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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527116/genome-editing-in-drosophila-melanogaster-from-basic-genome-engineering-to-the-multipurpose-crispr-cas9-system
#1
REVIEW
Xingjie Ren, Kristof Holsteens, Haiyi Li, Jin Sun, Yifan Zhang, Lu-Ping Liu, Qingfei Liu, Jian-Quan Ni
Nowadays, genome editing tools are indispensable for studying gene function in order to increase our knowledge of biochemical processes and disease mechanisms. The extensive availability of mutagenesis and transgenesis tools make Drosophila melanogaster an excellent model organism for geneticists. Early mutagenesis tools relied on chemical or physical methods, ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and X-rays respectively, to randomly alter DNA at a nucleotide or chromosomal level. Since the discovery of transposable elements and the availability of the complete fly genome, specific genome editing tools, such as P-elements, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), have undergone rapid development...
May 1, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525754/regulated-intron-removal-integrates-motivational-state-and-experience
#2
Jason Gill, Younshim Park, J P McGinnis, Consuelo Perez-Sanchez, Marco Blanchette, Kausik Si
Myriad experiences produce transient memory, yet, contingent on the internal state of the organism and the saliency of the experience, only some memories persist over time. How experience and internal state influence the duration of memory at the molecular level remains unknown. A self-assembled aggregated state of Drosophila Orb2A protein is required specifically for long-lasting memory. We report that in the adult fly brain the mRNA encoding Orb2A protein exists in an unspliced non-protein-coding form. The convergence of experience and internal drive transiently increases the spliced protein-coding Orb2A mRNA...
May 18, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525749/how-does-familiarity-breed-contempt
#3
Kevin Mann, Thomas R Clandinin
Classifying sensory experiences as either novel or familiar represents a fundamental challenge to neural processing. In this issue of Cell, Hattori et al. describe a circuit mechanism by which a novel stimulus that initially interests a fruit fly turns into a familiar one.
May 18, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525620/cold-hardiness-of-the-black-soldier-fly-diptera-stratiomyidae
#4
Thomas Spranghers, Annelies Noyez, Kristof Schildermans, Patrick De Clercq
The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), shows potential as a resource for animal feed. However, industrial production in regions where the insect is not native, like northwestern Europe, could lead to permanent establishment, which might entail environmental risks. In temperate climates, establishment depends on the insect's ability to overwinter. This study assessed the insect's cold hardiness by determining the supercooling point (SCP) and lower lethal time at 5 °C (LTime10,50,90) for different life stages...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524106/connecting-the-dots-from-an-easy-method-to-computerized-species-determination
#5
Senta Niederegger, Klaus-Peter Döge, Marcus Peter, Tobias Eickhölter, Gita Mall
Differences in growth rate of forensically important dipteran larvae make species determination an essential requisite for an accurate estimation of time since colonization of the body. Interspecific morphological similarities, however, complicate species determination. Muscle attachment site (MAS) patterns on the inside of the cuticula of fly larvae are species specific and grow proportionally with the animal. The patterns can therefore be used for species identification, as well as age estimation in forensically important dipteran larvae...
May 18, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520950/a-novel-economical-way-to-assess-virulence-in-field-populations-of-hessian-fly-diptera-cecidomyiidae-utilizing-wheat-resistance-gene-h13-as-a-model
#6
Alisha J Johnson, Hossam E M Abdel Moniem, Kathy L Flanders, G David Buntin, Francis P F Reay-Jones, Dominic Reisig, Jeffery J Stuart, Subhashree Subramanyam, Richard H Shukle, Brandon J Schemerhorn
Mayetiola destructor (Say) is a serious pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., in North America, North Africa, and Central Asia. Singly deployed resistance genes in wheat cultivars have provided effective management of Hessian fly populations for >50 yr. Thirty-five H genes have been documented. Defense mediated by the H gene constitutes strong selection on the Hessian fly population, killing 100% of larvae. A mutation in a matching Hessian fly avirulence gene confers virulence to the H gene, leading to survival on the resistant plant...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520928/attraction-oviposition-preferences-and-olfactory-responses-of-corn-infesting-ulidiidae-diptera-to-various-host-based-substrates
#7
D Owens, G S Nuessly, P E Kendra, T A Colquhoun, D R Seal
Fresh market sweet corn (Zea mays L., convar. saccharata var. rugosa, Poales: Poaceae) ears produced in Florida are damaged by the larvae of Euxesta stigmatias Loew, Euxesta eluta Loew, and Chaetopsis massyla Walker (Diptera: Ulidiidae) that renders ears unmarketable. No standard lure exists for monitoring these pests. Oviposition substrate and attractant bioassays were designed to identify attractive substrates for further semiochemical investigation. Frass from the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520791/toxic-and-hormetic-like-effects-of-three-components-of-citrus-essential-oils-on-adult-mediterranean-fruit-flies-ceratitis-capitata
#8
Stella A Papanastasiou, Eleftheria-Maria D Bali, Charalampos S Ioannou, Dimitrios P Papachristos, Kostas D Zarpas, Nikos T Papadopoulos
Plant essential oils (EOs) and a wide range of their individual components are involved in a variety of biological interactions with insect pests including stimulatory, deterrent, toxic and even hormetic effects. Both the beneficial and toxic properties of citrus EOs on the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) have been experimentally evidenced over the last years. However, no information is available regarding the toxic or beneficial effects of the major components of citrus EOs via contact with the adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520493/increasing-walking-in-the-hartsfield-jackson-atlanta-international-airport-the-walk-to-fly-study
#9
Janet E Fulton, Ginny M Frederick, Prabasaj Paul, John D Omura, Susan A Carlson, Joan M Dorn
OBJECTIVES: To test the effectiveness of a point-of-decision intervention to prompt walking, versus motorized transport, in a large metropolitan airport. METHODS: We installed point-of-decision prompt signage at 4 locations in the airport transportation mall at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (Atlanta, GA) at the connecting corridor between airport concourses. Six ceiling-mounted infrared sensors counted travelers entering and exiting the study location...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520473/a-new-method-and-mass-spectrometric-instrument-for-extraterrestrial-microbial-life-detection-using-the-elemental-composition-analyses-of-martian-regolith-and-permafrost-ice
#10
G G Managadze, A A Safronova, K A Luchnikov, E A Vorobyova, N S Duxbury, P Wurz, N G Managadze, A E Chumikov, R Kh Khamizov
We propose a new technique for the detection of microorganisms by elemental composition analyses of a sample extracted from regolith, permafrost, and ice of extraterrestrial bodies. We also describe the design of the ABIMAS instrument, which consists of the onboard time-of-flight laser mass-reflectron (TOF LMR) and the sample preparation unit (SPU) for biomass extraction. This instrument was initially approved to fly on board the ExoMars 2020 lander mission. The instrument can be used to analyze the elemental composition of possible extraterrestrial microbial communities and compare it to that of terrestrial microorganisms...
May 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518005/safety-considerations-for-medical-staff-and-patients-who-fly-over-water-in-a-helicopter-for-work-or-recreation
#11
Christopher J Brooks, Conor V MacDonald
BACKGROUND: Around 25% of people involved in a helicopter accident in water do not survive. From time to time, physicians and their medical staff are required to fly over water in a helicopter to attend one or more seriously ill patients. Many will have had little or no experience of the issues involved if the helicopter has an accident in the water. Also as Family Practitioners, Aeromedical Examiners, and Flight Surgeons, they are asked to provide advice to patients, travel agents, and airline booking agents about whether an overwater helicopter flight is advisable or not...
April 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516354/characterization-partitioning-and-potential-ecological-risk-quantification-of-trace-elements-in-coal-fly-ash
#12
Zeba Usmani, Vipin Kumar
Coal-based thermal power plants are the major source of power generation in India. Combustion of coal gives rise to by-products such as fly ash (FA) in huge quantities. The current study focuses on physico-chemical and mineralogical characterization and risk evaluation of FA, generated from five thermal power plants (TPPs) of India. The coal, and corresponding FA and bottom ash (BA) were further analyzed for trace elements in order to observe the enrichment and partitioning behavior of elements. The environmental risk assessment of trace elements in FA was performed in accordance with geoaccumulation index (I geo) and potential ecological risk index (PERI)...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513202/abstraction-sensory-motor-coordination-and-the-reality-gap-in-evolutionary-robotics
#13
Kirk Y W Scheper, Guido C H E de Croon
One of the major challenges of evolutionary robotics is to transfer robot controllers evolved in simulation to robots in the real world. In this article, we investigate abstraction of the sensory inputs and motor actions as a tool to tackle this problem. Abstraction in robots is simply the use of preprocessed sensory inputs and low-level closed-loop control systems that execute higher-level motor commands. To demonstrate the impact abstraction could have, we evolved two controllers with different levels of abstraction to solve a task of forming an asymmetric triangle with a homogeneous swarm of micro air vehicles...
May 17, 2017: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512316/phenotypic-plasticity-trade-offs-and-gene-expression-changes-accompanying-dietary-restriction-and-switches-in-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel-diptera-tephritidae
#14
Er-Hu Chen, Qiu-Li Hou, Dan-Dan Wei, Hong-Bo Jiang, Jin-Jun Wang
In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary restriction (DR) and variable diets on phenotypes and gene expression in oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), one of the most economically important pests in the family Tephritidae around the world. As expected, we found that DR altered the B. dorsalis phenotypes by significantly increasing stress resistance and lifespan, but reduced egg production when compared with the control diet. The results suggested a trade-off between reproduction versus somatic maintenance (stress resistance) and lifespan in B...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510134/paramagnetics-melanin-and-mn-2-in-black-soldier-fly-hermetia-illucens
#15
N A Ushakova, A E Dontsov, A I Bastrakov, N Y Garmash, D S Pavlov
Larva, prepupa (last instar larva), pupa, and an empty shell of pupa after hatching of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens contain eumelanin, an active synthesis of which is observed at the prepupal stage, which is probably due to the release of prepupa from the feed substrate thickness to the open space for pupation. It was shown for the first time that prepupa contains high quantities of the magnetically active form of manganese Mn(2+). This fact indicates that Mn(2+) stimulates the copper-containing tyrosinase-the key enzyme in the synthesis of melanin in the period of migration and adaptation of the insect to the solar radiation...
March 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508130/atmospheric-conditions-create-freeways-detours-and-tailbacks-for-migrating-birds
#16
Judy Shamoun-Baranes, Felix Liechti, Wouter M G Vansteelant
The extraordinary adaptations of birds to contend with atmospheric conditions during their migratory flights have captivated ecologists for decades. During the 21st century technological advances have sparked a revival of research into the influence of weather on migrating birds. Using biologging technology, flight behaviour is measured across entire flyways, weather radar networks quantify large-scale migratory fluxes, citizen scientists gather observations of migrant birds and mechanistic models are used to simulate migration in dynamic aerial environments...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507162/lipophagy-prevents-activity-dependent-neurodegeneration-due-to-dihydroceramide-accumulation-in-vivo
#17
Wei-Hung Jung, Chung-Chih Liu, Yu-Lian Yu, Yu-Chin Chang, Wen-Yu Lien, Hsi-Chun Chao, Shu-Yi Huang, Ching-Hua Kuo, Han-Chen Ho, Chih-Chiang Chan
Dihydroceramide desaturases are evolutionarily conserved enzymes that convert dihydroceramide (dhCer) to ceramide (Cer). While elevated Cer levels cause neurodegenerative diseases, the neuronal activity of its direct precursor, dhCer, remains unclear. We show that knockout of the fly dhCer desaturase gene, infertile crescent (ifc), results in larval lethality with increased dhCer and decreased Cer levels. Light stimulation leads to ROS increase and apoptotic cell death in ifc-KO photoreceptors, resulting in activity-dependent neurodegeneration...
May 15, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506986/soxneuro-and-shavenbaby-act-cooperatively-to-shape-denticles-in-the-embryonic-epidermis-of-drosophila
#18
Nicholas P Rizzo, Amy Bejsovec
During development, extracellular signals are integrated by cells to induce the transcriptional circuitry that controls morphogenesis. In the fly epidermis, Wingless (Wg)/Wnt signaling directs cells to produce either a distinctly-shaped denticle or no denticle, resulting in a segmental pattern of denticle belts separated by smooth, or "naked", cuticle. Naked cuticle results from Wg repression of shavenbaby (svb), which encodes a transcription factor required for denticle construction. We have discovered that although the svb promoter responds differentially to altered Wg levels, Svb alone cannot produce the morphological diversity of denticles found in wild-type belts...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506893/macpf-cdc-proteins-in-development-insights-from-drosophila-torso-like
#19
REVIEW
Travis K Johnson, Michelle A Henstridge, Coral G Warr
The Membrane Attack Complex Perforin-like/Cholesterol-Dependent Cytolysin (MACPF) superfamily is an ancient and biologically diverse group of proteins that are best known for pore-forming roles in mammalian immunity and bacterial pathogenesis. Intriguingly, however, some eukaryotic proteins which contain the MACPF domain that defines this family do not act in attack or defence, and instead have distinct developmental functions. It remains unclear whether these proteins function via pore formation or have a different mechanism of action...
May 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505561/class-enzyme-based-motors-for-on-the-fly-enantiomer-analysis-of-amino-acids
#20
Laura García-Carmona, María Moreno-Guzmán, María Cristina González, Alberto Escarpa
Here, two class-enzyme motors are properly designed allowing the rapid dispersion of the class-enzyme D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) and L-amino acid oxidase (LAO) for selective "on the fly" biodetection of D and L-amino acids (AAs), respectively. The efficient movement together with the continuous release of fresh class-enzyme leads to a greatly accelerated enzymatic reaction processes without the need of external stirring or chemical and physical attachment of the enzyme. Ultra-fast detection (<2min) and accurate quantifications of L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) in plasma and whole-blood newborns samples diagnosed with Phenylketonuria and total D-AAs in Vibrio cholera cultures are pioneer illustrated as relevant examples of each enantiomer determination...
May 6, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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