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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087775/rapid-expansion-of-immune-related-gene-families-in-the-house-fly-musca-domestica
#1
Timothy B Sackton, Brian P Lazzaro, Clark G Andrew
The house fly, Musca domestica, occupies an unusual diversity of potentially septic niches compared to other sequenced Dipteran insects and is a vector of numerous diseases of humans and livestock. In the present study, we apply whole-transcriptome sequencing to identify genes whose expression is regulated in adult flies upon bacterial infection. We then combine the transcriptomic data with analysis of rates of gene duplication and loss to provide insight into the evolutionary dynamics of immune-related genes...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087331/different-age-dependent-performance-in-drosophila-wild-type-canton-s-and-the-white-mutant-w1118-flies
#2
Shuang Qiu, Chengfeng Xiao, R Meldrum Robertson
Aging has significant effects on the locomotor performance of insects including Drosophila. Using a protocol for the high-throughput analysis of fly locomotion in a restricted space, we re-examined age-dependent behavioral characteristics in adult Drosophila. There are multiple important wild-type and background lines including the Canton-S strain and the w1118 strain, which has a null mutation of the white gene. Under standard rearing conditions, we found similar survival curves and median lifespans in Canton-S (50days) and w1118 (54days) strains, however, w1118 flies maintained stable body mass for up to 43days, whereas Canton-S flies gained body mass at young age, followed by a gradual decline...
January 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081121/isolation-of-novel-trypanosomatid-zelonia-australiensis-sp-nov-kinetoplastida-trypanosomatidae-provides-support-for-a-gondwanan-origin-of-dixenous-parasitism-in-the-leishmaniinae
#3
Joel Barratt, Alexa Kaufer, Bryce Peters, Douglas Craig, Andrea Lawrence, Tamalee Roberts, Rogan Lee, Gary McAuliffe, Damien Stark, John Ellis
The genus Leishmania includes approximately 53 species, 20 of which cause human leishmaniais; a significant albeit neglected tropical disease. Leishmaniasis has afflicted humans for millennia, but how ancient is Leishmania and where did it arise? These questions have been hotly debated for decades and several theories have been proposed. One theory suggests Leishmania originated in the Palearctic, and dispersed to the New World via the Bering land bridge. Others propose that Leishmania evolved in the Neotropics...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079522/protection-from-within
#4
Florent Masson, Bruno Lemaitre
The development of the tsetse fly immune system relies on a cue from an endosymbiotic bacterium called Wigglesworthia.
January 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077621/functional-redundancy-and-non-redundancy-between-two-troponin-c-isoforms-in-drosophila-adult-muscles
#5
Maria B Chechenova, Sara Maes, Sandy T Oas, Cloyce Nelson, Kaveh G Kiani, Anton L Bryantsev, Richard M Cripps
We investigated the functional overlap of two muscle Troponin C (TpnC) genes that are expressed in the adult fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster: TpnC4 is predominantly expressed in the indirect flight muscles (IFM), whereas TpnC41C is the main isoform in the tergal depressor of the trochanter muscle (TDT or jump muscle). Using CRISPR/Cas9, we created a transgenic line with a homozygous deletion of TpnC41C, and compared its phenotype to a line lacking functional TpnC4 We found that the removal of either of these genes leads to expression of the other isoform in both muscle types...
January 11, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076762/a-leptin-analog-locally-produced-in-the-brain-acts-via-a-conserved-neural-circuit-to-modulate-obesity-linked-behaviors-in-drosophila
#6
Jennifer Beshel, Josh Dubnau, Yi Zhong
Leptin, a typically adipose-derived "satiety hormone," has a well-established role in weight regulation. Here we describe a functionally conserved model of genetically induced obesity in Drosophila by manipulating the fly leptin analog unpaired 1 (upd1). Unexpectedly, cell-type-specific knockdown reveals upd1 in the brain, not the adipose tissue, mediates obesity-related traits. Disrupting brain-derived upd1 in flies leads to all the hallmarks of mammalian obesity: increased attraction to food cues, increased food intake, and increased weight...
January 10, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076349/mechanical-control-of-whole-body-shape-by-a-single-cuticular-protein-obstructor-e-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
Reiko Tajiri, Nobuhiro Ogawa, Haruhiko Fujiwara, Tetsuya Kojima
Body shapes are much more variable than body plans. One way to alter body shapes independently of body plans would be to mechanically deform bodies. To what extent body shapes are regulated physically, or molecules involved in physical control of morphogenesis, remain elusive. During fly metamorphosis, the cuticle (exoskeleton) covering the larval body contracts longitudinally and expands laterally to become the ellipsoidal pupal case (puparium). Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster Obstructor-E (Obst-E) is a protein constituent of the larval cuticle that confers the oriented contractility/expandability...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074535/gene-ages-nomenclatures-and-functional-diversification-of-the-methuselah-methuselah-like-gpcr-family-in-drosophila-and-tribolium
#8
REVIEW
Markus Friedrich, Jeffery W Jones
Affecting lifespan regulation and oxidative stress resistance, the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) gene methuselah (mth) plays important roles in the life history of Drosophila melanogaster. Substantial progress has been made in elucidating the molecular pathways by which mth affects these traits, yet conflicting ideas exist as to how old these genetic interactions are as well as how old the mth gene itself is. Root to these issues is the complex gene family history of the Mth/Mthl GPCR family, which experienced independent expansions in a variety of animal clades, leading to at least six subfamilies in insects...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073981/effect-of-resin-ducts-and-sap-content-on-infestation-and-development-of-immature-stages-of-anastrepha-obliqua-and-anastrepha-ludens-diptera-tephritidae-in-four-mango-sapindales-anacardiaceae-cultivars
#9
Larissa Guillén, Ricardo Adaime, Andrea Birke, Olinda Velázquez, Guillermo Angeles, Fernando Ortega, Eliel Ruíz, Martín Aluja
We determined the influence of resin ducts, sap content, and fruit physicochemical features of four mango cultivars (Criollo, Manila, Ataulfo, and Tommy Atkins) on their susceptibility to the attack of the two most pestiferous fruit fly species infesting mangoes in Mexico: Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart). We performed three studies: 1) analysis of resin ducts in mango fruit exocarp to determine the density and area occupied by resin ducts in each mango cultivar, 2) assessment of mango physicochemical features including fruit sap content, and 3) a forced infestation trial under field conditions using enclosed fruit-bearing branches to expose mangoes to gravid A...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073977/the-effects-of-a-modified-hot-water-treatment-on-anastrepha-ludens-diptera-tephritidae-infested-mango
#10
Emilio Hernández, Marysol Aceituno-Medina, Jorge Toledo, Bigail Bravo, José Caro-Corrales, Pablo Montoya, Robert Mangan
The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), is a quarantine pest in mango (Mangifera indica L.) that can be controlled by using a hot water treatment (HWT). This treatment is normally followed by a 30-min hydrocooling (HYC) process that reduces the negative effects that the treatment has on fruit quality. However, if hot water-treated fruits are immediately immersed in water at 21 °C, the survival rate of third-instar A. ludens may be increased. The current approved treatment protocol states that if HYC is used, then treated fruit should undergo an additional 10-min HWT or on platform for 30 min before HYC...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073824/a-drosophila-toolkit-for-defining-gene-function-in-spermatogenesis
#11
Nicole A Siddall, Gary R Hime
Expression profiling and genomic sequencing methods enable the accumulation of vast quantities of data that relate to expression of genes during the maturation of male germ cells from primordial germ cells to spermatozoa, and potential mutations that underlie male infertility. However, determination of gene function in specific aspects of spermatogenesis or linking abnormal gene function with infertility remain rate limiting, as even in an era of CRISPR analysis of gene function in mammalian models, this still requires considerable resources and time...
January 10, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070978/testing-for-local-adaptation-and-evolutionary-potential-along-altitudinal-gradients-in-rainforest-drosophila-beyond-laboratory-estimates
#12
Eleanor K O'Brien, Megan Higgie, Alan Reynolds, Ary A Hoffmann, Jon R Bridle
Predicting how species will respond to the rapid climatic changes predicted this century is an urgent task. Species distribution models (SDMs) use the current relationship between environmental variation and species' abundances to predict the effect of future environmental change on their distributions. However, two common assumptions of SDMs are likely to be violated in many cases: (i) that the relationship of environment with abundance or fitness is constant throughout a species' range and will remain so in future and (ii) that abiotic factors (e...
January 10, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070887/diversity-in-the-organization-of-elastin-bundles-and-intramembranous-muscles-in-bat-wings
#13
Jorn A Cheney, Justine J Allen, Sharon M Swartz
Unlike birds and insects, bats fly with wings composed of thin skin that envelops the bones of the forelimb and spans the area between the limbs, digits, and sometimes the tail. This skin is complex and unusual; it is thinner than typical mammalian skin and contains organized bundles of elastin and embedded skeletal muscles. These elements are likely responsible for controlling the shape of the wing during flight and contributing to the aerodynamic capabilities of bats. We examined the arrangement of two macroscopic architectural elements in bat wings, elastin bundles and wing membrane muscles, to assess the diversity in bat wing skin morphology...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070290/cancer-brings-forward-oviposition-in-the-fly-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Audrey Arnal, Camille Jacqueline, Beata Ujvari, Lucas Leger, Céline Moreno, Dominique Faugere, Aurélie Tasiemski, Céline Boidin-Wichlacz, Dorothée Misse, François Renaud, Jacques Montagne, Andreu Casali, Benjamin Roche, Frédéric Mery, Frédéric Thomas
Hosts often accelerate their reproductive effort in response to a parasitic infection, especially when their chances of future reproduction decrease with time from the onset of the infection. Because malignancies usually reduce survival, and hence potentially the fitness, it is expected that hosts with early cancer could have evolved to adjust their life-history traits to maximize their immediate reproductive effort. Despite the potential importance of these plastic responses, little attention has been devoted to explore how cancers influence animal reproduction...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068771/perturbation-approach-for-computing-infrared-spectra-of-the-local-mode-of-probe-molecules
#15
Rui-Jie Xue, Adam Grofe, He Yin, Zexing Qu, Jiali Gao, Hui Li
Linear and two-dimensional infrared (IR) spectroscopy of site-specific probe molecules provides an opportunity to gain a molecular-level understanding of the local hydrogen-bonding network, conformational dynamics, and long-range electrostatic interactions in condensed-phase and biological systems. A challenge in computation is to determine the time-dependent vibrational frequencies that incorporate explicitly both nuclear quantum effects of vibrational motions and an electronic structural representation of the potential energy surface...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068667/breeding-site-sampling-across-the-arctic-by-individual-males-of-a-polygynous-shorebird
#16
Bart Kempenaers, Mihai Valcu
Males of many polygynous species compete for access to fertile females without providing them with resources other than sperm and without investing in care for the offspring (male dominance polygyny). In such systems, local competition for access to females is intense and typically only a few males obtain matings, leading to strong sexual selection. Sampling multiple breeding areas could then provide a mechanism for males to increase their chances to reproduce. However, little is known about such sampling behaviour and about the spatial scale at which males compete...
January 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068574/insect-succession-on-remains-of-human-and-animals-in-shenzhen-china
#17
Yu Wang, Meng-Yun Ma, Xin-Yu Jiang, Jiang-Feng Wang, Liang-Liang Li, Xiao-Jun Yin, Min Wang, Yue Lai, Lu-Yang Tao
Most forensic entomological succession studies have been carried out using pig or rabbit carcasses; however, there have been few studies on the differences between insect succession patterns on human cadavers and on animal carcasses. In order to clarify the differences between decomposition and insect succession patterns of human cadavers and animal carcasses, one 49.5kg human cadaver, two large pig carcasses (45 and 48kg), two small pig carcasses (23 and 25kg) and two rabbit carcasses (both 1.75kg) were placed in the same field conditions in Shenzhen, China for a comparative study on August, 2013...
December 28, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067800/multiple-drosophila-tracking-system-with-heading-direction
#18
Pudith Sirigrivatanawong, Shogo Arai, Vladimiros Thoma, Koichi Hashimoto
Machine vision systems have been widely used for image analysis, especially that which is beyond human ability. In biology, studies of behavior help scientists to understand the relationship between sensory stimuli and animal responses. This typically requires the analysis and quantification of animal locomotion. In our work, we focus on the analysis of the locomotion of the fruit fly D r o s o p h i l a m e l a n o g a s t e r , a widely used model organism in biological research. Our system consists of two components: fly detection and tracking...
January 5, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067623/seizure-control-through-genetic-and-pharmacological-manipulation-of-pumilio-a-key-component-of-neuronal-homeostasis
#19
Wei-Hsiang Lin, Carlo N G Giachello, Richard A Baines
Epilepsy is a significant disorder for which approximately one-third of patients do not respond to drug treatments. Next-generation drugs, which interact with novel targets, are required to provide a better clinical outcome for these individuals. To identify potential novel targets for antiepileptic drug (AED) design, we used RNA sequencing to identify changes in gene transcription in two seizure models of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster The first model compared gene transcription between wildtype (WT) and the bangsenseless(1) (para(bss)) mutant; a gain-of-function in the sole fly voltage-gated sodium channel (paralytic)...
December 14, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067402/ontogenetic-timing-as-a-condition-dependent-life-history-trait-high-condition-males-develop-quickly-peak-early-and-age-fast
#20
Amy K Hooper, Foteini Spagopoulou, Zachariah Wylde, Alexei A Maklakov, Russell Bonduriansky
Within-population variation in ageing remains poorly understood. In males, condition-dependent investment in secondary sexual traits may incur costs which limit ability to invest in somatic maintenance. Moreover, males often express morphological and behavioural secondary sexual traits simultaneously, but the relative effects on ageing of investment in these traits remain unclear. We investigated the condition-dependence of male life history in the neriid fly Telostylinus angusticollis. Using a fully factorial design, we manipulated male early-life condition by varying nutrient content of the larval diet and, subsequently, manipulated opportunity for adult males to interact with rival males...
January 9, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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