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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945006/microrna-let-7-targets-the-ecdysone-signaling-pathway-e75-gene-to-control-larval-pupal-development-in-bactrocera-dorsalis
#1
Wei Peng, Wei-Wei Zheng, Kaleem Tariq, Shu-Ning Yu, Hong-Yu Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate various biological processes during insect development; however, their role in larval-pupal development in oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) remains unknown. In current study, we address the biological function of a conserved miRNA, Bdo-Let-7 in the regulation of BdE75 gene, which belongs to ecdysone signaling pathway and participates in the larval-pupal development in B. dorsalis. Using dual luciferase reporter assay in HEK293T cells we show that Bdo-Let-7 miRNA interacts with the 3' UTR of BdE75 gene and suppresses its expression...
September 25, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944746/using-two-sex-life-tables-to-determine-fitness-parameters-of-four-bactrocera-species-diptera-tephritidae-reared-on-a-semi-artificial-diet
#2
W Jaleel, J Yin, D Wang, Y He, L Lu, H Shi
Fruit flies in the genus Bactrocera are global, economically important pests of agricultural food crops. However, basic life history information about these pests, which is vital for designing more effective control methods, is currently lacking. Artificial diets can be used as a suitable replacement for natural host plants for rearing fruit flies under laboratory conditions, and this study reports on the two-sex life-table parameters of four Bactrocera species (Bactrocera correcta, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and Bactrocera tau) reared on a semi-artificial diet comprising corn flour, banana, sodium benzoate, yeast, sucrose, winding paper, hydrochloric acid and water...
September 25, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942770/the-battle-against-flystrike-past-research-and-new-prospects-through-genomics
#3
Clare A Anstead, Trent Perry, Stephen Richards, Pasi K Korhonen, Neil D Young, Vernon M Bowles, Philip Batterham, Robin B Gasser
Flystrike, or cutaneous myiasis, is caused by blow fly larvae of the genus Lucilia. This disease is a major problem in countries with large sheep populations. In Australia, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann, 1830) is the principal fly involved in flystrike. While much research has been conducted on L. cuprina, including physical, chemical, immunological, genetic and biological investigations, the molecular biology of this fly is still poorly understood. The recent sequencing, assembly and annotation of the draft genome and analyses of selected transcriptomes of L...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942377/quantifying-pteridines-in-the-heads-of-blow-flies-diptera-calliphoridae-application-for-forensic-entomology
#4
J A Cammack, M H Reiskind, L M Guisewite, S S Denning, D W Watson
In forensic cases involving entomological evidence, establishing the postcolonization interval (post-CI) is a critical component of the investigation. Traditional methods of estimating the post-CI rely on estimating the age of immature blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) collected from remains. However, in cases of delayed discovery (e.g., when remains are located indoors), these insects may have completed their development and be present in the environment as adults. Adult fly collections are often ignored in cases of advanced decomposition because of a presumed little relevance to the investigation; herein we present information on how these insects can be of value...
September 12, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941840/thallium-isotopes-in-metallurgical-wastes-contaminated-soils-a-novel-tool-to-trace-metal-source-and-behavior
#5
Aleš Vaněk, Zuzana Grösslová, Martin Mihaljevič, Vojtěch Ettler, Jakub Trubač, Vladislav Chrastný, Vít Penížek, Leslaw Teper, Jerzy Cabala, Andreas Voegelin, Tereza Zádorová, Vendula Oborná, Ondřej Drábek, Ondřej Holubík, Jakub Houška, Lenka Pavlů, Christopher Ash
Thallium (Tl) concentration and isotope data have been recorded for contaminated soils and a set of industrial wastes that were produced within different stages of Zn ore mining and metallurgical processing of Zn-rich materials. Despite large differences in Tl levels of the waste materials (1-500mgkg(-1)), generally small changes in ε(205)Tl values have been observed. However, isotopically lighter Tl was recorded in fly ash (ε(205)Tl∼-4.1) than in slag (ε(205)Tl∼-3.3), implying partial isotope fractionation during material processing...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941794/evading-plant-defence-infestation-of-poisonous-milkweed-fruits-asclepiadaceae-by-the-fruit-fly-dacus-siliqualactis-diptera-tephritidae
#6
Michael Schneider, Cora Wunder, Esther Reuss, Stefan W Toennes, Dietrich Mebs
To cope with toxic metabolites plants use for defence, herbivorous insects employ various adaptive strategies. For oviposition, the fruit fly Dacus siliqualactis (Tephritidae) uses milkweed plants of the genus Gomphocarpus (Asclepiadaceae) by circumventing the plant's physical (gluey latex) and chemical (toxic cadenolides) defence. With its long, telescope-like ovipositor, the fly penetrates the exo- and endocarp of the fruit and places the eggs on the unripe seeds located in the centre of the fruit. Whereas most plant parts contain high concentrations of cardenolides such as gomphoside, calotropin/calacatin and gomphogenin, only the seeds exhibit low cardenolide levels...
September 20, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941730/insights-into-the-epidemiological-link-between-biting-flies-and-pemphigus-foliaceus-in-southeastern-brazil
#7
S Vernal, M Pepinelli, C Casanova, T Goulart, O Kim, N De Paula, M Pinto, A Sá-Nunes, A M Roselino
BACKGROUND: Black fly and sandfly bites are related to the endemicity of pemphigus foliaceus (PF); however, an immune reaction against the salivary proteins from these flies still requires determination in the case of PF patients living in southeastern Brazil. PURPOSE: To georeference the distribution of Simuliidae (Diptera: Simuliidae) and Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) and of PF cases in the northeastern region of São Paulo State, and to assess the humoral immune response against salivary gland extracts (SGEs) from biting flies in PF patients, relatives, and neighbours...
September 20, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941310/tyrosine-hydroxylase-coordinates-larval-pupal-tanning-and-immunity-in-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis
#8
Er-Hu Chen, Qiu-Li Hou, Dan-Dan Wei, Wei Dou, Zhao Liu, Pei-Jin Yang, Guy Smagghe, Jin-Jun Wang
BACKGROUND: The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a notorious world pest infesting fruit and vegetable, which has evolved high level of resistance to many commonly used insecticides. In this study, we investigated whether tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) that is required for cuticle tanning (sclerotization and pigmentation) in many insects, could be a potential target in controlling B. dorsalis. RESULTS: We cloned TH cDNA (BdTH) of B. dorsalis, and the complete open reading frame of BdTH (KY911196) was 1737 bp in length, encoding a protein of 578 amino acids...
September 23, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939605/a-distinctive-and-host-restricted-gut-microbiota-in-populations-of-a-cactophilic-drosophila-species
#9
Vincent G Martinson, Javier Carpinteyro-Ponce, Nancy A Moran, Therese A Markow
Almost all animals possess microbial gut communities, but the nature of these communities varies immensely. For example, in social bees and mammals, composition is relatively constant within species and dominated by specialist bacteria that do not live elsewhere; whereas, in laboratory studies and field surveys of Drosophila melanogaster, gut communities consist of bacteria that are ingested with food and that vary widely among individuals and localities. We addressed whether an ecological specialist in its natural habitat has a microbiota dominated by gut specialists or by environmental bacteria...
September 22, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939497/molecular-typing-and-phylogeny-of-wolbachia-a-study-from-assam-north-eastern-part-of-india
#10
Monika Soni, Chandrakanta Bhattacharya, Jitendra Sharma, Siraj Ahmed Khan, Prafulla Dutta
BACKGROUND: Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbiotic alphaproteobacteria, infecting 40-75% of arthropod species. Knowledge on distribution of native strains infecting mosquito vectors from endemic regions is essential for successful implementation of vector control interventions utilizing potential strains of Wolbachia. Study identified various native strains of Wolbachia inhabiting different mosquito species from field and colonised conditions of Assam. The fly Drosophila melanogaster was also included in our study...
September 19, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939496/morphology-of-immature-stages-of-blow-fly-lucilia-sinensis-aubertin-diptera-calliphoridae-a-potential-species-of-forensic-importance
#11
Sangob Sanit, Kom Sukontason, Hiromu Kurahashi, Jeffery K Tomberlin, Anchalee Wannasan, Rungroj Kraisittipanit, Kabkaew L Sukontason
Lucilia sinensis Aubertin (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a blow fly species of potential forensic importance since adults are attracted to, and colonize, decomposing vertebrate remains. Blow fly larvae associated with human corpses can be useful evidence in forensic investigations; however, their use is dependent in most cases on proper species identification and availability of developmental data. For identification, morphological information on each life stage is traditionally used. We used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine the ultrastructure of eggs, all instars, and puparia, of L...
September 19, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938825/on-the-applicability-of-a-wavefunction-free-energy-based-procedure-for-generating-first-order-non-adiabatic-couplings-around-conical-intersections
#12
Benjamin Gonon, Aurelie Perveaux, Fabien Gatti, David Lauvergnat, Benjamin Lasorne
The primal definition of first-order non-adiabatic couplings among electronic states relies on the knowledge of how electronic wavefunctions vary with nuclear coordinates. However, the non-adiabatic coupling between two electronic states can be obtained in the vicinity of a conical intersection from energies only, as this vector spans the branching plane along which degeneracy is lifted to first order. The gradient difference and derivative coupling are responsible of the two-dimensional cusp of a conical intersection between both potential-energy surfaces and can be identified to the non-trivial eigenvectors of the second derivative of the square energy difference, as first pointed out in Köppel and Schubert [Mol...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938171/behavior-of-radioactive-cesium-during-incineration-of-radioactively-contaminated-wastes-from-decontamination-activities-in-fukushima
#13
Hiroshi Fujiwara, Hidetoshi Kuramochi, Kazutaka Nomura, Tomoharu Maeseto, Masahiro Osako
Large volumes of decontamination wastes (DW) generated by off-site decontamination activities in Fukushima Prefecture have been incinerated since 2015. The behavior of radioactive cesium during incineration of DW was investigated at a working incineration plant. The incineration discharged bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) with similar levels of radiocesium, and the leachability of the radiocesium from both types of ash was very low (<1%). These results are significantly different from those obtained for the incineration of contaminated municipal solid waste (CMSW) reported in earlier studies...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938081/sleep-in-insects
#14
Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Sleep is essential for proper brain function in mammals and insects. During sleep, animals are disconnected from the external world; they show high arousal thresholds and changed brain activity. Sleep deprivation results in a sleep rebound. Research using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has helped us understand the genetic and neuronal control of sleep. Genes involved in sleep control code for ion channels, factors influencing neurotransmission and neuromodulation, and proteins involved in the circadian clock...
September 22, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935374/solidification-stabilization-of-asr-fly-ash-using-thiomer-material-optimization-of-compressive-strength-and-heavy-metals-leaching
#15
Jin Woong Baek, Angelo Earvin Sy Choi, Hung Suck Park
Optimization studies of a novel and eco-friendly construction material, Thiomer, was investigated in the solidification/stabilization of automobile shredded residue (ASR) fly ash. A D-optimal mixture design was used to evaluate and optimize maximum compressive strength and heavy metals leaching by varying Thiomer (20-40wt%), ASR fly ash (30-50wt%) and sand (20-40wt%). The analysis of variance was utilized to determine the level of significance of each process parameters and interactions. The microstructure of the solidified materials was taken from a field emission-scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy that confirmed successful Thiomer solidified ASR fly ash due to reduced pores and gaps in comparison with an untreated ASR fly ash...
September 18, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934445/letter-air-travel-after-brain-surgery-does-it-really-matter-when-to-fly
#16
Chandramouli Balasubramanian, Chandrasekaran Kaliaperumal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932909/fipronil-1-pour-on-further-studies-of-its-effects-against-lab-reared-glossina-palpalis-gambiensis
#17
B Sawadogo, J B Rayaisse, H Adakal, A T Kabre, B Bauer
In order to assess the residual effects of fipronil 1% on tsetse fly survival, male Glossina palpalis gambiensis were released on non-treated and treated cattle, with 0.1 ml of fipronil/kg b.w. as a pour-on formulation. In a second trial, the female fecundity performances were evaluated by feeding teneral females on the same cattle. These females were then mated and their production parameters monitored, as well as the survival of freshly emerged flies. Fipronil had a significant effect on tsetse fly survival (p < 0...
September 21, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932814/the-gut-commensal-microbiome-of-drosophila-melanogaster-is-modified-by-the-endosymbiont-wolbachia
#18
Rama K Simhadri, Eva M Fast, Rong Guo, Michaela J Schultz, Natalie Vaisman, Luis Ortiz, Joanna Bybee, Barton E Slatko, Horacio M Frydman
Endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria and the gut microbiome have independently been shown to affect several aspects of insect biology, including reproduction, development, life span, stem cell activity, and resistance to human pathogens, in insect vectors. This work shows that Wolbachia bacteria, which reside mainly in the fly germline, affect the microbial species present in the fly gut in a lab-reared strain. Drosophila melanogaster hosts two main genera of commensal bacteria-Acetobacter and Lactobacillus. Wolbachia-infected flies have significantly reduced titers of Acetobacter...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931572/drosophila-neprilysin-1-rescues-memory-deficits-caused-by-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide
#19
Oriane Turrel, Valérie Goguel, Thomas Preat
Neprilysins are type-II metalloproteinases known to degrade and inactivate a number of small peptides, in particular the mammalian amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). In Drosophila, several neprilysins expressed in the brain are required for middle-term (MTM) and long-term memory (LTM) in the dorsal paired medial (DPM) neurons, a pair of large neurons that broadly innervate the mushroom bodies (MB), the center of olfactory memory. These data indicate that one or several peptides need to be degraded for MTM and LTM. We have previously shown that the fly amyloid precursor protein (APPL) is required for memory in the MB...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931001/an-automated-rapid-iterative-negative-geotaxis-assay-for-analyzing-adult-climbing-behavior-in-a-drosophila-model-of-neurodegeneration
#20
Wenze Cao, Li Song, Jingjing Cheng, Na Yi, Luyi Cai, Fu-de Huang, Margaret Ho
Neurodegenerative diseases are frequently associated with a progressive loss of movement ability, reduced life span, and age-dependent neurodegeneration. To understand the mechanism of these cellular events, and their causal relationships with each other, Drosophila melanogaster, with its sophisticated genetic tools and diverse behavioral features, are used as disease models for assessing neurodegenerative phenotypes. Here we describe a high-throughput method to analyze Drosophila adult negative geotaxis behavior, as an indication for possible motor defects associated with neurodegeneration...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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