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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139377/laboratory-colonization-and-mass-rearing-of-phlebotomine-sand-flies-diptera-psychodidae
#1
Jérôme Depaquit, Bernard Pesson, Denis Augot, James Gordon Campbell Hamilton, Phillip Lawyer, Nicole Léger, Phillip Lawyer, Mireille Killick-Kendrick, Tobin Rowland, Edgar Rowton, Petr Volf
Laboratory colonies of phlebotomine sand flies are necessary for experimental study of their biology, behaviour and mutual relations with disease agents and for testing new methods of vector control. They are indispensable in genetic studies and controlled observations on the physiology and behaviour of sand flies, neglected subjects of high priority. Colonies are of particular value for screening insecticides. Colonized sand flies are used as live vector models in a diverse array of research projects, including xenodiagnosis, that are directed toward control of leishmaniasis and other sand fly-associated diseases...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134091/synthesis-of-zeolites-na-a-and-na-x-from-tablet-compressed-and-calcinated-coal-fly-ash
#2
Tao Hu, Wenyan Gao, Xin Liu, Yifu Zhang, Changgong Meng
Zeolites Na-A and Na-X are important synthetic zeolites widely used for separation and adsorption in industry. It is of great significance to develop energy-efficient routines that can synthesize zeolites Na-A and Na-X from low-cost raw materials. Coal fly ash (CFA) is the major residue from the combustion of coal and biomass containing more than 85% SiO2 and Al2O3, which can readily replace the conventionally used sodium silicate and aluminate for zeolite synthesis. We used Na2CO3 to replace the expensive NaOH used for the calcination of CFA and showed that tablet compression can enhance the contact with Na2CO3 for the activation of CFA through calcination for the synthesis of zeolites Na-A and Na-X under mild conditions...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133829/differential-responses-of-body-growth-to-artificial-warming-between-parasitoids-and-hosts-and-the-consequences-for-plant-seed-damage
#3
Xinqiang Xi, Yangheshan Yang, Xiaocheng Yang, Sören Nylin, Nico Eisenhauer, Shucun Sun
Temperature increase may disrupt trophic interactions by differentially changing body growth of the species involved. In this study, we tested whether the response of body growth to artificial warming (~2.2 °C) of a solitary koinobiont endo-parasitoid wasp (Pteromalus albipennis, Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) differed from its main host tephritid fly (Tephritis femoralis, Diptera: Tephritidae; pre-dispersal seed predator), and whether the plant seed damage caused by wasp-parasitized and unparasitized maggots (larval flies) were altered by warming...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133310/convergent-origination-of-a-drosophila-like-dosage-compensation-mechanism-in-a-reptile-lineage
#4
Ray Marin, Diego Cortez, Francesco Lamanna, Madapura M Pradeepa, Evgeny Leushkin, Philippe Julien, Angélica Liechti, Jean Halbert, Thoomke Brüning, Katharina Mössinger, Timo Trefzer, Christian Conrad, Halie N Kerver, Juli Wade, Patrick Tschopp, Henrik Kaessmann
Sex chromosomes differentiated from different ancestral autosomes in various vertebrate lineages. Here, we trace the functional evolution of the XY Chromosomes of the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis), on the basis of extensive high-throughput genome, transcriptome and histone modification sequencing data and revisit dosage compensation evolution in representative mammals and birds with substantial new expression data. Our analyses show that Anolis sex chromosomes represent an ancient XY system that originated at least ≈160 million years ago in the ancestor of Iguania lizards, shortly after the separation from the snake lineage...
November 13, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132107/removal-of-phosphate-from-water-by-lanthanum-modified-zeolites-obtained-from-fly-ash
#5
Joanna Goscianska, Magdalena Ptaszkowska-Koniarz, Marcin Frankowski, Malgorzata Franus, Rafal Panek, Wojciech Franus
The possibility and effectiveness of removal of phosphate from aqueous solutions with the use of new low-cost synthetic zeolites obtained from fly ash and modified with lanthanum, was studied. Physicochemical properties of the zeolites were characterized by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction, low-temperature nitrogen sorption and scanning electron microscopy. It has been established that lanthanum is preferentially located in the zeolites channels and cages, which is related to the ion-exchange method of modification...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132083/fly-ash-classification-efficiency-of-electrostatic-precipitators-in-fluidized-bed-combustion-of-peat-wood-and-forest-residues
#6
Katja Ohenoja, Mika Körkkö, Valter Wigren, Jan Österbacka, Mirja Illikainen
The increasing use of biomasses in the production of electricity and heat results in an increased amount of burning residue, fly ash which disposal is becoming more and more restricted and expensive. Therefore, there is a great interest in utilizing fly ashes instead of just disposing of it. This study aimed to establish whether the utilization of fly ash from the fluidized bed combustion of peat, wood, and forest residues can be improved by electrostatic precipitator separation of sulfate, chloride, and some detrimental metals...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130360/autophagy-and-innate-immunity-insights-from-invertebrate-model-organisms
#7
Cheng-Ju Kuo, Malene Hansen, Emily Troemel
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a fundamental intracellular degradation process with multiple roles in immunity, including direct elimination of intracellular microorganisms via 'xenophagy.' In this review, we summarize studies from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans that highlight the roles of autophagy in innate immune responses to viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens. Research from these genetically tractable invertebrates has uncovered several conserved immunological paradigms, such as direct targeting of intracellular pathogens by xenophagy and regulation of autophagy by pattern recognition receptors in D...
November 13, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130209/live-imaging-of-mrna-synthesis-in-drosophila
#8
Hernan G Garcia, Thomas Gregor
mRNA synthesis is one of the earliest readouts of the activity of a transcribed gene, which is of particular interest in the context of metazoan cell fate specification. These processes are intrinsically dynamic and stochastic, which makes in vivo single-cell measurements inevitable. Here, we present the application of a technology that has been widely used in single celled organisms to measure transcriptional activity in developing embryos of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The method allows for quantification of instantaneous polymerase occupancy of active gene loci and thereby enables the development and testing of models of gene regulation in development...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130194/single-mrna-molecule-detection-in-drosophila
#9
Shawn C Little, Thomas Gregor
Single molecule fluorescent in situ hybridization (smFISH) enables quantitative measurements of gene expression and mRNA localization. The technique is increasingly popular for analysis of cultured cells but is not widely applied to intact organisms. Here, we describe a method for labeling and detection of single mRNA molecules in whole embryos of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. This method permits measurements of gene expression in absolute units, enabling new studies of transcriptional mechanisms underlying precision and reproducibility in cell specification...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129633/sequence-and-structure-insights-of-kazal-type-thrombin-inhibitor-protein-studied-with-phylogeny-homology-modeling-and-dynamic-mm-gbsa-studies
#10
Aparna Jadhav, RadhaCharan Dash, Raj Hirwani, Malik Abdin
Despite the wide medical importance of serine protease inhibitors, many of kazal type proteins are still to be explored. These thrombin inhibiting proteins are found in the digestive system of hematophagous organisms mainly Arthropods. We studied one of such protein i.e. Kazal type-1 protein from sand-fly Phlebotomus papatasi as its structure and interaction with thrombin is unclear. Initially, Dipetalin a kazal-follistasin domain protein was run through PSI-BLAST to retrieve related sequences. Using this set of sequence a phylogenetic tree was constructed, which identified a distantly related kazal type-1 protein...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129529/profilin-directly-promotes-microtubule-growth-through-residues-mutated-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#11
Jessica L Henty-Ridilla, M Angeles Juanes, Bruce L Goode
Profilin is an abundant actin monomer-binding protein with critical actin regulatory roles in vivo [1, 2]. However, profilin also influences microtubule dynamics in cells, which may be mediated in part through its interactions with formins that in turn bind microtubules [3, 4]. Specific residues on human profilin-1 (PFN1) are mutated in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) [5, 6]. However, the observation that some ALS-linked PFN1 mutants fail to alter cellular actin organization or dynamics [5-8] or in vitro actin-monomer affinity [9] has been perplexing, given that profilin is best understood as an actin regulator...
November 1, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128849/genetic-strategies-to-tackle-neurological-diseases-in-fruit-flies
#12
REVIEW
Mümine Şentürk, Hugo J Bellen
Drosophila melanogaster is a genetic model organism that has contributed to the discovery of numerous genes whose human homologues are associated with diseases. The development of sophisticated genetic tools to manipulate its genome accelerates the discovery of the genetic basis of undiagnosed human diseases and the elucidation of molecular pathogenic events of known and novel diseases. Here, we discuss various approaches used in flies to assess the function of the fly homologues of disease-associated genes...
November 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128728/novel-synthesis-of-cyano-functionalized-mesoporous-silica-nanospheres-msn-from-coal-fly-ash-for-removal-of-toxic-metals-from-wastewater
#13
Bangda Wang, Yuexi Zhou, Lei Li, Hui Xu, Yinglong Sun, Yi Wang
Trace amounts of toxic metals are usually difficult to be purified by conventional chemical precipitation or physical adsorption in wastewater. In this study, in order to realize high-value utilization of coal fly ash for wastewater purification, a novel method was applied to prepare high-performance mesoporous silica materials from coal fly ash. In comparison with a commonly used method, characterizations revealed that the new method obtained mesoporous silica nanospheres with uniformly distributed cyano groups (denoted by MSN), while the common method only obtained irregular sponge-like microstructure (denoted by ISM)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127664/larvalign-aligning-gene-expression-patterns-from-the-larval-brain-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Sascha E A Muenzing, Martin Strauch, James W Truman, Katja Bühler, Andreas S Thum, Dorit Merhof
The larval brain of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a small, tractable model system for neuroscience. Genes for fluorescent marker proteins can be expressed in defined, spatially restricted neuron populations. Here, we introduce the methods for 1) generating a standard template of the larval central nervous system (CNS), 2) spatial mapping of expression patterns from different larvae into a reference space defined by the standard template. We provide a manually annotated gold standard that serves for evaluation of the registration framework involved in template generation and mapping...
November 10, 2017: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127313/current-source-density-mapping-of-antennal-sensory-selectivity-reveals-conserved-olfactory-systems-between-tephritids-and-drosophila
#15
Vincent Jacob, Francesca Scolari, Hélène Delatte, Giuliano Gasperi, Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly, Anna R Malacrida, Pierre-François Duyck
Ecological specialization of insects involves the functional and morphological reshaping of olfactory systems. Little is known about the degree to which insect sensitivity to odorant compounds is conserved between genera, tribes, or families. Here we compared the olfactory systems of six tephritid fruit fly species spanning two tribes and the distantly related Drosophila melanogaster at molecular, functional, and morphological levels. Olfaction in these flies is mediated by a set of olfactory receptors (ORs) expressed in different functional classes of neurons located in distinct antennal regions...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126934/neuropsychological-functioning-in-military-pesticide-applicators-from-the-gulf-war-effects-on-information-processing-speed-attention-and-visual-memory
#16
Kimberly Sullivan, Maxine Krengel, William Bradford, Callie Stone, Terri Ann Thompson, Timothy Heeren, Roberta F White
1991 Gulf War (GW) veterans continue to experience debilitating cognitive and mood problems more than two decades following their return from deployment. Suspected causes for these cognitive complaints include additive and/or synergistic effects of the varying combinations of exposures to chemicals in theater, including pesticides and pyridostigmine bromide (PB) pills. This study was undertaken to address one of the key recommendations of the US Department of Defense Environmental Exposure Report on Pesticides, which was to conduct an epidemiological study to further evaluate the role of neurotoxicant exposures in the expression of central nervous system symptoms reported by GW veterans...
November 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126820/blend-design-tools-for-medium-combustion-plants-mcp-firing-biomass-wastes
#17
I Ibarra, G Aragón, I Gómez, I Múgica, J González, J Rodríguez Maroto, E Rojas, D Sanz, R Ramos, R Escalada, E Borjabad, C Gutiérrez-Canas
A feasible alternative for agricultural or forestry waste management is the operation of a distributed network of sustainable Medium Combustion Plants (MCPs). However, one of the main factors that hinder its development is the propensity to operational problems derived from corrosion, slagging and fouling characteristics of both bottom and fly ashes. Therefore, a cost-effective approach for these multi-product MCP could be based on predictive tools for an optimal formulation of a fuel blend. This work focuses on the assessment of the ability of these methods to provide guidance for preventing ash-related operational problems and to provide fuel-blending rules...
November 7, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124547/online-reduction-of-artifacts-in-eeg-of-simultaneous-eeg-fmri-using-reference-layer-adaptive-filtering-rlaf
#18
David Steyrl, Gunther Krausz, Karl Koschutnig, Günter Edlinger, Gernot R Müller-Putz
Simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allow us to study the active human brain from two perspectives concurrently. Signal processing based artifact reduction techniques are mandatory for this, however, to obtain reasonable EEG quality in simultaneous EEG-fMRI. Current artifact reduction techniques like average artifact subtraction (AAS), typically become less effective when artifact reduction has to be performed on-the-fly. We thus present and evaluate a new technique to improve EEG quality online...
November 9, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123673/cryo-em-reconstruction-of-the-chlororibosome-to-3-2%C3%A2-%C3%A3-resolution-within-24%C3%A2-h
#19
Björn O Forsberg, Shintaro Aibara, Dari Kimanius, Bijoya Paul, Erik Lindahl, Alexey Amunts
The introduction of direct detectors and the automation of data collection in cryo-EM have led to a surge in data, creating new opportunities for advancing computational processing. In particular, on-the-fly workflows that connect data collection with three-dimensional reconstruction would be valuable for more efficient use of cryo-EM and its application as a sample-screening tool. Here, accelerated on-the-fly analysis is reported with optimized organization of the data-processing tools, image acquisition and particle alignment that make it possible to reconstruct the three-dimensional density of the 70S chlororibosome to 3...
November 1, 2017: IUCrJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123201/insecticidal-effects-of-dsrna-targeting-the-diap1-gene-in-dipteran-pests
#20
Michelle Powell, Prashant Pyati, Min Cao, Howard Bell, John A Gatehouse, Elaine Fitches
The Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) gene Diap1 encodes a protein referred to as DIAP1 (D rosophila Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein 1) that acts to supress apoptosis in "normal" cells in the fly. In this study we investigate the use of RNA interference (RNAi) to control two dipteran pests, Musca domestica and Delia radicum, by disrupting the control of apoptosis. Larval injections of 125-500 ng of Diap1 dsRNA resulted in dose-dependent mortality which was shown to be attributable to down-regulation of target mRNA...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
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