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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634860/molecular-chaperone-hsp70-and-its-constitutively-active-form-hsc70-play-an-indispensable-role-during-eye-development-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
Ajay Kumar, Anand K Tiwari
In the present study, we demonstrate that molecular chaperone Hsp70 and Hsc70 is essential for normal organization and development of ommatidial cells in Drosophila melanogaster eye. An exogenously expressed dominant negative mutant of Hsp70 (K71E) and Hsc70.4 (K71S and D206S) in an eye-specific manner resulted in eye degeneration that includes loss of eye pigment, disorganized ommatidia, abnormality in bristle cell arrangement and reduction in the eye size. The developmental organization of ommatidial cells (cone, photoreceptor, pigment, and bristle cell complex) was disturbed in Hsp70 and Hsc70 mutants...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634244/simple-expression-domains-are-regulated-by-discrete-crms-during-drosophila-oogenesis
#2
Nicole T Revaitis, Robert A Marmion, Maira Farhat, Vesile Ekiz, Wei Wang, Nir Yakoby
Eggshell patterning has been extensively studied in Drosophila melanogaster However, the cis-regulatory modules (CRMs), which control spatiotemporal expression of these patterns, are vastly unexplored. The FlyLight collection contains over 7,000 intergenic and intronic DNA fragments that, if containing CRMs, can drive the transcription factor GAL4. We cross-listed the 84 genes known to be expressed during D. melanogaster oogenesis with the ~1200 listed genes of the FlyLight collection, and found 22 common genes that are represented by 281 FlyLight fly lines...
June 20, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633893/genes-encoding-cuticular-proteins-are-components-of-the-nimrod-gene-cluster-in-drosophila
#3
Gyöngyi Cinege, János Zsámboki, Maite Vidal-Quadras, Anne Uv, Gábor Csordás, Viktor Honti, Erika Gábor, Zoltán Hegedűs, Gergely I B Varga, Attila L Kovács, Gábor Juhász, Michael J Williams, István Andó, Éva Kurucz
The Nimrod gene cluster, located on the second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, is the largest synthenic unit of the Drosophila genome. Nimrod genes show blood cell specific expression and code for phagocytosis receptors that play a major role in fruit fly innate immune functions. We previously identified three homologous genes (vajk-1, vajk-2 and vajk-3) located within the Nimrod cluster, which are unrelated to the Nimrod genes, but are homologous to a fourth gene (vajk-4) located outside the cluster...
June 17, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633068/multi-electrode-system-for-measurement-of-transmembrane-ion-fluxes-through-living-epithelial-cells
#4
Mirosław Zając, Andrzej Lewenstam, Krzysztof Dolowy
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most common fatal human genetic disease. It is caused by the defect in a single anion channel protein which affects ion and water transport across the epithelial tissue. A flat multi-electrode platform of diameter 12mm, allowing for measurement of four ions: sodium, potassium, hydrogen and chloride by exchangeable/replaceable ion-selective electrodes is described. The measurement is possible owing to the architecture of the platform which accommodates all the electrodes and inlets/outlets...
June 13, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629171/cutaneous-manifestations-of-human-and-murine-leishmaniasis
#5
REVIEW
Breanna M Scorza, Edgar M Carvalho, Mary E Wilson
The leishmaniases are diseases caused by pathogenic protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Infections are initiated when a sand fly vector inoculates Leishmania parasites into the skin of a mammalian host. Leishmania causes a spectrum of inflammatory cutaneous disease manifestations. The type of cutaneous pathology is determined in part by the infecting Leishmania species, but also by a combination of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory host immune response factors resulting in different clinical outcomes...
June 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628627/the-current-status-of-phlebotomine-sand-flies-in-albania-and-incrimination-of-phlebotomus-neglectus-diptera-psychodidae-as-the-main-vector-of-leishmania-infantum
#6
Enkelejda Velo, Gioia Bongiorno, Perparim Kadriaj, Teita Myrseli, James Crilly, Aldin Lika, Kujtim Mersini, Trentina Di Muccio, Silvia Bino, Marina Gramiccia, Luigi Gradoni, Michele Maroli
The incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Albania is higher than in other countries of southern Europe, however the role of local sand fly species in the transmission of Leishmania infantum was not addressed conclusively. In 2006, a country-wide collection of sand flies performed in 14 sites selected based on recent occurrence of VL cases showed that Phlebotomus neglectus was by far the most prevalent species (95.6%). Furthermore, 15% of pools made from 422 P. neglectus females tested positive for Leishmania sp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626612/postmortem-succession-of-gut-microbial-communities-in-deceased-human%C3%A2-subjects
#7
Jennifer M DeBruyn, Kathleen A Hauther
The human microbiome has demonstrated an importance for the health and functioning in living individuals. However, the fate of the microbiome after death is less understood. In addition to a better understanding of microbe-mediated decomposition processes, postmortem succession of human-associated microbial communities has been suggested as a possible forensic tool for estimating time since death, or postmortem interval (PMI). The objective of our study was to document postmortem changes in human gut bacterial communities...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626451/dependency-of-b-1-cells-in-the-maintenance-of-splenic-interleukin-10-producing-cells-and-impairment-of-macrophage-resistance-in-visceral-leishmaniasis
#8
Angélica Fernandes Arcanjo, Dirlei Nico, Gabriellen Menezes Migliani de Castro, Yasmin da Silva Fontes, Paula Saltarelli, Debora Decote-Ricardo, Marise P Nunes, Antônio Ferreira-Pereira, Clarisa B Palatnik-de-Sousa, Célio G Freire-de-Lima, Alexandre Morrot
Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected disease caused by Leishmania protozoa parasites transmitted by infected sand fly vectors. This disease represents the second in mortality among tropical infections and is associated to a profound immunosuppression state of the host. The hallmark of this infection-induced host immunodeviation is the characteristic high levels of the regulatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) cytokine. In the present study, we investigated the role of B-1 cells in the maintenance of splenic IL-10 levels that could interfere with resistance to parasite infection...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625783/probabilistic-invasion-underlies-natural-gut-microbiome-stability
#9
Benjamin Obadia, Z T Güvener, Vivian Zhang, Javier A Ceja-Navarro, Eoin L Brodie, William W Ja, William B Ludington
Species compositions of gut microbiomes impact host health [1-3], but the processes determining these compositions are largely unknown. An unexplained observation is that gut species composition varies widely between individuals but is largely stable over time within individuals [4, 5]. Stochastic factors during establishment may drive these alternative stable states (colonized versus non-colonized) [6, 7], which can influence susceptibility to pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. Here we sought to quantify and model the dose response, dynamics, and stability of bacterial colonization in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) gut...
June 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625191/attraction-and-consumption-of-methyl-eugenol-by-male-bactrocera-umbrosa-fabricius-diptera-tephritidae-promotes-conspecific-sexual-communication-and-mating-performance
#10
S L Wee, M Z Abdul Munir, A K W Hee
The Artocarpus fruit fly, Bactrocera umbrosa (Fabricius) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an oligophagous fruit pest infesting Moraceae fruits, including jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamarck), a fruit commodity of high value in Malaysia. The scarcity of fundamental biological, physiological and ecological information on this pest, particularly in relation to behavioural response to phytochemical lures, which are instrumental to the success of many area-wide fruit fly control and management programmes, underpins the need for studies on this much-underrated pest...
June 19, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624908/development-and-validation-of-kasp-markers-for-the-greenbug-resistance-gene-gb7-and-the-hessian-fly-resistance-gene-h32-in-wheat
#11
Chor-Tee Tan, Hangjin Yu, Yan Yang, Xiangyang Xu, Mingshun Chen, Jackie C Rudd, Qingwu Xue, Amir M H Ibrahim, Lisa Garza, Shichen Wang, Mark E Sorrells, Shuyu Liu
Greenbug and Hessian fly are important pests that decrease wheat production worldwide. We developed and validated breeder-friendly KASP markers for marker-assisted breeding to increase selection efficiency. Greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) and Hessian fly [Mayetiola destructor (Say)] are two major destructive insect pests of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) throughout wheat production regions in the USA and worldwide. Greenbug and Hessian fly infestation can significantly reduce grain yield and quality. Breeding for resistance to these two pests using marker-assisted selection (MAS) is the most economical strategy to minimize losses...
June 17, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624601/the-manchester-fly-facility-implementing-an-objective-driven-long-term-science-communication-initiative
#12
REVIEW
Sanjai Patel, Andreas Prokop
Science communication is increasingly important for scientists, although research, teaching and administration activities tend to eat up our time already, and budgets for science communication are usually low. It appears impossible to combine all these tasks and, in addition, to develop engagement activities to a quality and impact that would make the efforts worth their while. Here we argue that these challenges are easier addressed when centering science communication initiatives on a long-term vision with a view to eventually forming outreach networks where the load can be shared whilst being driven to higher momentum...
June 15, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623544/clinical-feature-and-waveform-in-infantile-nystagmus-syndrome-in-children-with-frmd7-gene-mutations
#13
Dayong Bai, Wei Shi, Zhan Qi, Wei Li, Aihua Wei, Yanhui Cui, Cheng Li, Li Li
Infant nystagmus sydrome presents as involuntary eye movement disorder and can affect seriously ocular function. We performed a retrospective study of clinical data and FRMD7 genetic test results in 12 cases of infantile nystagmus syndrome to correlate waveform, stereopsis, and visual acuity. The patients (age 6.40±2.67 years) had FRMD7 mutations as follows: missense in eight cases, shear in two cases, frameshift in one case, and non-frameshift in one case. Horizontal jerk waveform was observed in six cases, versus horizontal pendulum in five cases and dual jerk in one case...
June 14, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623310/one-pot-synthesis-of-geas-ultrafine-particles-from-coal-fly-ash-by-vacuum-dynamic-flash-reduction-and-inert-gas-condensation
#14
Lingen Zhang, Zhenming Xu
Ge-monopnictides (GeAs) plays critical role in high-tech industry, especially in the field of advanced optical devices and infrared. As a secondary material, coal fly ash could be further recycled to retrieve germanium and prepare GeAs material with high added values. Hence, the aim of this paper is to propose a one-pot synthesis that uses vacuum flash reduction and inert-gas consolidation method to prepare GeAs ultrafine particles. Germanium in coal fly ash can be successfully recycled; simultaneously, GeAs ultrafine particles were prepared...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623239/-ccug-n-rna-toxicity-in-a-drosophila-model-for-myotonic-dystrophy-type-2-dm2-activates-apoptosis
#15
Vildan Betul Yenigun, Mario Sirito, Alla Amcheslavky, Tomek Czernuszewicz, Jordi Colonques-Bellmunt, Irma García-Alcover, Marzena Wojciechowska, Clare Bolduc, Zhihong Chen, Arturo López Castel, Ralf Krahe, Andreas Bergmann
The myotonic dystrophies are prototypic toxic RNA gain-of-function diseases. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2) are caused by different unstable, noncoding microsatellite repeat expansions -- (CTG)DM1 in DMPK and (CCTG)DM2 in CNBP Although transcription of mutant repeats into (CUG)DM1 or (CCUG)DM2 appears to be necessary and sufficient to cause disease, their pathomechanisms remain incompletely understood. To study the mechanisms of (CCUG)DM2 toxicity and develop a convenient model for drug screening, we generated a transgenic DM2 model in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster with (CCUG)n repeats of variable length (n=16 and 106)...
June 16, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623148/male-sexual-enhancement-after-methoprene-treatment-in-anastrepha-fraterculus-diptera-tephritidae-a-sustained-response-that-does-not-fade-away-after-sexual-maturation
#16
G E Bachmann, F Devescovi, A L Nussenbaum, J L Cladera, P C Fernández, M T Vera, P E A Teal, D F Segura
The juvenile hormone (JH) of insects triggers physiological changes related to reproduction in adults of both sexes. Methoprene is a sesquiterpene with some effects that are analogous to those of JH. Treatments with methoprene accelerate sexual maturation in males of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus, giving young males a mating advantage over non-treated males of the same age. Here, we evaluated the effects of methoprene treatment on A. fraterculus males after the sexual maturation phase and tested whether this compound provides a long-term mating advantage...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622542/on-the-mechanism-of-non-radiative-decay-of-blue-fluorescent-protein-chromophore-new-insight-from-the-excited-state-molecular-dynamics-simulations-and-potential-energy-calculations
#17
Li Zhao, Jian-Yong Liu, Pan-Wang Zhou
A detailed theoretical investigation based on the ab initio on-the-fly surface hopping dynamics simulations and potential energy surfaces calculations has been performed to unveil the mechanism of the photoinduced non-adiabatic relaxation process of the isolated blue fluorescent protein (BFP) chromophore in gas phase. The data analysis presents that the dominant reaction coordinate of the BFP chromophore is driven by a rotation motion around the CC double bridging bond, which is in remarkable difference with a previous result which supports a Hula-Twist rotation pattern...
June 6, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622389/-foraging-for-a-place-to-lay-eggs-a-genetic-link-between-foraging-behaviour-and-oviposition-preferences
#18
Murray W McConnell, Mark J Fitzpatrick
Gravid female arthropods in search of egg-laying substrates embark on foraging-like forays: they survey the environment assessing multiple patches, tasting each with their tarsi and proboscis, and then, if interested, they deposit an egg (or eggs). In fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, allelic variation in the foraging gene (for) underlies the rover/sitter foraging behaviour polymorphism. Rover flies (forR) are more active foragers (both within and between food patches) compared to sitters (fors). In nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans, a mutation in egl-4, the ortholog of for, leads to aberrations in egg laying...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622364/ipirid-integrative-approach-for-pirna-prediction-using-genomic-and-epigenomic-data
#19
Anouar Boucheham, Vivien Sommard, Farida Zehraoui, Adnane Boualem, Mohamed Batouche, Abdelhafid Bendahmane, David Israeli, Fariza Tahi
Many computational tools have been proposed during the two last decades for predicting piRNAs, which are molecules with important role in post-transcriptional gene regulation. However, these tools are mostly based on only one feature that is generally related to the sequence. Discoveries in the domain of piRNAs are still in their beginning stages, and recent publications have shown many new properties. Here, we propose an integrative approach for piRNA prediction in which several types of genomic and epigenomic properties that can be used to characterize these molecules are examined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620452/metabolic-reprogramming-during-the-trypanosoma-brucei-life-cycle
#20
REVIEW
Terry K Smith, Frédéric Bringaud, Derek P Nolan, Luisa M Figueiredo
Cellular metabolic activity is a highly complex, dynamic, regulated process that is influenced by numerous factors, including extracellular environmental signals, nutrient availability and the physiological and developmental status of the cell. The causative agent of sleeping sickness, Trypanosoma brucei, is an exclusively extracellular protozoan parasite that encounters very different extracellular environments during its life cycle within the mammalian host and tsetse fly insect vector. In order to meet these challenges, there are significant alterations in the major energetic and metabolic pathways of these highly adaptable parasites...
2017: F1000Research
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