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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436947/dedifferentiation-into-blastomere-like-cancer-stem-cells-via-formation-of-polyploid-giant-cancer-cells
#1
N Niu, I Mercado-Uribe, J Liu
Our recent perplexing findings that polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) acquired embryonic-like stemness and were capable of tumor initiation raised two important unanswered questions: how do PGCCs acquire such stemness, and to which stage of normal development do PGCCs correspond. Intriguingly, formation of giant cells due to failed mitosis/cytokinesis is common in the blastomere stage of the preimplantation embryo. However, the relationship between PGCCs and giant blastomeres has never been studied. Here, we tracked the fate of single PGCCs following paclitaxel-induced mitotic failure...
April 24, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409547/long-non-coding-rna-xist-promotes-osteosarcoma-progression-by-targeting-ras-related-protein-rap2b-via-mir-320b
#2
Gong-Yi Lv, Jun Miao, Xiao-Lin Zhang
Abnormal expression of long non-coding RNA (lncRNAs) often contributes to unrestricted growth and invasion of cancer cells. LncRNA X-inactive specific transcript (XIST) expression is up-regulated in several cancers, however, its underlying mechanism in osteosarcoma (OS) has not been elucidated. In the present study, we found that XIST expression was significantly increased in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines by LncRNA Profiler and qRT-PCR. The effects of XIST and miR-320b on osteosarcoma cell proliferation and invasion were studied by MTT assay and Transwell invasion assay...
April 12, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408981/rna-and-proteins-mutual-respect
#3
REVIEW
Kathleen B Hall
Proteins and RNA are often found in ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs), where they function in cellular processes to synthesize proteins (the ribosome), chemically modify RNAs (small nucleolar RNPs), splice pre-mRNAs (the spliceosome), and, on a larger scale, sequester RNAs, degrade them, or process them (P bodies, Cajal bodies, and nucleoli). Each RNA-protein interaction is a story in itself, as both molecules can change conformation, compete for binding sites, and regulate cellular functions. Recent studies of Xist long non-coding RNP, the U4/5/6 tri-small nuclear RNP complex, and an activated state of a spliceosome reveal new features of RNA interactions with proteins, and, although their stories are incomplete, they are already fascinating...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408975/x-chromosome-inactivation-new-players-in-the-initiation-of-gene-silencing
#4
REVIEW
Ines Pinheiro, Edith Heard
X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a dosage compensation process that was adopted by female mammals to balance gene dosage between XX females and XY males. XCI starts with the upregulation of the non-coding RNA Xist, after which most X-linked genes are silenced and acquire a repressive chromatin state. Even though the chromatin marks of the inactive X have been fairly well described, the mechanisms responsible for the initiation of XCI remain largely unknown. In this review, we discuss recent developments that revealed unexpected factors playing a role in XCI and that might be of crucial importance to understand the mechanisms responsible for the very first steps of this chromosome-wide gene-silencing event...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403217/embryonic-loss-of-human-females-with-partial-trisomy-19-identifies-region-critical-for-the-single-active-x
#5
Barbara R Migeon, Michael A Beer, Hans T Bjornsson
To compensate for the sex difference in the number of X chromosomes, human females, like human males have only one active X. The other X chromosomes in cells of both sexes are silenced in utero by XIST, the Inactive X Specific Transcript gene, that is present on all X chromosomes. To investigate the means by which the human active X is protected from silencing by XIST, we updated the search for a key dosage sensitive XIST repressor using new cytogenetic data with more precise resolution. Here, based on a previously unknown sex bias in copy number variations, we identify a unique region in our genome, and propose candidate genes that lie within, as they could inactivate XIST...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401797/the-state-of-skewed-x-chromosome-inactivation-is-retained-in-the-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-a-female-with-hemophilia-b
#6
Cuicui Lyu, Jun Shen, Jianping Zhang, Feng Xue, Xiaofan Liu, Wei Liu, Rongfeng Fu, Liyan Zhang, Huiyuan Li, Donglei Zhang, Xiaobing Zhang, Tao Cheng, Renchi Yang, Lei Zhang
Skewed X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a rare reason for hemophilia B in females. It is indefinite whether X chromosome reactivation (XCR) would occur when cells of hemophilia B patients with skewed XCI were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In this study, we investigated a female hemophilia B patient with a known F9 gene mutation: c.676C>T, p.Arg226Trp. We demonstrated that skewed XCI was the pathogenesis of the patient, and we successfully generated numerous iPSCs colonies of the patient from PBMNCs, which was the first time for generating hemophilia-specific iPSCs from PBMNCs...
April 12, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388883/long-non-coding-rna-xist-regulates-pten-expression-by-sponging-mir-181a-and-promotes-hepatocellular-carcinoma-progression
#7
Shuzhen Chang, Binhe Chen, Xiaoyan Wang, Keqin Wu, Yuqiu Sun
BACKGROUND: Tumor metastasis often occurs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and influences the patient's prognosis, and microRNAs are reported to play key roles in tumor metastasis. This study was conducted to explore the effect of microRNAs on HCC metastasis. METHODS: The levels of miR-181a in HCC tissues, adjacent tissues, metastatic HCC tissues, and non-metastatic HCC tissues at different stages were determined by qRT-PCR. Effect of miR-181a on the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of HCC cells was estimated by cell counting kits-8 (CCK-8), wound-healing, and Transwell assays...
April 7, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387970/mutation-of-the-xist-gene-up-regulates-expression-of-x-linked-genes-but-decreases-the-developmental-rates-of-cloned-male-porcine-embryos
#8
Yang Yang, Dan Wu, Dewu Liu, Junsong Shi, Rong Zhou, Xiaoyan He, Jianping Quan, Gengyuan Cai, Enqin Zheng, Zhenfang Wu, Zicong Li
XIST is an X-linked, non-coding gene responsible for the cis induction of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI). Knockout of the XIST allele on an active X chromosome abolishes erroneous XCI and enhances the in vivo development of cloned mouse embryos by more than tenfold. This study aimed to investigate if a similar manipulation would improve cloning efficiency in pigs. A male, porcine kidney cell line containing an EGFP insert in exon 1 of the XIST gene, resulting in a knockout allele (XIST-KO), was generated by homologous recombination using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs)...
April 7, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368292/long-coding-rna-xist-contributes-to-neuronal-apoptosis-through-the-downregulation-of-akt-phosphorylation-and-is-negatively-regulated-by-mir-494-in-rat-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Shixin Gu, Rong Xie, Xiaodong Liu, Jiajun Shou, Wentao Gu, Xiaoming Che
Recent evidence has suggested that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, including spinal cord injury (SCI). However, little is known about the role of lncRNAs in SCI. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential functions of lncRNAs in SCI and to identify the underlying mechanisms of action. We firstly analyzed Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets to investigate aberrantly-expressed lncRNAs which might be involved in the pathogenesis of SCI...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368037/high-resolution-rna-allelotyping-along-the-inactive-x-chromosome-evidence-of-rna-polymerase-iii-in-regulating-chromatin-configuration
#10
Ru Hong, Bingqing Lin, Xinyi Lu, Lan-Tian Lai, Xin Chen, Amartya Sanyal, Huck-Hui Ng, Kun Zhang, Li-Feng Zhang
We carried out padlock capture, a high-resolution RNA allelotyping method, to study X chromosome inactivation (XCI). We examined the gene reactivation pattern along the inactive X (Xi), after Xist (X-inactive specific transcript), a prototype long non-coding RNA essential for establishing X chromosome inactivation (XCI) in early embryos, is conditionally deleted from Xi in somatic cells (Xi(∆Xist)). We also monitored the behaviors of X-linked non-coding transcripts before and after XCI. In each mutant cell line, gene reactivation occurs to ~6% genes along Xi(∆Xist) in a recognizable pattern...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330694/cant1-lncrna-triggers-efficient-therapeutic-efficacy-by-correcting-aberrant-lncing-cascade-in-malignant-uveal-melanoma
#11
Yue Xing, Xuyang Wen, Xia Ding, Jiayan Fan, Peiwei Chai, Renbing Jia, Shengfang Ge, Guanxiang Qian, He Zhang, Xianqun Fan
Uveal melanoma (UM) is an intraocular malignant tumor with a high mortality rate. Recent studies have shown the functions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in tumorigenesis; thus, targeting tumor-specific lncRNA abnormalities has become an attractive approach for developing therapeutics to treat uveal melanoma. In this study, we identified a novel nuclear CANT1 lncRNA (CASC15-New-Transcript 1) that acts as a necessary UM suppressor. CANT1 significantly reduced tumor metastatic capacity and tumor formation, either in cell culture or in animals harboring tumor xenograft...
March 18, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296881/transcriptomic-responses-to-environmental-temperature-by-turtles-with-temperature-dependent-and-genotypic-sex-determination-assessed-by-rnaseq-inform-the-genetic-architecture-of-embryonic-gonadal-development
#12
Srihari Radhakrishnan, Robert Literman, Jennifer Neuwald, Andrew Severin, Nicole Valenzuela
Vertebrate sexual fate is decided primarily by the individual's genotype (GSD), by the environmental temperature during development (TSD), or both. Turtles exhibit TSD and GSD, making them ideal to study the evolution of sex determination. Here we analyze temperature-specific gonadal transcriptomes (RNA-sequencing validated by qPCR) of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta TSD) before and during the thermosensitive period, and at equivalent stages in soft-shell turtles (Apalone spinifera-GSD), to test whether TSD's and GSD's transcriptional circuitry is identical but deployed differently between mechanisms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295543/lncrna-xist-promotes-pancreatic-cancer-proliferation-through-mir-133a-egfr
#13
Wei Wei, Yu Liu, Yebin Lu, Bo Yang, Ling Tang
According to recent studies, long non-coding RNA X-inactive specific transcript (XIST) is involved in the development and progression of many malignant tumors including pancreatic cancer. We validated the detailed role of XIST in human pancreatic cancer (PC) cell lines and PC tissues so as to determine its exact function and the mechanism by which it affected PC proliferation. In our research, lncRNA-XIST was specifically upregulated in PC tissues and cell lines, and high XIST expression in PC was related to poorer prognosis (larger tumor size, perineural invasion, lymph node micrometastases and shorter overall survival)...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287613/knockdown-of-long-non-coding-rna-xist-increases-blood-tumor-barrier-permeability-and-inhibits-glioma-angiogenesis-by-targeting-mir-137
#14
H Yu, Y Xue, P Wang, X Liu, J Ma, J Zheng, Z Li, Z Li, H Cai, Y Liu
Antiangiogenic therapy plays a significant role in combined glioma treatment. However, poor permeability of the blood-tumor barrier (BTB) limits the transport of chemotherapeutic agents, including antiangiogenic drugs, into tumor tissues. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in various diseases, especially malignant tumors. The present study found that lncRNA X-inactive-specific transcript (XIST) was upregulated in endothelial cells that were obtained in a BTB model in vitro. XIST knockdown increased BTB permeability and inhibited glioma angiogenesis...
March 13, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257137/novel-players-in-x-inactivation-insights-into-xist-mediated-gene-silencing-and-chromosome-conformation
#15
REVIEW
Simão T da Rocha, Edith Heard
The nuclear long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) Xist ensures X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in female placental mammals. Although Xist is one of the most intensively studied lncRNAs, the mechanisms associated with its capacity to trigger chromosome-wide gene silencing, the formation of facultative heterochromatin and an unusual 3D conformation of the inactive X chromosome (Xi) have remained elusive. Now researchers have identified novel functional partners of Xist in a series of breakthrough studies, using unbiased techniques to isolate Xist-bound proteins, as well as forward genetic screens...
March 3, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251479/changes-in-lncrnas-and-related-genes-in-%C3%AE-thalassemia-minor-and-%C3%AE-thalassemia-major
#16
Jing Ma, Fei Liu, Xin Du, Duan Ma, Likuan Xiong
β-thalassemia is caused by β-globin gene mutations. However, heterogeneous phenotypes were found in individuals with same genotype, and still undescribed mechanism underlies such variation. We collected blood samples from 30 β-thalassemia major, 30 β-thalassemia minor patients, and 30 matched normal controls. Human lncRNA Array v2.0 (8 × 60 K, Arraystar) was used to detect changes in long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and mRNAs in three samples each from β-thalassemia major, β-thalassemia minor, and control groups...
March 2, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248928/the-lncrna-xist-exhibits-oncogenic-properties-via-regulation-of-mir-449a-and-bcl-2-in-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancerthis-article-has-been-corrected-since-advanced-online-publication-and-an-erratum-is-also-printed-in-this-issue
#17
Ya-Long Zhang, Xue-Bing Li, Yan-Xu Hou, Nian-Zhen Fang, Jia-Cong You, Qing-Hua Zhou
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are associated with the occurrence, development and prognoses of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present study, we investigated the functional mechanisms of the lncRNA XIST in two human NSCLC cell lines, A549 and NCI-H1299. In all the 5 NSCLC cell lines (NL9980, NCI-H1299, NCI-H460, SPC-A-1 and A549) tested, the expression levels of XIST were significantly elevated, as compared with those in normal human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. In A549 and NCI-H1299 cells, knockdown of XIST by siRNA significantly inhibited the cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and promoted cell apoptosis...
March 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248926/erratum-the-lncrna-xist-exhibits-oncogenic-properties-via-regulation-of-mir-449a-and-bcl-2-in-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241084/characterization-of-bovine-embryos-cultured-under-conditions-appropriate-for-sustaining-human-na%C3%A3-ve-pluripotency
#19
Bas Brinkhof, Helena T A van Tol, Marian J A Groot Koerkamp, Richard W Wubbolts, Henk P Haagsman, Bernard A J Roelen
In mammalian preimplantation development, pluripotent cells are set aside from cells that contribute to extra-embryonic tissues. Although the pluripotent cell population of mouse and human embryos can be cultured as embryonic stem cells, little is known about the pathways involved in formation of a bovine pluripotent cell population, nor how to maintain these cells in vitro. The objective of this study was to determine the transcriptomic profile related to bovine pluripotency. Therefore, in vitro derived embryos were cultured in various culture media that recently have been reported capable of maintaining the naïve pluripotent state of human embryonic cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236732/x-chromosome-inactivation-silencing-topology-and-reactivation
#20
REVIEW
Teresa Robert Finestra, Joost Gribnau
To ensure X-linked gene dosage compensation between females (XX) and males (XY), one X chromosome undergoes X chromosome inactivation (XCI) in female cells. This process is tightly regulated throughout development by many different factors, with Xist as a key regulator, encoding a long non-coding RNA, involved in establishment of several layers of repressive epigenetic modifications. Several recent studies on XCI focusing on identification and characterization of Xist RNA-protein interactors, revealed new factors involved in gene silencing, genome topology and nuclear membrane attachment, amongst others...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
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