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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431114/molecular-characterization-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-isolated-from-the-environment-in-beijing-china
#1
Hongtao Dou, Huizhu Wang, Shaowei Xie, Xinxin Chen, Zhipeng Xu, Yingchun Xu
The molecular type of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans in Beijing was not clear. Our study aims to reveal the molecular characterization of C. neoformans complex from environment in Beijing, China. A total of 435 samples of pigeon droppings from 11 different homes in Beijing were collected from August to November in 2015. Pigeon droppings were inoculated onto caffeic acid cornmeal agar (CACA) to screen C. neoformans complex. Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was performed for species identification...
April 20, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421878/cerebrovascular-injury-in-cryptococcal-meningitis
#2
Ajay Kumar Mishra, Vanjare Harshad Arvind, Divya Muliyil, Cijoy K Kuriakose, Anu Anna George, Reka Karuppusami, Ronald Albert Benton Carey, Sunithi Mani, Samuel George Hansdak
Background Cryptococcal meningitis continues to be one of the common causes of chronic central nervous system infection worldwide. Individuals with cryptococcal meningitis can occasionally present with small vessel vasculitis causing infarcts primarily in the basal ganglia, internal capsule, and thalamus. Literature regarding patterns of cerebrovascular injury among patients with cryptococcal meningitis is scanty, and outcome following these vascular involvements is unknown. Aim To study the clinical profile, imaging findings, and details of vascular territory involved among patients admitted with cryptococcal meningitis and central nervous system infarct in a tertiary care center from India...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419364/examination-of-cryptococcal-glucuronoxylomannan-antigen-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-for-diagnosing-pulmonary-cryptococcosis-in-hiv-negative-patients
#3
Kazuhiro Oshima, Takahiro Takazono, Tomomi Saijo, Masato Tashiro, Shintaro Kurihara, Kazuko Yamamoto, Yoshifumi Imamura, Taiga Miyazaki, Misuzu Tsukamoto, Katsunori Yanagihara, Hiroshi Mukae, Shigeru Kohno, Koichi Izumikawa
We clarified the performance of a cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) antigen test using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples, in an HIV-negative Japanese population. Between March 2008 and December 2014, we examined cryptococcal GXM antigens in both serum and BALF specimens from 429 cases at Nagasaki University hospital. The diagnoses, underlying diseases, chest computed tomography findings, and cryptococcal GXM antigen test results were retrospectively investigated. Twenty-three patients were confirmed to have pulmonary cryptococcosis, another six were clinically diagnosed with cryptococcosis because they were seropositive for the GXM antigen, and five possible cryptococcosis cases had BALF samples that were positive for the GXM antigen and serum samples that were negative...
April 17, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414687/disseminated-cryptococcal-disease-with-diffuse-pulmonary-infiltrates-in-a-non-hiv-host
#4
M Hughes, K Trivedi, M Rudrappa
INTRODUCTION: We present a case of disseminated Cryptococcus in a non-HIV host, where the primary manifestation was pulmonary with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. This patient was on high dose corticosteroids for autoimmune hemolytic anemia. CASE: A 79 year old Caucasian man with a history of autoimmune hemolytic anemia on 100 mg of prednisone daily, coronary artery disease s/p bypass surgery, ischemic cardiomyopathy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sleep apnea, chronic kidney disease, and history of bilateral pulmonary emboli presented to Hematology/Oncology clinic with symptoms of productive cough, worsening shortness of breath, hemoptysis...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410693/clinical-and-radiological-spectrum-of-intracranial-tuberculosis-a-hospital-based-study-in-northeast-india
#5
Baiakmenlang Synmon, Marami Das, Ashok K Kayal, Munindra Goswami, Jogesh Sarma, Lakshya Basumatary, Suvorit Bhowmick
Central nervous system tuberculosis (TB) is the most severe extra pulmonary TB having a high mortality and morbidity. OBJECTIVE: To study the various clinical, biochemical, and radiological spectrum of intracranial TB. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Ninety-three patients were enrolled in this prospective study after ethical clearance and consent from August 2013 to May 2015. The entire clinical course with complications and predictors of mortality were assessed. RESULTS: 36 females (38...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400768/the-anti-helminthic-compound-mebendazole-has-multiple-antifungal-effects-against-cryptococcus-neoformans
#6
Luna S Joffe, Rafael Schneider, William Lopes, Renata Azevedo, Charley C Staats, Lívia Kmetzsch, Augusto Schrank, Maurizio Del Poeta, Marilene H Vainstein, Marcio L Rodrigues
Cryptococcus neoformans is the most lethal pathogen of the central nervous system. The gold standard treatment of cryptococcosis, a combination of amphotericin B with 5-fluorocytosine, involves broad toxicity, high costs, low efficacy, and limited worldwide availability. Although the need for new antifungals is clear, drug research and development (R&D) is costly and time-consuming. Thus, drug repurposing is an alternative to R&D and to the currently available tools for treating fungal diseases. Here we screened a collection of compounds approved for use in humans seeking for those with anti-cryptococcal activity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384860/fungal-opportunistic-pneumonias-in-hiv-aids-patients-an-indian-tertiary-care-experience
#7
Ravinder Kaur, Bhanu Mehra, Megh Singh Dhakad, Ritu Goyal, Preena Bhalla, Richa Dewan
INTRODUCTION: Opportunistic pneumonias are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) reactive patients. Despite the significant role that fungi play in causation of this opportunistic mycoses, very few Indian studies have attempted to investigate the burden and aetiological spectrum of HIV/AIDS-associated fungal pneumonias. AIM: To document the prevalence of fungal aetiology in HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic pneumonias in an Indian setting; and to elucidate the various fungal opportunists responsible for the same...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362939/primary-prophylaxis-for-cryptococcosis-with-fluconazole-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients-with-cd4-t-cell-counts-100-cells-%C3%A2%C2%B5l-and-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy
#8
Somnuek Sungkanuparph, Chutchaiwat Savetamornkul, Warisara Pattanapongpaiboon
A prospective observational cohort study was conducted in 302 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients who had a CD4 T-cell count <100 cells/µL and negative serum cryptococcal antigen initiating antiretroviral therapy in a resource-limited setting. During 2-year follow-up, there were no differences of survival rates and occurrences of newly diagnosed cryptococcosis between patients with and without fluconazole for primary prophylaxis of cryptococcosis.
April 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357373/cryptococcus-flips-its-lid-membrane-phospholipid-asymmetry-modulates-antifungal-drug-resistance-and-virulence
#9
COMMENT
Erika Shor, Yina Wang, David S Perlin, Chaoyang Xue
Human fungal infections are increasing in prevalence and acquisition of antifungal drug resistance, while our antifungal drug armamentarium remains very limited, constituting a significant public health problem. Despite the fact that prominent antifungal drugs target the fungal cell membrane, very little is known about how fungal membrane biology regulates drug-target interactions. Asymmetrical phospholipid distribution is an essential property of biological membranes, which is maintained by a group of transporters that dynamically translocate specific phospholipid groups across the membrane bilayer...
August 1, 2016: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355252/factors-associated-with-early-mycological-clearance-in-hiv-associated-cryptococcal-meningitis
#10
Fátima Concha-Velasco, Elsa González-Lagos, Carlos Seas, Beatriz Bustamante
INTRODUCTION: The first-line combination therapy for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM), a condition of high mortality particularly in the first two weeks of treatment, consists of amphotericin B plus flucytosine (5-FC). Given that 5-FC remains unavailable in many countries, the knowledge of factors influencing mycological clearance in patients treated with second-line therapy could contribute to effective management. OBJECTIVES: To determine the factors associated with the clearance of Cryptococcus sp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348767/first-case-of-mixed-infection-with-cryptococcus-deuterogattii-and-cryptococcus-neoformans-vni-in-an-ivorian-hiv-positive-patient
#11
Fulgence K Kassi, Virginie Bellet, Adama Doumbia, Donika Krasteva, Pascal Drakulovski, Gisèle A Kouakou, François Gatchitch, Eric Delaporte, Jacques Reynes, Michèle Mallié, Hervé I E Menan, Sébastien Bertout
INTRODUCTION: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) may be caused by several species of Cryptococcus. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a fatal case of CM in a HIV-positive patient from Ivory Coast infected by Cryptococcus neoformans VNI and Cryptococcusdeuterogattii. Isolates were recovered from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) prior to systemic antifungal treatment. Six isolates were studied (the entire culture plus five isolated colonies from it). Serotyping was performed via LAC 1 and CAP 64 gene amplification...
August 2016: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346317/the-csf-immune-response-in-hiv-1-associated-cryptococcal-meningitis-macrophage-activation-correlates-of-disease-severity-and-effect-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#12
James E Scriven, Lisa M Graham, Charlotte Schutz, Thomas J Scriba, Katalin A Wilkinson, Robert J Wilkinson, David R Boulware, Britta C Urban, Graeme Meintjes, David G Lalloo
BACKGROUND: Immune modulation may improve outcome in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. Animal studies suggest alternatively activated macrophages are detrimental but human studies are limited. We performed a detailed assessment of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune response and examined immune correlates of disease severity and poor outcome, and the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODOLOGY: We enrolled persons ≥18 years with first episode of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339414/update-on-the-application-of-optic-nerve-sheath-fenestration
#13
Hui Chen, Qian Zhang, Song Tan, Huazhu Fu, Bradley K Farris, Zhenglin Yang
BACKGROUND: With the ongoing development of surgical procedures and instruments, the safety of optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF) has been improved. OBJECTIVE: Through the past three decades, progress has been made in preventing visual loss from chronic optic nerve swelling in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), secondary intracranial hypertension and local optic nerve diseases. We now review the updated application of ONSF in those diseases. METHODS: The application of ONSF in papilledema due to IIH, secondary intracranial hypertension to cerebral venous sinus occlusion, Cryptococcal meningitis, and intracranial mass or tumors is reviewed...
March 23, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335769/cost-effectiveness-of-crag-lfa-screening-for-cryptococcal-meningitis-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-uganda
#14
Anu Ramachandran, Yukari Manabe, Radha Rajasingham, Maunank Shah
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) constitutes a significant source of mortality in resource-limited regions. Cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) can be detected in the blood before onset of meningitis. We sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of implementing CRAG screening using the recently developed CRAG lateral flow assay in Uganda compared to current practice without screening. METHODS: A decision-analytic model was constructed to compare two strategies for cryptococcal prevention among people living with HIV with CD4 < 100 in Uganda: No cryptococcal screening vs...
March 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334020/immune-correlates-of-hiv-associated-cryptococcal-meningitis
#15
Mark W Tenforde, James E Scriven, Thomas S Harrison, Joseph N Jarvis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333858/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-causing-progressive-optic-nerve-edema-in-cryptococcal-meningitis
#16
Astrid C Werner, Laurel N Vuong, Thomas R Hedges, Caroline R Baumal
PURPOSE: To report an human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient undergoing therapy for cryptococcal meningitis who developed progressive optic disc edema that was steroid responsive. METHODS: Observational case report. RESULTS: One month after commencing antifungal treatment for cryptococcal meningitis, the patient developed bilateral, progressive, recurrent optic disc edema with subretinal fluid that coincided with initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy and recovery of CD4 cell counts...
March 22, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329080/differences-in-immunologic-factors-among-patients-presenting-with-altered-mental-status-during-cryptococcal-meningitis
#17
Sarah Lofgren, Kathy H Hullsiek, Bozena M Morawski, Henry W Nabeta, Reuben Kiggundu, Kabanda Taseera, Abdu Musubire, Charlotte Schutz, Mahsa Abassi, Nathan C Bahr, Lillian Tugume, Conrad Muzoora, Darlisha A Williams, Melissa A Rolfes, Sruti S Velamakanni, Radha Rajasingham, Graeme Meintjes, Joshua Rhein, David B Meya, David R Boulware
Altered mental status in cryptococcal meningitis results in poorer survival, but underlying causes of altered mentation are poorly understood. Within two clinical trials, we assessed risk factors for altered mental status (GCS score<15) considering baseline clinical characteristics, CSF cytokines/chemokines, and antiretroviral therapy. Among 326 enrolled participants, 97 (30%) had GCS<15 and these patients had lower median CSF cryptococcal antigen titers (P = .042) and CCL2 (P = .005) but higher opening pressures (320 vs...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326747/laboratory-methods-for-diagnostics-of-hiv-infection-and-hiv-associated-neuroinfections
#18
Pavol Beno, Alzbeta Kaiglova, Martin Samohyl
HIV Infection resulting in AIDS remains serious global public health problem. In the fight with the global health problem plays a key role a simple, reliable and fast diagnostics. An important method in diagnostics is the identification and detection of viral capside p24 antigen levels. Fourth generation tests for the diagnostics of HIV infection simultaneously detect the presence of HIV antibodies and p24 antigen. Based on the monitoring of CD4 count, we can estimate the stage in which the infection is, and we can also suggest a therapeutic approach...
January 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323835/molecular-epidemiology-of-cryptococcal-genotype-vnic-st5-in-siriraj-hospital-thailand
#19
Chanin Hatthakaroon, Sujiraphong Pharkjaksu, Piriyaporn Chongtrakool, Kamol Suwannakarn, Pattarachai Kiratisin, Popchai Ngamskulrungroj
Despite the strong association between Cryptococcus neoformans infection and the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status of patients globally, most cryptococcosis cases in Far East Asia occur in non-HIV individuals. Molecular epidemiological studies, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), have shown that more than 95% of cryptococcal strains belong to a specific subtype of VNI. However, this association has never been specifically examined in other parts of Asia. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the VNIc/ST5 genotype distribution among cryptococcosis patients in Thailand...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320715/experimental-models-of-short-courses-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-for-induction-therapy-for-cryptococcal-meningitis
#20
Jodi Lestner, Laura McEntee, Adam Johnson, Joanne Livermore, Sarah Whalley, Julie Schwartz, John R Perfect, Thomas Harrison, William Hope
Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is a rapidly lethal infection in immunocompromised patients. Induction regimens are usually administered for 2-weeks. The shortest effective period of induction therapy with liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) is unknown. The pharmacodynamics of LAmB were studied in murine and rabbit models of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. The concentrations of LAmB in plasma and brain of mice were measured using HPLC. Histopathological changes were determined. The penetration of LAmB into the brain was determined by immunohistochemistry using an antibody directed to amphotericin B...
March 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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