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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432834/molecular-control-of-gut-formation-in-the-spider-parasteatoda-tepidariorum
#1
Natália Martins Feitosa, Matthias Pechmann, Evelyn E Schwager, Vitória Tobias-Santos, Alistair P McGregor, Wim G M Damen, Rodrigo Nunes da Fonseca
The development of a digestive system is an essential feature of bilaterians. Studies of the molecular control of gut formation in arthropods have been studied in detail in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. However, little is known in other arthropods, especially in noninsect arthropods. To better understand the evolution of arthropod alimentary system, we investigate the molecular control of gut development in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum (Pt), the primary chelicerate model species for developmental studies...
April 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432181/dual-nature-of-pseudouridylation-in-u2-snrna-pus1p-dependent-and-pus1p-independent-activities-in-yeasts-and-higher-eukaryotes
#2
Svetlana Deryusheva, Joseph G Gall
The pseudouridine at position 43 in vertebrate U2 snRNA is one of the most conserved posttranscriptional modifications of spliceosomal snRNAs; the equivalent position is pseudouridylated in U2 snRNAs in different phyla including fungi, insects, and worms. Pseudouridine synthase Pus1p acts alone on U2 snRNA to form this pseudouridine in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mouse. Furthermore, in S. cerevisiae Pus1p is the only pseudouridine synthase for this position. Using an in vivo yeast cell system we tested enzymatic activity of Pus1p from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the frog Xenopus tropicalis...
April 21, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432135/molecular-mechanisms-of-sleep-homeostasis-in-flies-and-mammals
#3
Ravi Allada, Chiara Cirelli, Amita Sehgal
Sleep is homeostatically regulated with sleep pressure accumulating with the increasing duration of prior wakefulness. Yet, a clear understanding of the molecular components of the homeostat, as well as the molecular and cellular processes they sense and control to regulate sleep intensity and duration, remain a mystery. Here, we will discuss the cellular and molecular basis of sleep homeostasis, first focusing on the best homeostatic sleep marker in vertebrates, slow wave activity; second, moving to the molecular genetic analysis of sleep homeostasis in the fruit fly Drosophila; and, finally, discussing more systemic aspects of sleep homeostasis...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431343/measurement-of-physical-activity-levels-in-the-intensive-care-unit-and-functional-outcomes-an-observational-study
#4
Lisa J Beach, Kate Fetterplace, Lara Edbrooke, Selina M Parry, Rachel Curtis, Thomas Rechnitzer, Sue Berney, Linda Denehy
PURPOSE: Primary aims were: (1) objectively quantify levels of physical activity with the sensewear armband mini-fly motion sensor (SWA-MF), (2) evaluate the correlation of SWA-MF measurement of active and resting energy expenditure against the ICU Mobility scale (IMS) and indirect calorimetry respectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adults mechanically ventilated ≥48h and anticipated to remain in ICU≥5days were included. Physical activity (PA) was measured using a SWA-MF (over the first five days); energy expenditure was measured with both the SWA-MF and the Deltatrac II metabolic cart on day three; highest level of mobility was assessed on the IMS...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430560/database-centric-method-for-automated-high-throughput-deconvolution-and-analysis-of-kinetic-antibody-screening-data
#5
R Paul Nobrega, Michael Brown, Cody Williams, Chris Sumner, Patricia Estep, Isabelle Caffry, Yao Yu, Heather Lynaugh, Irina Burnina, Asparouh Lilov, Jordan Desroches, John Bukowski, Tingwan Sun, Jonathan P Belk, Kirt Johnson, Yingda Xu
The state-of-the-art industrial drug discovery approach is the empirical interrogation of a library of drug candidates against a target molecule. The advantage of high-throughput kinetic measurements over equilibrium assessments is the ability to measure each of the kinetic components of binding affinity. Although high-throughput capabilities have improved with advances in instrument hardware, three bottlenecks in data processing remain: (1) intrinsic molecular properties that lead to poor biophysical quality in vitro are not accounted for in commercially available analysis models, (2) processing data through a user interface is time-consuming and not amenable to parallelized data collection, and (3) a commercial solution that includes historical kinetic data in the analysis of kinetic competition data does not exist...
April 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430270/atomistic-non-adiabatic-dynamics-of-the-lh2-complex-with-a-gpu-accelerated-ab-initio-exciton-model
#6
Aaron Sisto, Clem Stross, Marc W van der Kamp, Michael O'Connor, Simon McIntosh-Smith, Graham T Johnson, Edward G Hohenstein, Fred R Manby, David R Glowacki, Todd J Martinez
We recently outlined an efficient multi-tiered parallel ab initio excitonic framework that utilizes time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to calculate ground and excited state energies and gradients of large supramolecular complexes in atomistic detail - enabling us to undertake non-adiabatic simulations which explicitly account for the coupled anharmonic vibrational motion of all the constituent atoms in a supramolecular system. Here we apply that framework to the 27 coupled bacterio-chlorophyll-a chromophores which make up the LH2 complex, using it to compute an on-the-fly nonadiabatic surface-hopping (SH) trajectory of electronically excited LH2...
April 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429124/how-bumblebees-use-lateral-and-ventral-optic-flow-cues-for-position-control-in-environments-of-different-proximity
#7
Nellie Linander, Emily Baird, Marie Dacke
Flying insects frequently navigate through environments of different complexity. In this study, buff-tailed bumblebees (Bombus terrestris L.) were trained to fly along tunnels of different widths, from 60 to 240 cm. In tunnel widths of 60 and 120 cm, bumblebees control their lateral position by balancing the magnitude of translational optic flow experienced in the lateral visual field of each eye. In wider tunnels, bumblebees use translational optic flow cues in the ventral visual field to control their lateral position and to steer along straight tracks...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428851/screening-mitochondrial-dna-sequence-variation-as-an-alternative-method-for-tracking-established-and-outbreak-populations-of-queensland-fruit-fly-at-the-species-southern-range-limit
#8
Mark J Blacket, Mali B Malipatil, Linda Semeraro, Peter S Gillespie, Bernie C Dominiak
Understanding the relationship between incursions of insect pests and established populations is critical to implementing effective control. Studies of genetic variation can provide powerful tools to examine potential invasion pathways and longevity of individual pest outbreaks. The major fruit fly pest in eastern Australia, Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), has been subject to significant long-term quarantine and population reduction control measures in the major horticulture production areas of southeastern Australia, at the species southern range limit...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428563/a-sublethal-dose-of-a-neonicotinoid-insecticide-disrupts-visual-processing-and-collision-avoidance-behaviour-in-locusta-migratoria
#9
Rachel H Parkinson, Jacelyn M Little, John R Gray
Neonicotinoids are known to affect insect navigation and vision, however the mechanisms of these effects are not fully understood. A visual motion sensitive neuron in the locust, the Descending Contralateral Movement Detector (DCMD), integrates visual information and is involved in eliciting escape behaviours. The DCMD receives coded input from the compound eyes and monosynaptically excites motorneurons involved in flight and jumping. We show that imidacloprid (IMD) impairs neural responses to visual stimuli at sublethal concentrations, and these effects are sustained two and twenty-four hours after treatment...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427964/scanning-electron-microscopic-studies-on-antenna-of-hemipyrellia-ligurriens-wiedemann-1830-diptera-calliphoridae-a-blow-fly-species-of-forensic-importance
#10
Garima Hore, Aniruddha Maity, Atanu Naskar, Waliza Ansar, Shyamasree Ghosh, Goutam Kumar Saha, Dhriti Banerjee
Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are one of the foremost organisms amongst forensic insects to colonize corpses shortly after death, thus are of immense importance in the domain of forensic entomology. The blow fly Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is considered as a forensically important fly species globally and is also known for its medical and veterinary importance. In the present study, we report for the first time scanning electron microscopic studies on the morphology of sensilla of antenna of adult male and female of H...
April 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425174/costs-and-benefits-of-sub-lethal-drosophila-c-virus-infection
#11
Vanika Gupta, Charlotte Stewart, Samuel S C Rund, Katy Monteith, Pedro F Vale
Viruses are major evolutionary drivers of insect immune systems. Much of our knowledge of insect immune responses derives from experimental infections using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Most experiments, however, employ lethal pathogen doses through septic injury, frequently overwhelming host physiology. While this approach has revealed several immune mechanisms, it is less informative about the fitness costs hosts may experience during infection in the wild. Using both systemic and oral infection routes we find that even apparently benign, sub-lethal infections with the horizontally transmitted Drosophila C Virus (DCV) can cause significant physiological and behavioral morbidity that is relevant for host fitness...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424460/generation-of-heritable-germline-mutations-in-the-jewel-wasp-nasonia-vitripennis-using-crispr-cas9
#12
Ming Li, Lauren Yun Cook Au, Deema Douglah, Abigail Chong, Bradley J White, Patrick M Ferree, Omar S Akbari
The revolutionary RNA-guided endonuclease CRISPR/Cas9 system has proven to be a powerful tool for gene editing in a plethora of organisms. Here, utilizing this system we developed an efficient protocol for the generation of heritable germline mutations in the parasitoid jewel wasp, Nasonia vitripennis, a rising insect model organism for the study of evolution, development of axis pattern formation, venom production, haplo-diploid sex determination, and host-symbiont interactions. To establish CRISPR-directed gene editing in N...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424311/mechanics-of-the-thorax-in-flies
#13
REVIEW
Tanvi Deora, Namrata Gundiah, Sanjay P Sane
Insects represent more than 60% of all multicellular life forms, and are easily among the most diverse and abundant organisms on earth. They evolved functional wings and the ability to fly, which enabled them to occupy diverse niches. Insects of the hyper-diverse orders show extreme miniaturization of their body size. The reduced body size, however, imposes steep constraints on flight ability, as their wings must flap faster to generate sufficient forces to stay aloft. Here, we discuss the various physiological and biomechanical adaptations of the thorax in flies which enabled them to overcome the myriad constraints of small body size, while ensuring very precise control of their wing motion...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423414/discovery-development-and-evaluation-of-a-horn-fly-isolated-diptera-muscidae-beauveria-bassiana-hypocreales-cordyciptaceae-strain-from-florida-usa
#14
Christopher J Holderman, Lois A Wood, Christopher J Geden, Phillip E Kaufman
The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) is an important cattle pest and traditionally has been managed using insecticides; however, many horn fly populations are insecticide-resistant in United States. Use of alternative control techniques has been limited because of the challenges of managing a fly pest on pastured cattle. After the discovery of a wild horn fly infected with Beauveria bassiana in Florida, the fungus was cultured and evaluated for efficacy against laboratory-reared horn flies. This fungal strain was selected for increased virulence by passage through laboratory-reared horn fly hosts to shorten interval from infection to fly death and subsequent conidia formation, properties important to future use of the fungus as a biological control agent against horn flies...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422159/spastic-paraplegia-linked-phospholipase-papla1-is-necessary-for-development-reproduction-and-energy-metabolism-in-drosophila
#15
Martina Gáliková, Peter Klepsatel, Judith Münch, Ronald P Kühnlein
The human PAPLA1 phospholipase family is associated with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness of the lower limbs. Taking advantage of a new Drosophila PAPLA1 mutant, we describe here novel functions of this phospholipase family in fly development, reproduction, and energy metabolism. Loss of Drosophila PAPLA1 reduces egg hatchability, pre-adult viability, developmental speed, and impairs reproductive functions of both males and females...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421044/comparative-genomics-of-glossina-palpalis-gambiensis-and-g-morsitans-morsitans-to-reveal-gene-orthologs-involved-in-infection-by-trypanosoma-brucei-gambiense
#16
Illiassou Hamidou Soumana, Bernadette Tchicaya, Stéphanie Rialle, Hugues Parrinello, Anne Geiger
Blood-feeding Glossina palpalis gambiense (Gpg) fly transmits the single-celled eukaryotic parasite Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (Tbg), the second Glossina fly African trypanosome pair being Glossina morsitans/T.brucei rhodesiense. Whatever the T. brucei subspecies, whereas the onset of their developmental program in the zoo-anthropophilic blood feeding flies does unfold in the fly midgut, its completion is taking place in the fly salivary gland where does emerge a low size metacyclic trypomastigote population displaying features that account for its establishment in mammals-human individuals included...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420493/etiology-of-human-genetic-disease-on-the-fly
#17
REVIEW
Clement Y Chow, Lawrence T Reiter
The model organism Drosophila melanogaster has been at the forefront of genetic studies since before the discovery of DNA. Although human disease modeling in flies may still be rather novel, recent advances in genetic tool design and genome sequencing now confer huge advantages in the fly system when modeling human disease. In this review, we focus on new genomic tools for human gene variant analysis; new uses for the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) in detection of background alleles that influence a phenotype; and several examples of how multigenic conditions, both complex disorders and duplication and/or deletion syndromes, can be effectively studied in the fly model system...
April 15, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420407/understanding-phlebotomus-perniciosus-abundance-in-south-east-spain-assessing-the-role-of-environmental-and-anthropic-factors
#18
José Risueño, Clara Muñoz, Pedro Pérez-Cutillas, Elena Goyena, Moisés Gonzálvez, María Ortuño, Luis Jesús Bernal, Juana Ortiz, Bulent Alten, Eduardo Berriatua
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniosis is associated with Phlebotomus sand fly vector density, but our knowledge of the environmental framework that regulates highly overdispersed vector abundance distributions is limited. We used a standardized sampling procedure in the bioclimatically diverse Murcia Region in Spain and multilevel regression models for count data to estimate P. perniciosus abundance in relation to environmental and anthropic factors. METHODS: Twenty-five dog and sheep premises were sampled for sand flies using adhesive and light-attraction traps, from late May to early October 2015...
April 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419934/genome-research-elucidating-environmental-adaptation-dark-fly-project-as-a-case-study
#19
REVIEW
Naoyuki Fuse
Organisms have the capacity to adapt to diverse environments, and environmental adaptation is a substantial driving force of evolution. Recent progress of genome science has addressed the genetic mechanisms underlying environmental adaptation. Whole genome sequencing has identified adaptive genes selected under particular environments. Genome editing technology enables us to directly test the role(s) of a gene in environmental adaptation. Genome science has also shed light on a unique organism, Dark-fly, which has been reared long-term in the dark...
April 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418757/visual-circuits-for-direction-selectivity
#20
Alex S Mauss, Anna Vlasits, Alexander Borst, Marla Feller
Images projected onto the retina of an animal eye are rarely still. Instead, they usually contain motion signals originating either from moving objects or from retinal slip caused by self-motion. Accordingly, motion signals tell the animal in which direction a predator, prey, or the animal itself is moving. At the neural level, visual motion detection has been proposed to extract directional information by a delay-and-compare mechanism, representing a classic example of neural computation. Neurons responding selectively to motion in one but not in the other direction have been identified in many systems, most prominently in the mammalian retina and the fly optic lobe...
April 18, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
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