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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643722/endogenous-endophthalmitis-caused-by-cryptococcus-neoformans-var-gattii-mimicking-choroidal-tumor-from-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-to-histopathology
#1
Chun-Ju Lin, Wen-Lu Chen, Jane-Ming Lin, Peng-Tai Tien, Yi-Yu Tsai
A 60-year-old immunocompetent female with pneumonia history about 10 years ago suffered from blurred vision overall survival for 3 weeks. Common cold with headache and unintentional body weight loss was also noted recently. Choroidal detachment simulating choroidal tumor was observed in the temporal quadrant. The 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (CT) scan showed focal, mild to moderate FDG uptake in the left lateral orbit, and an enhanced lesion was seen on the recent CT scan...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638843/susceptibility-to-cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis-associated-with-idiopathic-cd4-lymphopenia-and-secondary-germline-or-acquired-defects
#2
Anil A Panackal, Lindsey B Rosen, Gulbu Uzel, Michael J Davis, Guowu Hu, Adebowale Adeyemo, Fasil Tekola-Ayele, Andrea Lisco, Christopher Diachok, Jonathan D Kim, Dawn Shaw, Irini Sereti, Jennifer Stoddard, Julie Niemela, Sergio D Rosenzweig, John E Bennett, Peter R Williamson
Idiopathic CD4(+) lymphopenia (ICL) predisposes to opportunistic infections (OIs) but can often remain asymptomatic and does not have a strong association with monogenic mutations. Likewise, cryptococcal meningoencephalitis, the most common OI in ICL, is not strongly associated with monogenic mutations. In this study, we describe 2 patients with ICL plus an additional immune defect: one from an E57K genetic mutation in the nuclear factor-κβ essential modulator, and the other with acquired autoantibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631642/sporadic-occurrence-of-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-hiv-seronegative-patients-uncommon-etiology
#3
Shukla Das, Shyama Datt, Priyamvada Roy, Rumpa Saha, Immaculata Xess
Cryptococcosis in HIV-seronegative patients is rarely reported from India. This prospective study was conducted to look for cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seronegative individuals and compare their laboratory features to cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seropositive patients. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected from 153 suspected cases of meningitis and subjected to India ink preparation, antigen detection, and culture. Nineteen samples tested positive for Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Seventeen and two patients were HIV reactive and nonreactive, respectively...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631547/cryptococcal-maxillary-osteomyelitis-and-osteonecrosis-in-a-18-month-old-dog
#4
Katherine Block, Jean Battig
An 18-month-old neutered male labradoodle was treated with surgical debridement for maxillary osteomyelitis and sequestrum formation. Histopathologic findings of the necrotic bone were consistent with Cryptococcus subspecies, confirmed with latex agglutination serum titer testing. The patient responded to a combination of fluconazole and surgical debridement and was titer negative after 8 months of medical therapy. The patient never exhibited signs of systemic illness which is commonly reported with cryptococcosis...
June 2017: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630940/fluconazole-induced-ploidy-change-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-results-from-the-uncoupling-of-cell-growth-and-nuclear-division
#5
Sophie Altamirano, Diana Fang, Charles Simmons, Shreyas Sridhar, Peipei Wu, Kaustuv Sanyal, Lukasz Kozubowski
Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast that causes lethal cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. One of the challenges in treating cryptococcosis is the development of resistance to azole antifungals. Previous studies linked azole resistance to elevated numbers of copies of critical resistance genes in aneuploid cells. However, how aneuploidy is formed in the presence of azole drugs remains unclear. This study showed that treatment with inhibitory concentrations of an azole drug, fluconazole (FLC), resulted in a significant population of cells with increased DNA content, through the following defects: inhibition of budding, premature mitosis, and inhibition of cytokinesis followed by replication in the mother cell...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617817/prevalence-of-cryptococcal-infection-among-advanced-hiv-patients-in-argentina-using-lateral-flow-immunoassay
#6
Claudia Frola, Liliana Guelfand, Gabriela Blugerman, Edgardo Szyld, Sara Kaufman, Pedro Cahn, Omar Sued, Héctor Pérez
BACKGROUND: Globally, Latin America ranks third among regions with most cases of AIDS related cryptococcal meningitis. In 2009, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) for the detection of cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) was developed as a potential point-of-care test for diagnosis of cryptococcal infection. In 2011 World Health Organizations recommended on CrAg screening for HIV positive persons with CD4 below 100 cells/μL, followed by preemptive fluconazole treatment. However, in Argentina no formal recommendations for CrAg screening have been issued...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615417/t-cell-restricted-notch-signaling-contributes-to-pulmonary-th1-and-th2-immunity-during-cryptococcus-neoformans-infection
#7
Lori M Neal, Yafeng Qiu, Jooho Chung, Enze Xing, Woosung Cho, Antoni N Malachowski, Ashley R Sandy-Sloat, John J Osterholzer, Ivan Maillard, Michal A Olszewski
Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous, opportunistic fungal pathogen but the cell signaling pathways that drive T cell responses regulating antifungal immunity are incompletely understood. Notch is a key signaling pathway regulating T cell development, and differentiation and functional responses of mature T cells in the periphery. The targeting of Notch signaling within T cells has been proposed as a potential treatment for alloimmune and autoimmune disorders, but it is unknown whether disturbances to T cell immunity may render these patients vulnerable to fungal infections...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614360/comparative-genomics-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-var-grubii-associated-with-meningitis-in-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-patients-in-vietnam
#8
Jeremy N Day, Seet Qihui, Lam Tuan Thanh, Phan Hai Trieu, Anh Duong Van, Nha Hoang Thu, Tran Thi Hong Chau, Nguyen P H Lan, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Philip M Ashton, Guy E Thwaites, Maciej F Boni, Marcel Wolbers, Niranjan Nagarajan, Patrick B O Tan, Stephen Baker
The vast burden of cryptococcal meningitis occurs in immunosuppressed patients, driven by HIV, and is caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. We previously reported cryptococcal meningitis in Vietnam arising atypically in HIV uninfected, apparently immunocompetent patients, caused by a single amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) cluster of C. neoformans var. grubii (VNIγ). This variant was less common in HIV infected individuals; it remains unclear why this lineage is associated with apparently immunocompetent patients...
June 14, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606065/neurocognitive-function-in-hiv-infected-persons-with-asymptomatic-cryptococcal-antigenemia-a-comparison-of-three-prospective-cohorts
#9
Martha P Montgomery, Noeline Nakasujja, Bozena M Morawski, Radha Rajasingham, Joshua Rhein, Elizabeth Nalintya, Darlisha A Williams, Kathy Huppler Hullsiek, Agnes Kiragga, Melissa A Rolfes, Renee Donahue Carlson, Nathan C Bahr, Kate E Birkenkamp, Yukari C Manabe, Paul R Bohjanen, Jonathan E Kaplan, Andrew Kambugu, David B Meya, David R Boulware
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected persons with detectable cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) in blood have increased morbidity and mortality compared with HIV-infected persons who are CrAg-negative. This study examined neurocognitive function among persons with asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia. METHODS: Participants from three prospective HIV cohorts underwent neurocognitive testing at the time of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Cohorts included persons with cryptococcal meningitis (N = 90), asymptomatic CrAg + (N = 87), and HIV-infected persons without central nervous system infection (N = 125)...
June 12, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595777/disseminated-cryptococcus-deuterogattii-aflp6-vgii-infection-in-an-arabian-horse-from-dubai-united-arab-emirates
#10
Jörg Kinne, Marina Joseph, Ulrich Wernery, Nora Nogradi, Ferry Hagen
BACKGROUND: During the past decades there has been an increase in cryptococcal infections caused by the basidiomycetous yeast species Cryptococcus gattii sensu lato, among humans and animals that live in endemic regions in Australia, Europe and the Americas. Unlike human cryptococcosis, little epidemiological data are available about C. gattii sensu lato infections in horses. CASE REPORT: A fatal case of a disseminated C. gattii sensu lato infection in an 11-year-old Arabian gelding imported from South Africa into the United Arab Emitares is reported...
June 5, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592745/clinicopathological-features-of-cryptococcal-lymphadenitis-and-a-review-of-literature
#11
Keisuke Kawamoto, Hiroaki Miyoshi, Takaharu Suzuki, Reiji Muto, Kyohei Yamada, Eriko Yanagida, Mayuko Koshino, Yuya Sasaki, Jun Takizawa, Hirohito Sone, Yasuo Sugita, Masao Seto, Koichi Ohshima
Cryptococcosis is an invasive fungal infection in immunocompromised patients. The clinicopathological characteristics of cryptococcal lymphadenitis are not well known. We analyzed three cases of cryptococcal lymphadenitis and compared their characteristics with those in previous reports. Two patients were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) carriers, and one patient was a human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) carrier. The age of the HTLV-1 carrier with cryptococcosis was much higher than that of the HIV-1 carriers...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology: JCEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584988/methodology-for-anti-cryptococcal-vaccine-development
#12
Ashok K Chaturvedi, Floyd L Wormley
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, the predominant etiological agents of cryptococcosis, are fungal pathogens that cause disease ranging from a mild pneumonia to life-threatening infections of the central nervous system (CNS). C. neoformans is widely considered an opportunistic fungal pathogen which targets individuals with impaired immune systems, while C. gattii is predominantly associated with fungal infections in immunocompetent individuals. However, C. neoformans and C. gattii have certainly been identified as the causative agent of cryptococcosis in both immune compromised and immune competent individuals...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584681/abdominal-pseudocyst-as-a-complication-of-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-placement-review-of-the-literature-and-a-proposed-algorithm-for-treatment-using-4-illustrative-cases
#13
Samir Kashyap, Hammad Ghanchi, Tanya Minasian, Fanglong Dong, Dan Miulli
BACKGROUND: Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement is one of the most commonly performed procedures in neurosurgery. One rare complication is the formation of an abdominal pseudocyst, which can cause shunt malfunction. CASE DESCRIPTIONS: We present four unique cases of abdominal pseudocyst formation. Our first patient initially presented with a right upper quadrant pseudocyst. Shunt was externalized and the distal end was revised with placement of catheter on the opposite side...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576330/first-report-of-two-cases-of-cryptococcosis-in-tripoli-libya-infected-with-cryptococcus-neoformans-isolates-present-in-the-urban-area
#14
M S Ellabib, Z A Krema, A A Allafi, M Cogliati
Cryptococcosis is a potentially fatal fungal disease caused by the basidiomycetes yeasts Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii with high predilection to invade the central nervous system mainly in immunocompromised hosts. Skin can be secondarily involved in disseminated infection or be exceptionally involved as primary cutaneous infection by inoculation with contaminated materials. We report the first two Libyan cases of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV patients, in which one of them presented a secondary cutaneous involvement due to systemic dissemination...
May 30, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566315/low-cryptococcus-antigen-titers-by-a-lateral-flow-assay-should-be-interpreted-cautiously-in-patients-without-a-prior-diagnosis-of-cryptococcal-infection
#15
Marie Dubbels, Dane Granger, Elitza S Theel
Detection of Cryptococcus antigen (CrAg) is invaluable for establishing cryptococcal disease. Multiple different methods for CrAg detection are available, including a lateral flow assay (LFA). Despite excellent performance of the CrAg LFA, we have observed multiple cases of low-titer (≤1:5) CrAg LFA positive results in patients for whom cryptococcosis was ultimately excluded. To investigate the accuracy of low-titer positive CrAg LFA results, we performed chart reviews on all CrAg LFA positive patients between June 2014 and December 2016...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562416/cryptococcal-disease-in-the-solid-organ-transplant-setting-review-of-clinical-aspects-with-a-discussion-of-asymptomatic-cryptococcal-antigenemia
#16
Noah Wald-Dickler, Emily Blodget
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cryptococcal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant patients. Here, we review the microbiology, epidemiology, clinical course, treatment, and outcomes of Cryptococcus in solid organ transplant recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: We identify the unique findings in solid organ transplant patients when compared to other immunocompromised patients such as those with HIV. We also describe our experience and outcomes with regard to solid organ transplant patients who do not have positive fungal cultures, but cryptococcal antigen positivity and concern for cryptococcal disease...
May 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558705/disseminated-cryptococcosis-with-recurrent-multiple-abscesses-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#17
Qiaoling Ruan, Yimin Zhu, Shu Chen, Liping Zhu, Shu Zhang, Wenhong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus neoformans is frequently present as an opportunistic pathogen mainly affecting immunocompromised populations. Disseminated C. neoformans infection in immunocompetent population is rare and usually involves lung and central nerve system. Cryptococcus from biologic samples can easily grow on routine fungal and bacterial culture media. Besides, cryptococcal latex agglutination test has been established as a reliable diagnostic tool with overall sensitivities of 93-100%...
May 30, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554246/fungal-infections-in-patients-treated-with-ibrutinib-two-unusual-cases-of-invasive-aspergillosis-and-cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis
#18
Marine Baron, Jean Marc Zini, Thibaut Challan Belval, Marguerite Vignon, Blandine Denis, Alexandre Alanio, Marion Malphettes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 30, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543626/smooth-semi-nonparametric-snp-estimation-of-the-cumulative-incidence-function
#19
Anh Nguyen Duc, Marcel Wolbers
This paper presents a novel approach to estimation of the cumulative incidence function in the presence of competing risks. The underlying statistical model is specified via a mixture factorization of the joint distribution of the event type and the time to the event. The time to event distributions conditional on the event type are modeled using smooth semi-nonparametric densities. One strength of this approach is that it can handle arbitrary censoring and truncation while relying on mild parametric assumptions...
May 23, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542452/the-role-of-aspartyl-aminopeptidase-ape4-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-virulence-and-authophagy
#20
Fabiano de Assis Gontijo, Amanda Teixeira de Melo, Renata C Pascon, Larissa Fernandes, Hugo Costa Paes, J Andrew Alspaugh, Marcelo A Vallim
In order to survive and cause disease, microbial pathogens must be able to proliferate at the temperature of their infected host. We identified novel microbial features associated with thermotolerance in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans using a random insertional mutagenesis strategy, screening for mutants with defective growth at 37°C. Among several thermosensitive mutants, we identified one bearing a disruption in a gene predicted to encode the Ape4 aspartyl aminopeptidase protein...
2017: PloS One
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