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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621667/xist-mir-139-axis-regulates-bleomycin-blm-induced-extracellular-matrix-ecm-and-pulmonary-fibrosis-through-%C3%AE-catenin
#1
Yichun Wang, Ying Liang, Junming Luo, Jing Nie, Huiming Yin, Qiong Chen, Jing Dong, Jixiang Zhu, Jiamei Xia, Wei Shuai
Pulmonary fibrosis (PF), characterized by the destruction of lung tissue architecture and the abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, currently has no satisfactory treatment. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that XIST play a promotive role in bleomycin (BLM)-induced ECM and pulmonary fibrosis; XIST exerts its effect through miR-139 regulation. XIST expression was upregulated in lung tissues derived from BLM-induced mouse model of PF, and was positively correlated with β-catenin and ECM protein levels, respectively...
May 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619888/response-to-comment-on-xist-recruits-the-x-chromosome-to-the-nuclear-lamina-to-enable-chromosome-wide-silencing
#2
Chun-Kan Chen, Amy Chow, Mason Lai, Mitchell Guttman
Wang et al question whether Lamin B receptor is required for Xist-mediated silencing because they claim that our cells contain an inversion rather than a deletion. We present evidence that these cells contain a proper deletion and that the confusion is caused by DNA probes used in the experiment. Accordingly, the points raised have no effect on the conclusions in our paper.
June 16, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619887/comment-on-xist-recruits-the-x-chromosome-to-the-nuclear-lamina-to-enable-chromosome-wide-silencing
#3
Chen-Yu Wang, John E Froberg, Roy Blum, Yesu Jeon, Jeannie T Lee
Chen et al (Reports, 28 October 2016, p. 468) proposed that an interaction between Xist RNA and Lamin B receptor (LBR) is necessary and sufficient for Xist spreading during X-chromosome inactivation. We reanalyzed their data and found that reported genotypes of mutants are not supported by the sequencing data. These inconsistencies preclude assessment of the role of LBR in Xist spreading.
June 16, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596365/pcgf3-5-prc1-initiates-polycomb-recruitment-in-x-chromosome-inactivation
#4
Mafalda Almeida, Greta Pintacuda, Osamu Masui, Yoko Koseki, Michal Gdula, Andrea Cerase, David Brown, Arne Mould, Cassandravictoria Innocent, Manabu Nakayama, Lothar Schermelleh, Tatyana B Nesterova, Haruhiko Koseki, Neil Brockdorff
Recruitment of the Polycomb repressive complexes PRC1 and PRC2 by Xist RNA is an important paradigm for chromatin regulation by long noncoding RNAs. Here, we show that the noncanonical Polycomb group RING finger 3/5 (PCGF3/5)-PRC1 complex initiates recruitment of both PRC1 and PRC2 in response to Xist RNA expression. PCGF3/5-PRC1-mediated ubiquitylation of histone H2A signals recruitment of other noncanonical PRC1 complexes and of PRC2, the latter leading to deposition of histone H3 lysine 27 methylation chromosome-wide...
June 9, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574624/proper-reprogramming-of-imprinted-and-non-imprinted-genes-in-cloned-cattle-gametogenesis
#5
Masahiro Kaneda, Shinya Watanabe, Satoshi Akagi, Yasushi Inaba, Masaya Geshi, Takashi Nagai
Epigenetic abnormalities in cloned animals are caused by incomplete reprogramming of the donor nucleus during the nuclear transfer step (first reprogramming). However, during the second reprogramming step that occurs only in the germline cells, epigenetic errors not corrected during the first step are repaired. Consequently, epigenetic abnormalities in the somatic cells of cloned animals should be erased in their spermatozoa or oocytes. This is supported by the fact that offspring from cloned animals do not exhibit defects at birth or during postnatal development...
June 2, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546514/the-nuclear-matrix-protein-ciz1-facilitates-localization-of-xist-rna-to-the-inactive-x-chromosome-territory
#6
Rebeca Ridings-Figueroa, Emma R Stewart, Tatyana B Nesterova, Heather Coker, Greta Pintacuda, Jonathan Godwin, Rose Wilson, Aidan Haslam, Fred Lilley, Renate Ruigrok, Sumia A Bageghni, Ghadeer Albadrani, William Mansfield, Jo-An Roulson, Neil Brockdorff, Justin F X Ainscough, Dawn Coverley
The nuclear matrix protein Cip1-interacting zinc finger protein 1 (CIZ1) promotes DNA replication in association with cyclins and has been linked to adult and pediatric cancers. Here we show that CIZ1 is highly enriched on the inactive X chromosome (Xi) in mouse and human female cells and is retained by interaction with the RNA-dependent nuclear matrix. CIZ1 is recruited to Xi in response to expression of X inactive-specific transcript (Xist) RNA during the earliest stages of X inactivation in embryonic stem cells and is dependent on the C-terminal nuclear matrix anchor domain of CIZ1 and the E repeats of Xist CIZ1-null mice, although viable, display fully penetrant female-specific lymphoproliferative disorder...
May 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505621/gnrha-treatment-of-cryptorchid-boys-affects-genes-involved-in-hormonal-control-of-the-hpg-axis-and-fertility
#7
Faruk Hadziselimovic, Katharina Gegenschatz-Schmid, Gilvydas Verkauskas, Philippe Demougin, Vytautas Bilius, Darius Dasevicius, Michael B Stadler
The gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa; Buserelin) rescues fertility during adulthood in the majority of high infertility risk cryptorchid boys presenting with defective mini-puberty. However, the molecular events governing this effect are not understood. We report the outcome of an RNA profiling analysis of testicular biopsies from 4 operated patients who were treated with GnRHa for 6 months versus 3 operated controls who were not treated. GnRHa induces a significant transcriptional response, including protein-coding genes involved in pituitary development, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and testosterone synthesis...
May 16, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484201/epigenetic-analysis-of-bovine-parthenogenetic-embryonic-fibroblasts
#8
Masahiro Kaneda, Masashi Takahashi, Ken-Ichi Yamanaka, Koji Saito, Masanori Taniguchi, Satoshi Akagi, Shinya Watanabe, Takashi Nagai
Although more than 100 imprinted genes have already been identified in the mouse and human genomes, little is known about genomic imprinting in cattle. For a better understanding of these genes in cattle, parthenogenetically activated bovine blastocysts were transferred to recipient cows to obtain parthenotes, and fibroblasts derived from a Day 40 (Day 0 being the day of parthenogenetic activation) parthenogenetic embryo (BpEFs) were successfully obtained. Bovine embryonic fibroblasts (BEFs) were also isolated from a normal fertilized embryo obtained from an artificially inseminated cow...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469789/long-non-coding-rna-xist-exerts-oncogenic-functions-in-human-glioma-by-targeting-mir-137
#9
Zong Wang, Jiangwei Yuan, Li Li, Yang Yang, Xuchang Xu, Ying Wang
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) X inactivate-specific transcript (XIST) acts as an important regulator in tumor progression. However, its expression and the underlying mechanism in glioma remain unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the potential function of XIST in glioma progression. In the present study, our data showed that the expression of XIST was significantly up-regulated in glioma tissues and enhanced the proliferation of glioma cells. The expression of miR-137 was significantly decreased in glioma tissues...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468635/prc2-represses-transcribed-genes-on-the-imprinted-inactive-x-chromosome-in-mice
#10
Emily Maclary, Michael Hinten, Clair Harris, Shriya Sethuraman, Srimonta Gayen, Sundeep Kalantry
BACKGROUND: Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) catalyzes histone H3K27me3, which marks many transcriptionally silent genes throughout the mammalian genome. Although H3K27me3 is associated with silenced gene expression broadly, it remains unclear why some but not other PRC2 target genes require PRC2 and H3K27me3 for silencing. RESULTS: Here we define the transcriptional and chromatin features that predict which PRC2 target genes require PRC2/H3K27me3 for silencing by interrogating imprinted mouse X-chromosome inactivation...
May 3, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454775/iluminated-by-foreign-letters-strategies-for-site-specific-cyclopropene-modification-of-large-functional-rnas-via-in-vitro-transcription
#11
Frank Eggert, Katharina Kulikov, Christof Domnick, Philipp Leifels, Stephanie Kath-Schorr
The synthesis of sequence-specifically modified long RNA molecules, which cannot entirely be prepared via solid phase synthesis methods is experimentally challenging. We are using a new approach based on an expanded genetic alphabet preparing site-specifically modified RNA molecules via standard in vitro transcription. In this report, the site-specific labeling of functional RNAs, in particular ribozymes and a long non-coding RNA with cyclopropene moieties, is presented. We provide detailed instructions for RNA labeling via in vitro transcription and include required analytical methods to verify production and identity of the transcript...
April 26, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448993/the-long-non-coding-rna-xist-controls-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-proliferation-and-invasion-by-modulating-mir-186-5p
#12
Haoyou Wang, Qiming Shen, Xin Zhang, Chunlu Yang, Su Cui, Yanbin Sun, Liming Wang, Xiaoxi Fan, Shun Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are key players in the development and progression of human cancers. The lncRNA XIST (X-inactive specific transcript) has been shown to be upregulated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, its role and molecular mechanisms in NSCLC cell progression remain unclear. METHODS: qRT-PCR was conducted to assess the expression of XIST and miR-186. Cell proliferation was detected using MTT assay. Cell invasion and migration were evaluated using transwell assay...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436947/dedifferentiation-into-blastomere-like-cancer-stem-cells-via-formation-of-polyploid-giant-cancer-cells
#13
N Niu, I Mercado-Uribe, J Liu
Our recent perplexing findings that polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) acquired embryonic-like stemness and were capable of tumor initiation raised two important unanswered questions: how do PGCCs acquire such stemness, and to which stage of normal development do PGCCs correspond. Intriguingly, formation of giant cells due to failed mitosis/cytokinesis is common in the blastomere stage of the preimplantation embryo. However, the relationship between PGCCs and giant blastomeres has never been studied. Here, we tracked the fate of single PGCCs following paclitaxel-induced mitotic failure...
April 24, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409547/long-non-coding-rna-xist-promotes-osteosarcoma-progression-by-targeting-ras-related-protein-rap2b-via-mir-320b
#14
Gong-Yi Lv, Jun Miao, Xiao-Lin Zhang
Abnormal expression of long non-coding RNA (lncRNAs) often contributes to unrestricted growth and invasion of cancer cells. LncRNA X-inactive specific transcript (XIST) expression is up-regulated in several cancers, however, its underlying mechanism in osteosarcoma (OS) has not been elucidated. In the present study, we found that XIST expression was significantly increased in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines by LncRNA Profiler and qRT-PCR. The effects of XIST and miR-320b on osteosarcoma cell proliferation and invasion were studied by MTT assay and Transwell invasion assay...
April 12, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408981/rna-and-proteins-mutual-respect
#15
REVIEW
Kathleen B Hall
Proteins and RNA are often found in ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs), where they function in cellular processes to synthesize proteins (the ribosome), chemically modify RNAs (small nucleolar RNPs), splice pre-mRNAs (the spliceosome), and, on a larger scale, sequester RNAs, degrade them, or process them (P bodies, Cajal bodies, and nucleoli). Each RNA-protein interaction is a story in itself, as both molecules can change conformation, compete for binding sites, and regulate cellular functions. Recent studies of Xist long non-coding RNP, the U4/5/6 tri-small nuclear RNP complex, and an activated state of a spliceosome reveal new features of RNA interactions with proteins, and, although their stories are incomplete, they are already fascinating...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408975/x-chromosome-inactivation-new-players-in-the-initiation-of-gene-silencing
#16
REVIEW
Ines Pinheiro, Edith Heard
X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a dosage compensation process that was adopted by female mammals to balance gene dosage between XX females and XY males. XCI starts with the upregulation of the non-coding RNA Xist, after which most X-linked genes are silenced and acquire a repressive chromatin state. Even though the chromatin marks of the inactive X have been fairly well described, the mechanisms responsible for the initiation of XCI remain largely unknown. In this review, we discuss recent developments that revealed unexpected factors playing a role in XCI and that might be of crucial importance to understand the mechanisms responsible for the very first steps of this chromosome-wide gene-silencing event...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403217/embryonic-loss-of-human-females-with-partial-trisomy-19-identifies-region-critical-for-the-single-active-x
#17
Barbara R Migeon, Michael A Beer, Hans T Bjornsson
To compensate for the sex difference in the number of X chromosomes, human females, like human males have only one active X. The other X chromosomes in cells of both sexes are silenced in utero by XIST, the Inactive X Specific Transcript gene, that is present on all X chromosomes. To investigate the means by which the human active X is protected from silencing by XIST, we updated the search for a key dosage sensitive XIST repressor using new cytogenetic data with more precise resolution. Here, based on a previously unknown sex bias in copy number variations, we identify a unique region in our genome, and propose candidate genes that lie within, as they could inactivate XIST...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401797/the-state-of-skewed-x-chromosome-inactivation-is-retained-in-the-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-a-female-with-hemophilia-b
#18
Cuicui Lyu, Jun Shen, Jianping Zhang, Feng Xue, Xiaofan Liu, Wei Liu, Rongfeng Fu, Liyan Zhang, Huiyuan Li, Donglei Zhang, Xiaobing Zhang, Tao Cheng, Renchi Yang, Lei Zhang
Skewed X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a rare reason for hemophilia B in females. It is indefinite whether X chromosome reactivation (XCR) would occur when cells of hemophilia B patients with skewed XCI were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In this study, we investigated a female hemophilia B patient with a known F9 gene mutation: c.676C>T, p.Arg226Trp . We demonstrated that skewed XCI was the pathogenesis of the patient, and we successfully generated numerous iPSC colonies of the patient from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs), which was the first time for generating hemophilia-specific iPSCs from PBMNCs...
March 22, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388883/long-non-coding-rna-xist-regulates-pten-expression-by-sponging-mir-181a-and-promotes-hepatocellular-carcinoma-progression
#19
Shuzhen Chang, Binhe Chen, Xiaoyan Wang, Keqin Wu, Yuqiu Sun
BACKGROUND: Tumor metastasis often occurs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and influences the patient's prognosis, and microRNAs are reported to play key roles in tumor metastasis. This study was conducted to explore the effect of microRNAs on HCC metastasis. METHODS: The levels of miR-181a in HCC tissues, adjacent tissues, metastatic HCC tissues, and non-metastatic HCC tissues at different stages were determined by qRT-PCR. Effect of miR-181a on the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of HCC cells was estimated by cell counting kits-8 (CCK-8), wound-healing, and Transwell assays...
April 7, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387970/mutation-of-the-xist-gene-upregulates-expression-of-x-linked-genes-but-decreases-the-developmental-rates-of-cloned-male-porcine-embryos
#20
Yang Yang, Dan Wu, Dewu Liu, Junsong Shi, Rong Zhou, Xiaoyan He, Jianping Quan, Gengyuan Cai, Enqin Zheng, Zhenfang Wu, Zicong Li
XIST is an X-linked, non-coding gene responsible for the cis induction of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI). Knockout of the XIST allele on an active X chromosome abolishes erroneous XCI and enhances the in vivo development of cloned mouse embryos by more than 10-fold. This study aimed to investigate whether a similar manipulation would improve cloning efficiency in pigs. A male, porcine kidney cell line containing an EGFP insert in exon 1 of the XIST gene, resulting in a knockout allele (XIST-KO), was generated by homologous recombination using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs)...
April 7, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
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