cheng Huang, Mei-Juan Chen, Jia-Jie Zhang, Ze-Ze Ren, Wei Zheng, Hong-Ying Pan
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is caused by tuberculosis infection of of the meninges, which are the membrane systems that encircle the brain, with a high morbidity and mortality rate. It is challenging to diagnose TBM among other types of meningitis, such as viral meningitis, bacterial meningitis and cryptococcal meningitis. We aimed to identify metabolites that are differentially expressed between TBM and the other types of meningitis by a global metabolomics analysis. The cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from 50 patients with TBM, 17 with viral meningitis, 17 with bacterial meningitis, and 16 with cryptococcal meningitis were analyzed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS)...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244019/prevalence-healthcare-resource-utilization-and-overall-burden-of-fungal-meningitis-in-the-united-states
#13
Lefko T Charalambous, Alykhan Premji, Caroline Tybout, Anastasia Hunt, Drew Cutshaw, Aladine A Elsamadicy, Siyun Yang, Jichun Xie, Charles Giamberardino, Promila Pagadala, John R Perfect, Shivanand P Lad
PURPOSE: Previous epidemiological and cost studies of fungal meningitis have largely focused on single pathogens, leading to a poor understanding of the disease in general. We studied the largest and most diverse group of fungal meningitis patients to date, over the longest follow-up period, to examine the broad impact on resource utilization within the United States. METHODOLOGY: The Truven Health Analytics MarketScan database was used to identify patients with a fungal meningitis diagnosis in the United States between 2000 and 2012...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240047/synthesis-and-dft-calculations-of-novel-vanillin-chalcones-and-their-3-aryl-5-4-2-dimethylamino-ethoxy-3-methoxyphenyl-4-5-dihydro-1h-pyrazole-1-carbaldehyde-derivatives-as-antifungal-agents
#14
Luis Alberto Illicachi, Joel José Montalvo-Acosta, Alberto Insuasty, Jairo Quiroga, Rodrigo Abonia, Maximiliano Sortino, Susana Zacchino, Braulio Insuasty
Novel (E)-1-(aryl)-3-(4-(2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy)-3-methoxyphenyl) prop-2-en-1-ones 4 were synthesized by a Claisen-Schmidt reaction of 4-(2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy)-3-methoxy-benzaldehyde (2) with several acetophenone derivatives 3. Subsequently, cyclocondensation reactions of chalcones 4 with hydrazine hydrate afforded the new racemic 3-aryl-5-(4-(2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy)-3-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbaldehydes 5 when the reaction was carried out in formic acid. The antifungal activity of both series of compounds against eight fungal species was determined...
September 5, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234588/emerging-fluconazole-resistance-implications-for-the-management-of-cryptococcal-meningitis
#15
Edward Mpoza, Joshua Rhein, Mahsa Abassi
We present the case of an HIV-seropositive individual with cryptococcal meningitis who was found to have a fluconazole resistant strain of Cryptococcus neoformans. The individual required multiple rounds of amphotericin and fluconazole 800-1200 mg after several episodes of clinical relapse. Cerebrospinal fluid sterilization was achieved and maintained with high doses of fluconazole. This case demonstrates the emerging dilemma of increasing rates of fluconazole resistance in Cryptococcus and the clinical difficulties in meningitis management...
March 2018: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233901/immune-mediated-damage-completes-the-parabola-cryptococcus-neoformans-pathogenesis-can-reflect-the-outcome-of-a-weak-or-strong-immune-response
#16
Liise-Anne Pirofski, Arturo Casadevall
Cryptococcosis occurs most frequently in immunocompromised individuals. This has led to the prevailing view that this disease is the result of weak immune responses that cannot control the fungus. However, increasingly, clinical and experimental studies have revealed that the host immune response can contribute to cryptococcal pathogenesis, including the recent study of L. M. Neal et al. (mBio 8:e01415-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01415-17) that reports that CD4+ T cells mediate tissue damage in experimental murine cryptococcosis...
December 12, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223998/cryptococcal-meningitis-in-apparently-immunocompetent-patients-association-with-idiopathic-cd4-lymphopenia
#17
Samuel Shribman, Alastair Noyce, Sharmilee Gnanapavan, Jonathan Lambourne, Thomas Harrison, Frederick Schon
We present two cases of cryptococcal meningitis in people subsequently diagnosed with idiopathic CD4+ lymphopenia. Both presented with new onset headaches without sinister features and were sent home on multiple occasions from emergency departments. Cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-negative patients poses major diagnostic and management problems; the associated mortality is 9%-27%. We suggest performing blood and cerebrospinal fluid cryptococcal antigen tests in all people with lymphocytic meningitis.
December 9, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221882/effective-inhibition-of-cbf-14-against-cryptococcus-neoformans-infection-in-mice-and-its-related-anti-inflammatory-activity
#18
Changzhong Yu, Shanshan Wei, Xiaorong Han, Hanhan Liu, Mengxiao Wang, Meiling Jiang, Min Guo, Jie Dou, Changlin Zhou, Lingman Ma
Cbf-14 (RLLRKFFRKLKKSV), a designed peptide derived from cathelicidin family AMP, has proven to be potent against drug-resistant bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the anti-cryptococcal activity of Cbf-14 in vitro and in a pulmonary infection mouse model. Sensitivity test indicated that Cbf-14 possessed effective antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans with an MIC of 4-16 µg/ml, and killing experiments showed that fungicidal activity was achieved after only 4 h treatment with Cbf-14 at 4× MIC concentrations in vitro...
December 5, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218468/prediction-of-unfavorable-outcomes-in-cryptococcal-meningitis-results-of-the-multicenter-infectious-diseases-international-research-initiative-id-iri-cryptococcal-meningitis-study
#19
I N Hakyemez, H Erdem, G Beraud, M Lurdes, A Silva-Pinto, C Alexandru, B Bishop, F Mangani, X Argemi, M Poinot, R Hasbun, M Akcaer, S Alp, T Demirdal, K Angamuthu, F Amer, E Ragab, G A Shehata, D Ozturk-Engin, N Ozgunes, L Larsen, S Zimmerli, O R Sipahi, E Tukenmez Tigen, G Celebi, N Oztoprak, A C Yardimci, Y Cag
Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is mostly seen in immunocompromised patients, particularly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients, but CM may also occur in apparently immunocompetent individuals. Outcome analyses have been performed in such patients but, due to the high prevalence of HIV infection worldwide, CM patients today may be admitted to hospitals with unknown HIV status, particularly in underdeveloped countries. The objective of this multicenter study was to analyze all types of CM cases in an aggregate cohort to disclose unfavorable outcomes...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214004/prevalence-of-cryptococcal-antigen-positivity-among-hiv-infected-patient-with-cd4-cell-count-less-than-100-of-imam-khomeini-hospital-tehran-iran
#20
Mahboobeh Hajiabdolbaghi, Saeed Kalantari, Mahin Jamshidi-Makiani, Esfandiar Shojaei, Ladan Abbasian, Mehrnaz Rasoulinezhad, Katayoun Tayeri
Background and Objectives: Cryptococcal meningitis is one of the main opportunistic infections associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Despite the present and increasingly availability of specific treatment for cryptococcosis, the mortality rate of this infection is still high, particularly in patients with advanced immunsupression and advanced cryptococcal diseases. Materials and Methods: This Prospective Cohort study was conducted at Imam Khomeini hospital in Tehran, Iran...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
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