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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527158/asymptomatic-cryptococcal-antigenemia-in-people-living-with-hiv-plhiv-with-severe-immunosuppression-is-routine-crag-screening-indicated-in-india
#1
S Anuradha, Abhaya Narayana H, Richa Dewan, Ravinder Kaur, K Rajeshwari
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a common, life-threatening opportunistic infection (OI) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in India. Serum Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) positivity is predictive of future occurrence of CM and pre-emptive treatment reduces its mortality. Routine CrAg screening among PLHIV is not adopted by India's national programme. This study evaluated the prevalence of CrAg and assessed CrAg positivity in predicting all-cause mortality among PLHIV. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care, public health facility in New Delhi, India...
April 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527157/cryptococcal-antigen-detection-in-serum-significance-as-a-screening-modality-for-indian-plhiv
#2
Smrati Bajpai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507958/bifocal-cryptococcal-osteomyelitis-in-an-immunocompetent-male
#3
Rohit Delat, Vinodchandra Laheri
INTRODUCTION: Cryptococcus neoformans commonly affects lungs and central nervous system that to in immunocompromised individual. Bony involvement is extremely rare and most common site is vertebrae and usual presentation is monofocal. CASE REPORT: We present 18-year-old male with bifocal osteomyelitis of scapula and tibia in immunocompetent male. CONCLUSION: Cryptococcal osteomyelitis should be kept as a differential diagnosis in a patient as a primary diagnosis to avoid diagnostic delay and morbidity associated with it...
November 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505328/advanced-hiv-disease-in-botswana-following-successful-antiretroviral-therapy-rollout-incidence-of-and-temporal-trends-in-cryptococcal-meningitis
#4
Mark W Tenforde, Margaret Mokomane, Tshepo Leeme, Raju K K Patel, Nametso Lekwape, Chandapiwa Ramodimoosi, Bonno Dube, Elizabeth A Williams, Kelebeletse O Mokobela, Ephraim Tawanana, Tlhagiso Pilatwe, William J Hurt, Hannah Mitchell, Doreen L Banda, Hunter Stone, Mooketsi Molefi, Kabelo Mokgacha, Heston Phillips, Paul C Mullan, Andrew P Steenhoff, Yohana Mashalla, Madisa Mine, Joseph N Jarvis
Background: Botswana has a well-developed antiretroviral therapy (ART) program which serves as a regional model. With wide ART availability, the burden of advanced HIV and associated opportunistic infections would be expected to decline. We performed a nationwide surveillance study to determine the national incidence of cryptococcal meningitis, and describe characteristics of cases 2000-2014 and temporal trends at two national referral hospitals. Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid data from all 37 laboratories performing meningitis diagnostics in Botswana were collected 2000-2014 to identify cases of cryptococcal meningitis...
May 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502948/disseminated-cryptococcosis-with-adrenal-insufficiency-and-meningitis-in-an-immunocompetent-individual
#5
Misa Ito, Takashi Hinata, Kaku Tamura, Ayano Koga, Toshimitsu Ito, Hiroko Fujii, Fumihiko Hirata, Hidenari Sakuta
We present a case of cryptococcosis with adrenal insufficiency and meningitis in a healthy host without any risk factors. Antifungal therapy did not reduce the cryptococcal antigen titers of the cerebrospinal fluid and serum or the bilateral adrenal gland enlargement. It was suggested that the adrenal glands were the focus of persistent fungemia. Removal of both adrenal glands brought about a response to antifungal therapy. We conclude that if antifungal therapy is ineffective, bilateral adrenalectomy is an effective measure for treatment of such patients...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493865/preheating-of-urine-improves-the-specificity-of-urinary-cryptococcal-antigen-testing-using-the-lateral-flow-assay
#6
Fábio Brito-Santos, Marcela de Faria Ferreira, Luciana Trilles, Mauro de Medeiros Muniz, Valdiléa Gonçalves Veloso Dos Santos, Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa, Wieland Meyer, Bodo Wanke, Márcia Dos Santos Lazéra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491059/elucidation-of-the-role-of-3-hydroxy-fatty-acids-in-cryptococcus-amoeba-interactions
#7
Uju L Madu, Adepemi O Ogundeji, Carolina H Pohl, Jacobus Albertyn, Olihile M Sebolai
We previously reported that 3-hydroxy fatty acids promoted the survival of cryptococcal cells when acted upon by amoebae. To expand on this, the current study sought to explain how these molecules may protect cells. Our data suggest that 3-hydroxy fatty acids may subvert the internalization of cryptococcal cells via suppression of the levels of a fetuin A-like amoebal protein, which may be important for enhancing phagocytosis. Additionally, we show that an acapsular strain (that is devoid of 3-hydroxy fatty acids) was protected against the effects of hydrogen peroxide when exogenous 3-hydroxy fatty acids were present, but not in the absence of 3-hydroxy fatty acids...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486489/cytokine-patterns-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-hiv-infected-patients-with-cryptococcal-meningitis-following-initiation-of-antifungal-and-antiretroviral-therapy
#8
Delio José Mora, Kennio Ferreira-Paim, Leonardo Eurípedes Andrade-Silva, Thatiane Bragine, Ivonete Helena Rocha, Barbara de Melo Ribeiro, Guilherme Henrique Machado, Virmondes Rodrigues Junior, David Nascimento Silva-Teixeira, Wieland Meyer, Mario León Silva-Vergara
Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a life-threatening infection in HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited settings. Cytokine patterns in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and sera may be related to clinical outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate cytokine patterns in the CSF and sera of HIV-infected patients with CM as well as the cytokines produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) when stimulated with LPS and cryptococcal GXM. CSF and serum levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-17A, INF-γ, TNF-α and CXCL-10 were measured in HIV-infected patients with CM (CM+ HIV+) at various time points...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483963/influence-of-experimental-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-wistar-rats-on-voriconazole-brain-penetration-assessed-by-microdialysis
#9
Izabel Almeida Alves, Keli Jaqueline Staudt, Carolina de Miranda Silva, Graziela de Araujo Lock, Teresa Dalla Costa, Bibiana Verlindo de Araujo
To advance in the treatment of cryptococcal meningites is crucial to know the drug's free fraction that reaches the biophase. In the present study we applied the microdialysis (μD) as a tool to determine the free levels reached by voriconazole (VRC) in the brain of healthy and Cryptococcus neoformans infected rats. The infection was induced by the i.v. administration of 1⋅10(5) CFU of yeast. The dose administered was 5 mg/kg i.v. of VRC. Plasma and microdialysate samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and LC-UV methods...
May 8, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483416/the-relentless-march-of-cryptococcal-meningitis
#10
Peter R Williamson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483415/global-burden-of-disease-of-hiv-associated-cryptococcal-meningitis-an-updated-analysis
#11
Radha Rajasingham, Rachel M Smith, Benjamin J Park, Joseph N Jarvis, Nelesh P Govender, Tom M Chiller, David W Denning, Angela Loyse, David R Boulware
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus is the most common cause of meningitis in adults living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Global burden estimates are crucial to guide prevention strategies and to determine treatment needs, and we aimed to provide an updated estimate of global incidence of HIV-associated cryptococcal disease. METHODS: We used 2014 Joint UN Programme on HIV and AIDS estimates of adults (aged >15 years) with HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage...
May 5, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480277/epidemiology-of-cryptococcosis-and-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-a-large-retrospective-cohort-of-patients-after-solid-organ-transplantation
#12
Ige A George, Carlos A Q Santos, Margaret A Olsen, William G Powderly
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is the third most common invasive fungal infection in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. There are no nationally representative data describing the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of cryptococcosis after SOT. METHODS: We assembled a large cohort of adult SOT recipients using Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification billing data from Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases of Florida (2006-2012), New York (2006-2011), and California (2004-2010)...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470016/relationship-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-viral-load-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-plasma-in-patients-co-infected-with-cryptococcal-meningitis
#13
Christina C Chang, Richard Kangethe, Saleha Omarjee, Keshni Hiramen, Bernadett Gosnell, Katlego Sojane, Mohamed-Yunus S Moosa, Sharon R Lewin, Martyn A French, Thumbi Ndung'u
We measured human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ribonucleic acid (RNA) in paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples in a prospective study of 91 HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naive patients with cryptococcal meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid HIV RNA was lower than in plasma (median 4.7 vs 5.2 log10 copies/mL, P < .0001) and positively correlated with plasma HIV RNA, peripheral CD4(+) T-cell percentage, and CSF CXCL10. Plasma/CSF ratio of HIV RNA ranged widely from 0.2 to 265.5 with a median of 2...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469695/molecular-diagnosis-of-central-nervous-system-opportunistic-infections-and-mortality-in-hiv-infected-adults-in-central-china
#14
Rongrong Yang, Hong Zhang, Yong Xiong, Xien Gui, Yongxi Zhang, Liping Deng, Shicheng Gao, Mingqi Luo, Wei Hou, Deyin Guo
BACKGROUND: CSF PCR is the standard diagnostic technique used in resource-rich settings to detect pathogens of the CNS infection. However, it is not currently used for routine CSF testing in China. Knowledge of CNS opportunistic infections among people living with HIV in China is limited. METHODS: Intensive cerebrospiral fluid (CSF) testing was performed to evaluate for bacterial, viral and fungal etiologies. Pathogen-specific primers were used to detect DNA from cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and John Cunningham virus (JCV) via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464834/molecular-diagnosis-of-central-nervous-system-opportunistic-infections-and-mortality-in-hiv-infected-adults-in-central-china
#15
Rongrong Yang, Hong Zhang, Yong Xiong, Xien Gui, Yongxi Zhang, Liping Deng, Shicheng Gao, Mingqi Luo, Wei Hou, Deyin Guo
BACKGROUND: CSF PCR is the standard diagnostic technique used in resource-rich settings to detect pathogens of the CNS infection. However, it is not currently used for routine CSF testing in China. Knowledge of CNS opportunistic infections among people living with HIV in China is limited. METHODS: Intensive cerebrospiral fluid (CSF) testing was performed to evaluate for bacterial, viral and fungal etiologies. Pathogen-specific primers were used to detect DNA from cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and John Cunningham virus (JCV) via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
May 2, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458934/normalization-of-bilateral-adrenal-gland-enlargement-after-treatment-for-cryptococcosis
#16
Yuka Muraoka, Shintaro Iwama, Hiroshi Arima
Cryptococcosis usually occurs in immunocompromised patients and can cause enlargement of the adrenal glands, although the morphologic changes after treatment have not been reported in detail. We report the case of 24-year-old man with fevers, headaches, and impaired consciousness who had been treated with glucocorticoids for a protein-losing gastroenteropathy. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed cryptococcal meningitis. Computed tomography showed bilateral adrenal enlargement. A retrospective analysis revealed that the enlargement had been detected 5 months before admission and gradually increased...
2017: Case Reports in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448725/endogenous-cryptococcal-endophthalmitis-in-immunocompetent-host-case-report-and-review-of-multimodal-imaging-findings-and-treatment
#17
Atchara Amphornphruet, Sukhum Silpa-Archa, Janine M Preble, C Stephen Foster
PURPOSE: To describe a case of bilateral endogenous cryptococcal endophthalmitis in an immunocompetent host and to review adjunctive ophthalmic imaging patterns and treatment. METHODS: A retrospective case report. RESULTS: A 45-year-old female patient with two distinct presentations of endogenous cryptococcal endophthalmitis in each eye presented initially with progressive blurred vision in the left eye, beginning more than 10 years after a craniotomy with ventriculoperitoneal shunt...
April 27, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446137/progressive-cutaneous-cryptococcosis-complicated-with-meningitis-in-a-myasthenia-gravis-patient-on-long-term-immunosuppressive-therapy-a-case-report
#18
Nguyen Thi Cam Huong, Ahmed M A Altibi, Nguyen My Hoa, Le Anh Tuan, Samar Salman, Sara Morsy, Nguyen Thi Bich Lien, Nguyen Thanh Truong, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Pham Thi Le Hoa, Nguyen Ba Thang, Van The Trung
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection caused by the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans and most remarkably manifests in HIV-infected individuals, especially in the settings of very low CD4 count. Development of cryptococcosis in HIV-uninfected individuals is exceedingly rare and usually signifies a marked immunodeficiency. Cryptococcosis in association with myasthenia gravis or thymoma has been previously documented in only very few cases in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: We reported a complicated case of severe cutaneous cryptococcosis in a 39-year-old Vietnamese male patient with myasthenia gravis on long-term immunosuppressive therapy...
April 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444776/in-vitro-effects-of-ambroxol-on-cryptococcus-adherence-planktonic-cells-and-biofilms
#19
Qingtao Kong, Xue Du, Suyang Huang, Rui Yang, Chengzhen Zhang, Yongnian Shen, Weida Liu, Hong Sang
The antifungal effects of ambroxol (Amb; the metabolite VIII of bromhexine) against Cryptococcus planktonic cells and mature biofilms were investigated in this study. Amb showed antifungal activity against planktonic cells and mature biofilms. Disk diffusion test similarly showed antifungal profile for planktonic cells. Furthermore, Amb was found to be synergetic with fluconazole against planktonic cells and reduced the adherence of cells to polystyrene. Our results suggest that Amb can inhibit cryptococcal cells and biofilms, indicating its potential role in the prevention and treatment of cryptococcosis...
April 26, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440395/microrna-mediated-inflammatory-responses-induced-by-cryptococcus-neoformans-are-dependent-on-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-human-monocytes
#20
Hong Chen, Yi Jin, Huan Chen, Ningxin Liao, Yan Wang, Jianghan Chen
Cryptococcosis is a significant invasive fungal infection with noteworthy morbidity and mortality that is usually caused by either Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) or Cryptococcus gattii (C. gattii). Epidemiological studies have indicated that C. neoformans are more often reported in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. It has been well established that the cytokine profile of the host markedly affects the outcome of cryptococcal disease, and the negative regulators of microRNAs(miRs or miRNAs) are critically important for immunomodulation...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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