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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914927/novel-rna-viruses-producing-simultaneous-covert-infections-in-ceratitis-capitata-correlations-between-viral-titers-and-host-fitness-and-implications-for-sit-programs
#1
Angel Llopis-Giménez, Rosa Maria González, Anabel Millán-Leiva, Marta Catalá, Elena Llacer, Alberto Urbaneja, Salvador Herrero
The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata is a highly polyphagous pest, which infests multiple species of fruits and vegetables worldwide. In addition to the traditional control with chemical insecticides, sterile insect technique (SIT) has been implemented in integrated programs worldwide, and has become an essential measure for the control of this pest. A key issue for SIT is to release sterile males that are sufficiently competitive with males from the wild population. Using sequence information available in public databases, three novel picornaviruses infecting medflies were discovered and named as C...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914738/wolbachia-strains-in-cryptic-species-of-the-anastrepha-fraterculus-complex-diptera-tephritidae-along-the-neotropical-region
#2
Leandro F Prezotto, André L P Perondini, Vicente Hernández-Ortiz, Celso L Marino, Denise Selivon
Infection by Wolbachia was described previously in eleven species of Anastrepha fruit flies some of which are important pests of fruticulture. One such species is the nominal Anastrepha fraterculus, the South American fruit fly, which actually comprises a complex of cryptic species. The suggestions of using Wolbachia for the control of these pest species, make imperative a more precise characterization of the existing strains of the bacteria. In this study, population samples of the A. fraterculus complex from Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Guatemala and Mexico were analyzed for Wolbachia infection...
November 24, 2016: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909789/factors-influencing-aversive-learning-in-the-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis
#3
J L Liu, H L Chen, X Y Chen, R K Cui, A Guerrero, X N Zeng
Parameters such as the intensity of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli, the inter-trial interval, and starvation time can influence learning. In this study, the parameters that govern aversive learning in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, a serious pest of fruits and vegetables, were examined. Male flies were trained to associate the attractive odorant methyl eugenol, a male lure, with a food punishment, sodium chloride solution, and the conditioned suppression of the proboscis-extension response was investigated...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909210/a-full-scale-study-on-thermal-degradation-of-polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins-and-dibenzofurans-in-municipal-solid-waste-incinerator-fly-ash-and-its-secondary-air-pollution-control-in-china
#4
Xingbao Gao, Bingjing Ji, Dahai Yan, Qifei Huang, Xuemei Zhu
Degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash is beneficial to its risk control. Fly ash was treated in a full-scale thermal degradation system (capacity 1 t d(-1)) to remove polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Apart from the confirmation of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran decomposition efficiency, we focused on two major issues that are the major obstacles for commercialising this decomposition technology in China, desorption and regeneration of dioxins and control of secondary air pollution...
November 30, 2016: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908059/parameter-study-of-time-delay-magnification-in-a-biologically-inspired-mechanically-coupled-acoustic-sensor-array
#5
Ming Yang, Xinlei Zhu, Yaqiong Zhang, Na Ta, Zhushi Rao
Sound source localization uses interaural time difference (ITD) or interaural intensity difference cues, and most of the methods based on ITD are limited by the aperture of array. However, a kind of parasitoid fly called Ormia ochracea with coupled ears has a remarkable ability to localize calling of crickets regardless of the fly's small body size. The structure of fly's ear is generalized, and a multi-dimensional coupled system with an acoustic sensor array is proposed. The magnification factor of the phase difference in this system, which can be used to describe the ITD changes of signals from the coupled system, is chosen as the kernel parameter to measure the effect of coupling...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906129/the-evolutionary-origin-of-bilaterian-smooth-and-striated-myocytes
#6
Thibaut Brunet, Antje Hl Fischer, Patrick Rh Steinmetz, Antonella Lauri, Paola Bertucci, Detlev Arendt
The dichotomy between smooth and striated myocytes is fundamental for bilaterian musculature, but its evolutionary origin is unsolved. In particular, interrelationships of visceral smooth muscles remain unclear. Absent in fly and nematode, they have not yet been characterized molecularly outside vertebrates. Here, we characterize expression profile, ultrastructure, contractility and innervation of the musculature in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii and identify smooth muscles around the midgut, hindgut and heart that resemble their vertebrate counterparts in molecular fingerprint, contraction speed, and nervous control...
December 1, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905291/two-cases-of-myiasis-of-middle-ear-caused-by-sarcophaga
#7
Erdal Polat, Serhat Sirekbasan, Hakkı Caner İnan
Middle ear myiasis and factors determining the types of flies. To the laboratory in saline with 10% formaldehyde and sent them larvae stereo-microscope (Olympus 10×) were examined. Adult by making one portion of the surviving larvae instar larvae and adults are defined utilizing state properties. The larvae and live larvae of the fly Sarcophaga sp. rendered adults were determined. In both patients, the middle ear causing myiasis flies species Sarcophaga sp. was determined to be.
September 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904993/molecular-mechanisms-of-heart-failure-insights-from-drosophila
#8
Shasha Zhu, Zhe Han, Yan Luo, Yulin Chen, Qun Zeng, Xiushan Wu, Wuzhou Yuan
Heart failure places an enormous burden on health and economic systems worldwide. It is a complex disease that is profoundly influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Neither the molecular mechanisms underlying heart failure nor effective prevention strategies are fully understood. Fortunately, relevant aspects of human heart failure can be experimentally studied in tractable model animals, including the fruit fly, Drosophila, allowing the in vivo application of powerful and sophisticated molecular genetic and physiological approaches...
December 1, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904685/phylogenetic-analysis-of-basic-helix-loop-helix-transcription-factors-in-the-genome-of-a-typical-human-disease-vector
#9
Meng-Yun Chen, Ying Dong, Rui-Xue Chang, Qian-Qian Ang, Ran Zhang, Yan-Yan Wu, Yi-Hui Xu, Wen-Sheng Lu, Xiao-Dong Zheng
Ixodes scapularis, the black-legged tick, is one of the most common human-disease vectors and transmits Borrelia species, such as B. burgdorferi, as well as Theileria microti, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, etc. As basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors have been recognized for many years as important regulators of various developmental processes, we performed phylogenetic analysis of the black-legged tick genome in order to identify the number and family of bHLH transcription factors. Because bHLH family members have been identified in many organisms, including silkworm and fruit fly, we were able to conduct this survey and identify 58 putative bHLH transcription factors...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902361/qualitative-proteomic-analysis-of-tipula-oleracea-nudivirus-tonv-occlusion-bodies
#10
Anne Bézier, Grégoire Harichaux, Karine Musset, Valérie Labas, Elisabeth A Herniou
Nudiviruses are arthropod-specific large double-stranded circular DNA viruses, related to baculoviruses, which replicate in the nucleus of the cells they infect. Up to date six fully sequenced nudiviral genomes are available in databases and protein profile from nudivirus particles were mainly characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. However, only few direct matches were completed between genomic and proteomic data to the exception of the major occlusion body protein from Penaeus monodon nudivirus (PmNV) and four nucleocapsid proteins from Helicoverpa zea nudivirus 2 (HzNV-2)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901062/assessing-the-feasibility-of-fly-based-surveillance-of-wildlife-infectious-diseases
#11
Constanze Hoffmann, Melanie Stockhausen, Kevin Merkel, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Fabian H Leendertz
Monitoring wildlife infectious agents requires acquiring samples suitable for analyses, which is often logistically demanding. A possible alternative to invasive or non-invasive sampling of wild-living vertebrates is the use of vertebrate material contained in invertebrates feeding on them, their feces, or their remains. Carrion flies have been shown to contain vertebrate DNA; here we investigate whether they might also be suitable for wildlife pathogen detection. We collected 498 flies in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, a tropical rainforest and examined them for adenoviruses (family Adenoviridae), whose DNA is frequently shed in feces of local mammals...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899608/tfbsbank-a-platform-to-dissect-the-big-data-of-protein-dna-interaction-in-human-and-model-species
#12
Dongsheng Chen, Sanjie Jiang, Xiaoyan Ma, Fang Li
Genome-wide transcription factors (TFs) binding data has been extensively generated in the past few years, which poses a great challenge to data interpretation. Therefore, comprehensive and dedicated functional annotation databases for TF-DNA interaction are in great demands to manage, explore and utilize those invaluable data resources. Here, we constructed a platform 'TFBSbank' which houses the annotation of 1870 chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) datasets of 585 TFs in five species (human, mouse, fly, worm and yeast)...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898834/the-triticeae-toolbox-combining-phenotype-and-genotype-data-to-advance-small-grains-breeding
#13
Victoria C Blake, Clay Birkett, David E Matthews, David L Hane, Peter Bradbury, Jean-Luc Jannink
The Triticeae Toolbox (; T3) is the database schema enabling plant breeders and researchers to combine, visualize, and interrogate the wealth of phenotype and genotype data generated by the Triticeae Coordinated Agricultural Project (TCAP). T3 enables users to define specific data sets for download in formats compatible with the external tools TASSEL, Flapjack, and R; or to use by software residing on the T3 server for operations such as Genome Wide Association and Genomic Prediction. New T3 tools to assist plant breeders include a Selection Index Generator, analytical tools to compare phenotype trials using common or user-defined indices, and a histogram generator for nursery reports, with applications using the Android OS, and a Field Plot Layout Designer in development...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898671/prevalence-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-districts-of-high-and-low-endemicity-in-mali
#14
Bourama Traoré, Fabiano Oliveira, Ousmane Faye, Adama Dicko, Cheick A Coulibaly, Ibrahim M Sissoko, Samake Sibiry, Nafomon Sogoba, Moussa Brema Sangare, Yaya I Coulibaly, Pierre Traore, Sekou F Traore, Jennifer M Anderson, Somita Keita, Jesus G Valenzuela, Shaden Kamhawi, Seydou Doumbia
Historically the western sahelian dry regions of Mali are known to be highly endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania major, while cases are rarely reported from the Southern savanna forest of the country. Here, we report baseline prevalence of CL infection in 3 ecologically distinct districts of Mali (dry sahelian, north savanna and southern savanna forest areas). We screened 195 to 250 subjects from 50 to 60 randomly selected households in each of the 6 villages (four from the western sahelian district of Diema in Kayes region, one from the central district of Kolokani and one from the southern savanna district of Kolodieba, region of Sikasso)...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895896/the-changing-biodiversity-of-alabama-drosophila-important-impacts-of-seasonal-variation-urbanization-and-invasive-species
#15
Andrei Bombin, Laura K Reed
Global warming and anthropogenic disturbances significantly influence the biosphere, tremendously increasing species extinction rates. In Central Alabama, we analyzed Drosophilidae species composition change nearly 100 years after the previous survey. We found ten Drosophilid species that were not reported during the last major biodiversity studies, two of which are invasive pests. In addition, we analyzed the influence of seasonal environmental variables characteristic of the subtropical climate zone on Drosophila abundance and biodiversity...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894755/dna-damage-induced-by-coal-dust-fly-and-bottom-ash-from-coal-combustion-evaluated-using-the-micronucleus-test-and-comet-assay-in-vitro
#16
Cristina Araujo Matzenbacher, Ana Letícia Hilario Garcia, Marcela Silva Dos Santos, Caroline Cardoso Nicolau, Suziane Premoli, Dione Silva Corrêa, Claudia Telles de Souza, Liana Niekraszewicz, Johnny Ferraz Dias, Tânia Valéria Delgado, Wolfgang Kalkreuth, Ivana Grivicich, Juliana da Silva
Coal mining and combustion generating huge amounts of bottom and fly ash are major causes of environmental pollution and health hazards due to the release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals. The Candiota coalfield in Rio Grande do Sul, is one of the largest open-cast coal mines in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxic and mutagenic effects of coal, bottom ash and fly ash samples from Candiota with the comet assay (alkaline and modified version) and micronucleus test using the lung fibroblast cell line (V79)...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894563/administration-of-crofab-antivenom-by-a-helicopter-emergency-medical-service-team
#17
Michael T Steuerwald, Season R K Gabbard, Gillian A Beauchamp, Matthew K Riddle, Edward J Otten
The case presented here highlights an unconventional use of a helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) to provide a specialized medication to a critically ill patient when definitive transport was delayed. A 39-year-old man presented to a rural hospital 1 hour after sustaining a copperhead envenomation. He developed severe symptoms and was intubated. Arrangements were made for transfer to a tertiary referral center by HEMS, but because of incoming weather conditions, the team would not be able to make the return flight safely...
November 2016: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893297/population-based-trachoma-mapping-in-six-evaluation-units-of-papua-new-guinea
#18
Robert Ko, Colin Macleod, David Pahau, Oliver Sokana, Drew Keys, Anthea Burnett, Rebecca Willis, Geoffrey Wabulembo, Jambi Garap, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: We sought to determine the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation - follicular (TF) in children aged 1-9 years, and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in those aged ≥15 years, in suspected trachoma-endemic areas of Papua New Guinea (PNG). METHODS: We carried out six population-based prevalence surveys using the protocol developed as part of the Global Trachoma Mapping Project. RESULTS: A total of 19,013 individuals were sampled for inclusion, with 15,641 (82...
November 28, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892758/gamma-radiation-tolerance-in-different-life-stages-of-the-fruit-fly-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Jagdish Gopal Paithankar, K Deeksha, Rajashekhar K Patil
PURPOSE: Insects are known to have high levels of radiation tolerance than mammals. The fruit fly, Drosophila provides opportunities for genetic analysis of radiation tolerance in insects. A knowledge of stage-specific sensitivity is required to understand the mechanisms and test the existing hypothesis of insect radiation tolerance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Drosophila melanogaster were irradiated using gamma rays at different life stages. Irradiation doses were chosen to start from 100 Gy to 2200 Gy with increments of 100 Gy, with a dose rate of 12...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889888/characteristics-of-ash-and-particle-emissions-during-bubbling-fluidised-bed-combustion-of-three-types-of-residual-forest-biomass
#20
João Peres Ribeiro, Estela Domingos Vicente, Célia Alves, Xavier Querol, Fulvio Amato, Luís A C Tarelho
Combustion of residual forest biomass (RFB) derived from eucalypt (Eucalyptus globulus), pine (Pinus pinaster) and golden wattle (Acacia longifolia) was evaluated in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidised bed reactor (BFBR). During the combustion experiments, monitoring of temperature, pressure and exhaust gas composition has been made. Ash samples were collected at several locations along the furnace and flue gas treatment devices (cyclone and bag filter) after each combustion experiment and were analysed for their unburnt carbon content and chemical composition...
November 26, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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