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William B Kristan
How did a structure as complex as our own brain ever evolve? Although biologists have pondered this question since Charles Darwin, the explosion of molecular information in recent years has provided new insights into this question, particularly its first step: the evolution of neurons. Meshing information about genomes with insights from more classical anatomical, physiological, and developmental approaches has led to some remarkable insights and surprises. Because 'phylogenomics' is still a young field, however, there are arguments about which genes to include in comparisons, how much to weigh genetic versus 'classical' features, and which algorithms to use in making such comparisons...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Virginie Gaget, Angela Keulen, Melody Lau, Paul Monis, Justin D Brookes
AIMS: Benthic cyanobacteria produce toxic and odorous compounds similar to their planktonic counterparts, challenging the quality of drinking water supplies. The biofilm that benthic algae and other micro-organisms produce is a complex and protective matrix. Monitoring to determine the abundance and identification of cyanobacteria therefore relies on molecular techniques, with the choice of DNA isolation technique critical. This study investigated which DNA extraction method is optimal for DNA recovery in order to guarantee the best DNA yield for PCR-based analysis of benthic cyanobacteria...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Mayo Takada, Masaya Suzuki, Maiko Haga-Tsujimura, Koichi Shinkai
We examined the effects of adhesive systems under study applied for a laser-cut cavity using an Er,Cr:YSGG laser on rat dental pulp at 24 h and 14 days postoperatively. Group 1, laser-cut cavities were treated with a self-etching-primer and bonding agent; group 2, pretreated with a phosphoric-acid, and then treated with a self-etching-primer and bonding agent; group 3, pretreated with a phosphoric-acid and sodium-hypochlorite, and then treated with a self-etching-primer and bonding agent; and group 4, treated with an all-in-one adhesive...
October 24, 2016: Odontology
Murwantoko Murwantoko, Arif Bimantara, Roosmanto Roosmanto, Masashi Kawaichi
A pathogen of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, was recently recorded in a hatchery in Yogyakarta. The clinical symptom in post-larvae (PL) was a whitish appearance of the muscles in the tail. Histological examination revealed myonecrosis with massive infiltration of myonuclei and hemocytes. RT-PCR products of 850 bp were obtained when using RNA from diseased PL as a template. The clinical signs and RT-PCR amplicon were reproduced in M. rosenbergii inoculated with bacteria-free inocula. Electron microscopy demonstrated that the M...
2016: SpringerPlus
Xiangjiang Zheng, Li Niu, Di Wei, Xuemei Li, Shusheng Zhang
MicroRNA (miRNA) was a promising class of cancer biomarkers. Here we developed a label-free method for sensitive measurement of let-7d miRNA based on multiple amplification techniques. The primer will bind to the duplex strand DNA that was formed by stem-loop template and target let-7d to initiate strand displacement amplification (SDA) in tandem. The released single strand DNA will be a primer to bind the circular template to initiate rolling circle amplification (RCA). The products based on multiple amplifications will be detected by a standard fluorimeter with N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM) as the fluorescent indicator...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
An Li, Jiawen Li, Kenneth A Johnson
HIV Reverse Transcriptase (RT) plays a central role in viral replication and requires coordination of both polymerase and RNase H activities. Although this coordination is crucial in viral replication, whether a DNA/RNA hybrid can simultaneously engage both active sites has yet to be determined since structural and kinetic analyses have provided contradictory results. Single nucleotide incorporation and RNase H cleavage were examined using pre-steady-state kinetics with global data analysis. The results revealed three interconverting RT-DNA/RNA species: 43% were active for both sites, 27% showed only polymerase activity, and the remaining 30% were nonproductive...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Svetlana A Ivanova, Diana Z Osmanova, Anastasia S Boiko, Ivan V Pozhidaev, Maxim B Freidin, Olga Yu Fedorenko, Arkadiy V Semke, Nikolay A Bokhan, Elena G Kornetova, Lubov D Rakhmazova, Bob Wilffert, Anton J M Loonen
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic drugs can cause hyperprolactinemia. However, hyperprolactinemia was also observed in treatment-naive patients with a first schizophrenic episode. This phenomenon might be related to the role of prolactin as a cytokine in autoimmune diseases. Extrapituitary prolactin production is regulated by an alternative promoter, which contains the functional single nucleotide polymorphism -1149 G/T (rs1341239). We examined whether this polymorphism was associated with hyperprolactinemia in patients with schizophrenia...
October 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Ingvild Aukrust, Ragnhild W Jansson, Cecilie Bredrup, Hilde E Rusaas, Siren Berland, Agnete Jørgensen, Marte G Haug, Eyvind Rødahl, Gunnar Houge, Per M Knappskog
PURPOSE: Despite being the third most common ABCA4 variant observed in patients with Stargardt disease, the functional effect of the intronic ABCA4 variant c.5461-10T>C is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular effect of this variant. METHODS: Fibroblast samples from patients carrying the ABCA4 variant c.5461-10T>C were analysed by isolating total RNA, followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers spanning the variant...
October 24, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
Junxiong Cheng, Dan Guo, Xi Chen, Ting Wang, Jiayi Huang
Objective To construct a recombinant adenovirus expressing siRNA targeting human sclerostin (SOST) gene, and test the function of MG-63 cells while co-cultured with MDA-MB-231 cells infected by Ad-siSOST. MethodsAccording to the RNA sequence of SOST gene, two pairs of primers which contained 3 siRNA sequences were designed, and a pB2B plasmid was taken as template to amplify 2 DNA sequences. Both of the 2 DNA sequences were ligated to pAdTrace-OK by Gibson DNA Assembly way. After homologous recombination between recombinant shuttle plasmid and adenovirus vector plasmid, the adenovirus was packaged in HEK-293 cells...
November 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Rodrigo C Silva, Virgínia B Richini-Pereira, Mariana Kikuti, Pâmela M Marson, Helio Langoni
BACKGROUND: Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis (CVL) is a worldwide parasitic zoonosis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum around the world. Canids are the definitive hosts and sand flies the intermediate hosts. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that a new set of species-specific primers (Lch14:Lch15, targeting a multiple alignment for L. infantum kDNA minicircle) is an efficient diagnostic tool for routine and epidemiological studies regarding L. infantum. METHODS: The presence of L...
October 24, 2016: Veterinary Quarterly
Kenta Tezuka, Madoka Kuramitsu, Kazu Okuma, Kiyoko Nojima, Kumiko Araki, Naoya Shinohara, Chieko Matsumoto, Masahiro Satake, Tomohiko Takasaki, Masayuki Saijo, Ichiro Kurane, Isao Hamaguchi
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is caused by four related RNA viruses of the genus Flavivirus, dengue virus (DENV)-1, -2, -3, and -4, which are transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. Although DENV is not endemic in Japan, an autochthonous dengue outbreak occurred in 2014. Several transfusion-transmitted cases have also been reported after the use of blood and plasma products in DENV-endemic countries. The aim of this study was to develop a novel multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for DENV blood screening...
October 23, 2016: Transfusion
Cristin Print
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
Evelise M Souza, Jan De Munck, Pong Pongprueksa, Annelies Van Ende, Bart Van Meerbeek
OBJECTIVES: To determine the interfacial fracture toughness (iFT) and micro-tensile strength (μTBS) of composite cements bonded to dentin. METHODS: Fifty feldspar ceramic blocks (Vita Mark II, Vita Zahnfabrik) were luted onto dentin using two self-adhesive (G-CEM LinkAce, GC; SpeedCEM, Ivoclar Vivadent), two self-etch (Multilink Primer & Multilink Automix, Ivoclar Vivadent; Scotchbond Universal & RelyX Ultimate, 3 M ESPE), and one etch-and-rinse (Excite F DSC & Variolink II, Ivoclar Vivadent) composite cement (n=10)...
October 19, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Davin Edric V. Adao, Ace O. Dela Serna, Maria Luz B. Belleza, Nicole R. Bolo, Windell L. Rivera
Blastocystis sp. is a commonly reported enteric protistan parasite in faecal specimens with a worldwide distribution afflicting both humans and a wide range of animals. The aim of this study is to characterize the subtypes (STs) of Blastocystis sp. isolates from asymptomatic individuals in an urban community in Pateros, Metro Manila, Philippines. The 600-bp small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) barcoding region of Blastocystis sp. isolates was amplified and sequenced using the primers RD5 and BhRDr. Subtypes were identified by uploading the sequences onto the Basic Local Alignment and Search Tool (BLAST) websites, the Blastocystis Subtype (18S) and Sequence Typing (MLST) Database and by construction of a phylogenetic tree...
October 1, 2016: Annals of Parasitology
M Butsashvili, M Kajaia, M Kochlamazashvili, M Zarandia, T Gagua, D Meskhishvili, N Avaliani, G Kamkamidze
Of the 100 types of human papillomaviruses (HPV), approximately 35 infect the genital tract. The viruses are categorized as "high risk" and "low risk" depending on whether they are known to cause cancer or not. Cervical cancer is an important cause of cancer mortality in Georgia, and worldwide. Only limited and incomplete data are available about the epidemiology of HPV infection and related molecular and cellular changes in Georgia. Objectives of our study included the estimation of the prevalence and the distribution of HPV genotypes among women in Georgia...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Masayuki Tsuzuki, Yuichiro Watanabe
Small RNAs are key molecules in RNA silencing pathways that exert the sequence-specific regulation of gene expression and chromatin modifications in many eukaryotes. In plants, endogenous small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), trans-acting short interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs), and heterochromatic siRNAs (hc-siRNAs), play an important role in switching or orchestrating biological processes during the development and at the onset of stress responses. These endogenous and exogenous small RNAs are mainly 20-24 nucleotides in length...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Erika Varkonyi-Gasic
Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the posttranscriptional regulation of protein-coding genes, and they are essential for a normal development and survival. Mature miRNAs are cleaved from larger precursor RNAs and are typically 21-22 nt long.The small size, the lack of a common feature like a poly(A) tail, 3' end-modifications, and presence of a precursor-all these factors affect the detection and hinder the quantification of miRNAs. The stem-loop qRT-PCR method described here is designed to detect and quantify mature miRNAs in a fast, specific, accurate, and reliable manner...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Liuyu Wu, Xiao Xiong, Xuming Wang, Tianrong Xin, Jing Wang, Zhiwen Zou, Bin Xia
The bluish yellow lappet moth, Trabala vishnou guttata is an extraordinarily important pest in China. The complete mitochondrial genome is sequenced and determined firstly, which is based on traditional PCR amplification and primer walking methods with a length of 15,281 bp, including 13 protein-coding (PCG) genes, 22 transfer RNA (rRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA (tRNA) genes, and an A + T-rich region. The gene order and orientation of the T. vishnou guttata mitogenome were identical to the other sequenced Lasiocampidae species...
October 21, 2016: Genetica
Marie Umber, Rose-Marie Gomez, Suzia Gélabale, Lydiane Bonheur, Claudie Pavis, Pierre-Yves Teycheney
The complete genome sequence of Dioscorea bacilliform TR virus (DBTRV) was determined. The closest relatives of DBTRV are Dioscorea bacilliform AL virus (DBALV) and Dioscorea bacilliform RT virus 1 (DBRTV1). Specific primers were designed and used to determine the prevalence of DBTRV in a yam germplasm collection. It was found that this virus infects Dioscorea alata and D. trifida plants in Guadeloupe and French Guyana. DTRBV was not detected in any of the tested D. cayenensis-rotundata accessions. In silico analysis provided evidence for the presence of DBTRV-like endogenous sequences in the genome of D...
October 21, 2016: Archives of Virology
Lily Marsden, Lawrence J Jennings, Samantha Gadd, Min Yu, Elizabeth J Perlman, Mariana M Cajaiba
Metanephric stromal tumors are rare renal stromal tumors that predominantly affect children. They belong to the metanephric family of tumors along with metanephric adenofibroma and metanephric adenoma. The previous documentation of BRAF exon 15 mutations in 88% of metanephric adenomas and in isolated cases of metanephric adenofibroma prompted us to investigate the prevalence of these mutations in metanephric stromal tumors and in other pediatric renal stromal tumors. In this study, 17 metanephric stromal tumors, 22 congenital mesoblastic nephromas and 6 ossifying renal tumors of infancy were selected for BRAF exon 15 testing...
October 18, 2016: Human Pathology
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