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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778049/toxicity-screening-of-biochar-mineral-composites-using-germination-tests
#1
Jan Mumme, Josephine Getz, Munoo Prasad, Ulf Lüder, Jürgen Kern, Ondřej Mašek, Wolfram Buss
This study assessed the properties and toxicity (water cress germination trials) of 38 waste-derived, novel biochar-mineral composites (BMCs) produced via slow pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization (hydrochars). The biochars were produced from sewage sludge and compost-like output (CLO) by varying the type of mineral additive (zeolite, wood ash and lignite fly ash), the mineral-to-feedstock ratio and the carbonization process. While pure hydrochars completely inhibited germination of water cress, this effect was ameliorated by mineral additives...
May 8, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776315/aerobic-training-reduces-oxidative-stress-in-skeletal-muscle-of-rats-exposed-to-air-pollution-and-supplemented-with-chromium-picolinate
#2
Bruna Marmett, Ramiro Barcos Nunes, Kellen Sábio de Souza, Pedro Dal Lago, Cláudia Ramos Rhoden
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of chromium picolinate (CrPic) supplementation associated with aerobic exercise using measures of oxidative stress in rats exposed to air pollution. METHODS: Sixty-one male Wistar rats were divided into eight groups: residual oil fly ash (ROFA) exposure and sedentary (ROFA-SED); ROFA exposure, sedentary and supplemented (ROFA-SED-CrPic); ROFA exposure and trained (ROFA-AT); ROFA exposure, supplemented and trained (ROFA-AT-CrPic); sedentary (Sal-SED); sedentary and supplemented (Sal-SED-CrPic); trained (Sal-AT); and supplemented and trained (Sal-AT-CrPic)...
December 2018: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776078/critical-properties-of-unlimited-gliding-unexpected-flocking-behavior-driven-by-the-exchange-of-information
#3
Marta Bigus-Kwiatkowska, Agata Fronczak, Piotr Fronczak
Inspired by albatrosses that use thermal lifts to fly across oceans we develop a simple model of gliders that serves us to study theoretical limitations of unlimited exploration of the Earth. Our studies, grounded in physical theory of continuous percolation and biased random walks, allow us to identify a variety of percolation transitions, which are understood as providing potentially unlimited movement through a space in a specified direction. We discover an unexpected phenomenon of self-organization of gliders in clusters, which resembles the flock organization of birds...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775544/recovery-of-glucose-from-dried-distiller-s-grain-with-solubles-using-combinations-of-solid-state-fermentation-and-insect-culture
#4
Timothy Howdeshell, Takuji Tanaka
A bioethanol byproduct (dried distiller's grains with solubles; DDGS) contains a high cellulose and starch. We hypothesized combinations of solid-state fermentation (SSF) and digestion by black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) (Hermetia illucens) could increase the recovery of glucose from this byproduct through concentrating and loosening cellulose matrix by their activities. DDGS was individually fermented with Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Trichoderma koningii, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, or Lactobacillus plantarum...
May 18, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775338/on-the-fly-control-of-high-harmonic-generation-using-a-structured-pump-beam
#5
Liran Hareli, Lilya Lobachinsky, Georgiy Shoulga, Yaniv Eliezer, Linor Michaeli, Alon Bahabad
We demonstrate experimentally a relatively simple yet powerful all-optical enhancement and control technique for high harmonic generation. This is achieved by using as a pump beam two different spatial optical modes interfering together to realize tunable periodic quasi-phase matching of the interaction. With this technique, we demonstrate on-the-fly quasi-phase matching of harmonic orders 29-41 at ambient gas pressure levels of 50 and 100 Torr, where an up to 100-fold enhancement of the emission is observed...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774427/largely-flat-latitudinal-life-history-clines-in-the-dung-fly-sepsis-fulgens-across-europe-diptera-sepsidae
#6
Jeannine Roy, Wolf U Blanckenhorn, Patrick T Rohner
Clinal variation in body size and related life history traits is common and has stimulated the postulation of several eco-geographical rules. Whereas some clinal patterns are clearly adaptive, the causes of others remain obscure. We investigated intra-specific body size, development time and female fecundity (egg size and number) clines across 13 European populations of the dung fly Sepsis fulgens spanning 20° latitude from southern Italy to Estonia in a genetic common garden approach. Despite very short generation times (ca...
May 17, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772025/shape-shifting-trypanosomes-flagellar-shortening-followed-by-asymmetric-division-in-trypanosoma-congolense-from-the-tsetse-proventriculus
#7
Lori Peacock, Christopher Kay, Mick Bailey, Wendy Gibson
Trypanosomatids such as Leishmania and Trypanosoma are digenetic, single-celled, parasitic flagellates that undergo complex life cycles involving morphological and metabolic changes to fit them for survival in different environments within their mammalian and insect hosts. According to current consensus, asymmetric division enables trypanosomatids to achieve the major morphological rearrangements associated with transition between developmental stages. Contrary to this view, here we show that the African trypanosome Trypanosoma congolense, an important livestock pathogen, undergoes extensive cell remodelling, involving shortening of the cell body and flagellum, during its transition from free-swimming proventricular forms to attached epimastigotes in vitro...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772015/the-influence-of-spatial-and-temporal-discontinuities-of-forest-habitats-on-the-current-presence-of-flightless-saproxylic-beetles
#8
Eugénie Cateau, Pierre-Alexis Herrault, David Sheeren, Sylvie Ladet, Hervé Brustel
Flightless saproxylic beetles were selected in order to study the impact of temporal and spatial discontinuity of forests. They were chosen because: (1) they are unable to fly, making them dispersal-limited species, (2) they have a saproxylic diet, which means they are closely linked to the forest, and (3), they have rarely been studied. Forest temporal continuity was expected to be the main factor explaining the presence of these species, modulated by the past and present amount of forest in the surrounding landscape...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771516/adaptive-geometric-networks-for-efficient-coarse-grained-ab-initio-molecular-dynamics-with-post-hartree-fock-accuracy
#9
Timothy C Ricard, Cody Haycraft, Srinivasan Sesha Iyengar
We introduce a new coarse-graining technique for ab initio molecular dynamics that is based on the adaptive generation of connected geometric networks or graphs specific to a given molecular ge- ometry. The coarse-grained nodes depict a local chemical environment and are networked to create edges, triangles, tetrahedrons and higher order simplexes based on (a) a Delaunay triangulation procedure and (b) a method that is based on molecular, bonded and non-bonded, local interac- tions. The geometric sub-entities thus created, that is nodes, edges, triangles, and tetrahedrons, each represent an energetic measure for a specific portion of the molecular system, capturing a spe- cific set of interactions...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771303/visual-impairment-and-progressive-phthisis-bulbi-caused-by-recessive-pathogenic-variant-in-mark3
#10
Muhammad Ansar, Hyunglok Chung, Yar M Waryah, Periklis Makrythanasis, Emilie Falconnet, Ali Raza Rao, Michel Guipponi, Ashok K Narsani, Ralph Fingerhut, Federico A Santoni, Emmanuelle Ranza, Ali M Waryah, Hugo J Bellen, Stylianos E Antonarakis
Developmental eye defects often severely reduce vision. Despite extensive efforts, for a substantial fraction of these cases the molecular causes are unknown. Recessive eye disorders are frequent in consanguineous populations and such large families with multiple affected individuals provide an opportunity to identify recessive causative genes. We studied a Pakistani consanguineous family with three affected individuals with congenital vision loss and progressive eye degeneration. The family was analyzed by exome sequencing of one affected individual and genotyping of all family members...
May 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770328/second-blood-meal-by-female-lutzomyia-longipalpis-enhancement-by-oviposition-and-its-effects-on-digestion-longevity-and-leishmania-infection
#11
C S Moraes, K Aguiar-Martins, S G Costa, P A Bates, R J Dillon, F A Genta
Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in America. Physiological and molecular mechanisms of Leishmania infection in sand flies have been studied during the first gonotrophic cycle. There are few studies about these interactions during the second gonotrophic cycle mainly because of the difficulties maintaining sand flies through sequential feeds. Here we standardized conditions to perform the second blood feed efficiently, and our results show that oviposition is an essential factor for the success of multiple feeds...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768432/the-ecology-of-the-drosophila-yeast-mutualism-in-wineries
#12
Allison S Quan, Michael B Eisen
The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is preferentially found on fermenting fruits. The yeasts that dominate the microbial communities of these substrates are the primary food source for developing D. melanogaster larvae, and adult flies manifest a strong olfactory system-mediated attraction for the volatile compounds produced by these yeasts during fermentation. Although most work on this interaction has focused on the standard laboratory yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a wide variety of other yeasts naturally ferment fallen fruit...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765604/deciphering-mineralogical-changes-and-carbonation-development-during-hydration-and-ageing-of-a-consolidated-ternary-blended-cement-paste
#13
Francis Claret, Sylvain Grangeon, Annick Loschetter, Christophe Tournassat, Wout De Nolf, Nicholas Harker, Faiza Boulahya, Stéphane Gaboreau, Yannick Linard, Xavier Bourbon, Alejandro Fernandez-Martinez, Jonathan Wright
To understand the main properties of cement, a ubiquitous material, a sound description of its chemistry and mineralogy, including its reactivity in aggressive environments and its mechanical properties, is vital. In particular, the porosity distribution and associated sample carbonation, both of which affect cement's properties and durability, should be quantified accurately, and their kinetics and mechanisms of formation known both in detail and in situ . However, traditional methods of cement mineralogy analysis ( e...
March 1, 2018: IUCrJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765071/effects-of-cold-acclimation-and-dsrna-injections-on-gs1l-gene-splicing-in-drosophila-montana
#14
David Hopkins, Tapio Envall, Noora Poikela, Olli T Pentikäinen, Maaria Kankare
Alternative splicing, in which one gene produce multiple transcripts, may influence how adaptive genes respond to specific environments. A newly produced transcriptome of Drosophila montana shows the Gs1-like (Gs1l) gene to express multiple splice variants and to be down regulated in cold acclimated flies with increased cold tolerance. Gs1l's effect on cold tolerance was further tested by injecting cold acclimated and non-acclimated flies from two distantly located northern and southern fly populations with double stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting Gs1l...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764970/reinforcement-signaling-of-punishment-versus-relief-in-fruit-flies
#15
Christian König, Afshin Khalili, Mathangi Ganesan, Amrita P Nishu, Alejandra P Garza, Thomas Niewalda, Bertram Gerber, Yoshinori Aso, Ayse Yarali
Painful events establish opponent memories: cues that precede pain are remembered negatively, whereas cues that follow pain, thus coinciding with relief are recalled positively. How do individual reinforcement-signaling neurons contribute to this "timing-dependent valence-reversal?" We addressed this question using an optogenetic approach in the fruit fly. Two types of fly dopaminergic neuron, each comprising just one paired cell, indeed established learned avoidance of odors that preceded their photostimulation during training, and learned approach to odors that followed the photostimulation...
June 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764147/the-strengths-and-limitations-of-effective-centroid-force-models-explored-by-studying-isotopic-effects-in-liquid-water
#16
Ying Yuan, Jicun Li, Xin-Zheng Li, Feng Wang
The development of effective centroid potentials (ECPs) is explored with both the constrained-centroid and quasi-adiabatic force matching using liquid water as a test system. A trajectory integrated with the ECP is free of statistical noises that would be introduced when the centroid potential is approximated on the fly with a finite number of beads. With the reduced cost of ECP, challenging experimental properties can be studied in the spirit of centroid molecular dynamics. The experimental number density of H2 O is 0...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763934/inactivation-of-usp14-perturbs-ubiquitin-homeostasis-and-delays-the-cell-cycle-in-mouse-embryonic-fibroblasts-and-in-fruit-fly-drosophila
#17
Jung Hoon Lee, Seoyoung Park, Yejin Yun, Won Hoon Choi, Min-Ji Kang, Min Jae Lee
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The 26S proteasome is the key proteolytic complex for recognition and degradation of polyubiquitinated target substrates in eukaryotes. Among numerous proteasome-associated proteins, a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) USP14 has been identified as an endogenous inhibitor of the proteasome. Here, we explored the complex regulatory functions of USP14 that involve ubiquitin (Ub) homeostasis and substrate degradation in flies and mammals. METHODS: USP14-null primary and immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and USP14 knocked-down Drosophila were analyzed in this study...
May 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762437/primary-premaxillary-ostectomy-and-setback-dealing-with-the-fly-away-premaxilla
#18
Rana Farhadi, Robert D Wallace
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze our outcomes of primary premaxillary ostectomy and setback combined with lip adhesion as the first stage in repair of the bilateral cleft lip with fly-away premaxilla. METHODS: This retrospective study included all patients who required primary premaxillary setback by a single surgeon to achieve successful lip repair between 2011 and 2017 at a tertiary children's hospital. All patients had bilateral cleft lip and complete cleft palate with significant premaxillary protrusion...
May 14, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760174/snt-1-functions-as-the-ca-2-sensor-for-tonic-and-evoked-neurotransmitter-release-in-c-elegans
#19
Lei Li, Haowen Liu, Wei Wang, Mintu Chandra, Brett M Collins, Zhitao Hu
Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) binds Ca2+ through its tandem C2 domains (C2A and C2B) and triggers Ca2+ -dependent neurotransmitter release. Here we show that snt-1 , the homolog of mammalian Syt1, functions as the Ca2+ sensor for both tonic and evoked neurotransmitter release at the C. elegans neuromuscular junction. Mutations that disrupt Ca2+ binding in double C2 domains of SNT-1 significantly impaired tonic release, whereas disrupting Ca2+ binding in a single C2 domain had no effect, indicating that the Ca2+ binding of the two C2 domains is functionally redundant for tonic release...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759374/dependence-of-chromatosome-structure-on-linker-histone-sequence-and-posttranslational-modification
#20
Mehmet Ali Öztürk, Vlad Cojocaru, Rebecca C Wade
Linker histone (LH) proteins play a key role in higher-order structuring of chromatin for the packing of DNA in eukaryotic cells and in the regulation of genomic function. The common fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) has a single somatic isoform of the LH (H1). It is thus a useful model organism for investigating the effects of the LH on nucleosome compaction and the structure of the chromatosome, the complex formed by binding of an LH to a nucleosome. The structural and mechanistic details of how LH proteins bind to nucleosomes are debated...
May 11, 2018: Biophysical Journal
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