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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443134/characterization-of-x-chromosome-gene-expression-in-bovine-blastocysts-derived-by-in-vitro-fertilization-and-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer
#1
Byungkuk Min, Jung Sun Park, Kyuheum Jeon, Yong-Kook Kang
To better understand X-chromosome reactivation (XCR) during early development, we analyzed transcriptomic data obtained from bovine male and female blastocysts derived by in-vitro fertilization (IVF) or somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). We found that X-linked genes were upregulated by almost two-fold in female compared with male IVF blastocysts. The upregulation of X-linked genes in female IVFs indicated a transcriptional dimorphism between the sexes, because the mean autosomal gene expression levels were relatively constant, regardless of sex...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442529/coinheritance-of-novel-mutations-in-scn1a-causing-gefs-and-in-kdm6a-causing-kabuki-syndrome-in-a-family
#2
Jisun Kim, Cha Gon Lee
Because the differentiation between phenotypic expansion and blended phenotypes is not clear, the mixed phenotypes of blended rare genetic diseases make diagnosis difficult. We describe a family with the co-existence and co-segregation of generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) and Kabuki syndrome (KS). The proband, a 7-year-old male, presented with GEFS+, dysmorphic facial features, short stature, developmental delay, and intellectual disability. Two novel missense mutations: p.G325A in the KDM6A gene responsible for KS and p...
March 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437463/relationship-of-the-crebc-two-component-regulatory-system-and-inner-membrane-protein-cred-with-swimming-motility-in-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia
#3
Hsin-Hui Huang, Wei-Ching Chen, Cheng-Wen Lin, Yi-Tsung Lin, Hsiao-Chen Ning, Yi-Chih Chang, Tsuey-Ching Yang
The CreBC two-component system (TCS) is a conserved regulatory system found in Escherichia coli, Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. In this study, we determined how CreBC TCS regulates secreted protease activities and swimming motility using creB, creC, and creBC in-frame deletion mutants (KJΔCreB, KJΔCreC, and KJΔBC) of S. maltophilia KJ. Compared to wild-type KJ, KJΔCreB had a comparable secreted protease activity; however, the secreted protease activities were obviously reduced in KJΔCreC and KJΔBC, suggesting that CreC works together with another unidentified response regulator (not CreB) to regulate secreted protease activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436023/activation-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-by-metformin-ablates-angiotensin-ii-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-hypertension-in-mice-in-vivo
#4
Quanlu Duan, Ping Song, Ye Ding, Ming-Hui Zou
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Metformin, one of the most frequently prescribed medications for type 2 diabetes, reportedly exerts blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects in patients with diabetes; however, the effects and underlying mechanisms of metformin on BP in non-diabetic condition remains to be determined. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of metformin on angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion-induced hypertension in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effects of metformin on BP were investigated in wild-type (WT, C57BL/6 J) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPKα2) knockout (AMPKα2(-/-) ) mice with or without Ang II-infusion...
April 23, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435109/visible-light-inactivation-of-e-coli-cytotoxicity-and-ros-determination-of-biochemically-capped-gold-nanoparticles
#5
Faheem Ullah Khan, Yongmei Chen, Naeem Ullah Khan, Aftab Ahmad, Kamran Tahir, Zia UlHaq Khan, Arif Ullah Khan, Shifa Ullah Khan, Muslim Raza, Pingyu Wan
The formation of metal nanoparticles is one of the most vast and intensifying research areas in favor of prospective applications for the advancement of new technologies. It is a well-founded, significant feature of green chemistry that making marvelous interconnection between nano-biotechnology and microbial biotechnology. In the present research, the aqueous extract of medicinally important plant Coptis Chinensis (in Chinese called "gold thread") was applied for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs)...
April 20, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430099/mutual-interaction-enables-the-mycobacterial-plasmid-pal5000-origin-binding-protein-repb-to-recruit-repa-the-plasmid-replicase-to-the-origin
#6
Soniya Chatterjee, Madhu Manti Patra, Sourabh Samaddar, Arnab Basu, Sujoy K Das Gupta
The Mycobacterium fortuitum plasmid, pAL5000, is the most-studied member of a family of plasmids that are found in Actinobacteria. Its replication is brought about by the combined action of two plasmid-encoded replication proteins, RepA and RepB. RepB has earlier been shown to be a sigma factor homologue that possesses origin-binding activity. The mechanism by which RepA functions, and its relationship with RepB, if any, has not been explored yet. In this study, we show that RepA shares a common catalytic domain, with proteins belonging to the primase-polymerase and DNA polymerase X families...
April 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428550/structure-based-dynamic-arrays-in-regulatory-domains-of-sodium-calcium-exchanger-ncx-isoforms
#7
Moshe Giladi, Su Youn Lee, Yarden Ariely, Yotam Teldan, Rotem Granit, Roi Strulovich, Yoni Haitin, Ka Young Chung, Daniel Khananshvili
Mammalian Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers, NCX1 and NCX3, generate splice variants, whereas NCX2 does not. The CBD1 and CBD2 domains form a regulatory tandem (CBD12), where Ca(2+) binding to CBD1 activates and Ca(2+) binding to CBD2 (bearing the splicing segment) alleviates the Na(+)-induced inactivation. Here, the NCX2-CBD12, NCX3-CBD12-B, and NCX3-CBD12-AC proteins were analyzed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass-spectrometry (HDX-MS) to resolve regulatory variances in the NCX2 and NCX3 variants...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416648/isoflurane-modulates-activation-and-inactivation-gating-of-the-prokaryotic-na-channel-nachbac
#8
Rheanna M Sand, Kevin J Gingrich, Tamar Macharadze, Karl F Herold, Hugh C Hemmings
Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Nav) have emerged as important presynaptic targets for volatile anesthetic (VA) effects on synaptic transmission. However, the detailed biophysical mechanisms by which VAs modulate Nav function remain unclear. VAs alter macroscopic activation and inactivation of the prokaryotic Na(+) channel, NaChBac, which provides a useful structural and functional model of mammalian Nav Here, we study the effects of the common general anesthetic isoflurane on NaChBac function by analyzing macroscopic Na(+) currents (INa) in wild-type (WT) channels and mutants with impaired (G229A) or enhanced (G219A) inactivation...
April 17, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414775/xp11-22-deletions-encompassing-cenpvl1-cenpvl2-maged1-and-gspt2-as-a-cause-of-syndromic-x-linked-intellectual-disability
#9
Christina Grau, Molly Starkovich, Mahshid S Azamian, Fan Xia, Sau Wai Cheung, Patricia Evans, Alex Henderson, Seema R Lalani, Daryl A Scott
By searching a clinical database of over 60,000 individuals referred for array-based CNV analyses and online resources, we identified four males from three families with intellectual disability, developmental delay, hypotonia, joint hypermobility and relative macrocephaly who carried small, overlapping deletions of Xp11.22. The maximum region of overlap between their deletions spanned ~430 kb and included two pseudogenes, CENPVL1 and CENPVL2, whose functions are not known, and two protein coding genes-the G1 to S phase transition 2 gene (GSPT2) and the MAGE family member D1 gene (MAGED1)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412792/-isolation-of-cariogenic-streptococcus-mutans-and-the-inhibitory-effect-of-egg-yolk-antibody-on-caries
#10
X L Li, Z Zhang, Z X Li, N J Deng, B Zeng, Y M Chen
Objective: To isolate the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans (Sm) strains and study the therapeutical effect of egg yolk antibody (IgY) of the Sm on dental caries development. Methods: Sm strains were isolated from the children's dental plaque samples. Morphological, biochemical and molecular biological methods were applied to identify the serotype, acid producing and adhesion abilities of isolated Sm strains. After inactivation one of the Sm strains was used as antigen to immune laying hens to collect and extract the specific anti-Sm IgY...
April 9, 2017: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408975/x-chromosome-inactivation-new-players-in-the-initiation-of-gene-silencing
#11
REVIEW
Ines Pinheiro, Edith Heard
X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a dosage compensation process that was adopted by female mammals to balance gene dosage between XX females and XY males. XCI starts with the upregulation of the non-coding RNA Xist, after which most X-linked genes are silenced and acquire a repressive chromatin state. Even though the chromatin marks of the inactive X have been fairly well described, the mechanisms responsible for the initiation of XCI remain largely unknown. In this review, we discuss recent developments that revealed unexpected factors playing a role in XCI and that might be of crucial importance to understand the mechanisms responsible for the very first steps of this chromosome-wide gene-silencing event...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403217/embryonic-loss-of-human-females-with-partial-trisomy-19-identifies-region-critical-for-the-single-active-x
#12
Barbara R Migeon, Michael A Beer, Hans T Bjornsson
To compensate for the sex difference in the number of X chromosomes, human females, like human males have only one active X. The other X chromosomes in cells of both sexes are silenced in utero by XIST, the Inactive X Specific Transcript gene, that is present on all X chromosomes. To investigate the means by which the human active X is protected from silencing by XIST, we updated the search for a key dosage sensitive XIST repressor using new cytogenetic data with more precise resolution. Here, based on a previously unknown sex bias in copy number variations, we identify a unique region in our genome, and propose candidate genes that lie within, as they could inactivate XIST...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401797/the-state-of-skewed-x-chromosome-inactivation-is-retained-in-the-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-a-female-with-hemophilia-b
#13
Cuicui Lyu, Jun Shen, Jianping Zhang, Feng Xue, Xiaofan Liu, Wei Liu, Rongfeng Fu, Liyan Zhang, Huiyuan Li, Donglei Zhang, Xiaobing Zhang, Tao Cheng, Renchi Yang, Lei Zhang
Skewed X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a rare reason for hemophilia B in females. It is indefinite whether X chromosome reactivation (XCR) would occur when cells of hemophilia B patients with skewed XCI were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In this study, we investigated a female hemophilia B patient with a known F9 gene mutation: c.676C>T, p.Arg226Trp. We demonstrated that skewed XCI was the pathogenesis of the patient, and we successfully generated numerous iPSCs colonies of the patient from PBMNCs, which was the first time for generating hemophilia-specific iPSCs from PBMNCs...
April 12, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400471/a-novel-tarantula-toxin-stabilizes-the-deactivated-voltage-sensor-of-bacterial-sodium-channel
#14
Cheng Tang, Xi Zhou, Phuong Tran Nguyen, Yunxiao Zhang, Zhaotun Hu, Changxin Zhang, Vladimir Yarov-Yarovoy, Paul G DeCaen, Songping Liang, Zhonghua Liu
Voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs) are activated by transiting the voltage sensor from the deactivated to the activated state. The crystal structures of several bacterial NaVs have captured the voltage sensor module (VSM) in an activated state, but structure of the deactivated voltage sensor remains elusive. In this study, we sought to identify peptide toxins stabilizing the deactivated VSM of bacterial NaVs. We screened fractions from several venoms and characterized a cystine knot toxin called JZTx-27 from the venom of tarantula Chilobrachys jingzhao as a high-affinity antagonist of the prokaryotic NaVs nonselective voltage-gated, Bacillus alcalophilus (NsVBa) and bacterial sodium channel from Bacillus halodurans(NaChBac) (IC50 = 112 nM and 30 nM, respectively)...
April 11, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397837/the-nucleus-reuniens-a-key-node-in-the-neurocircuitry-of-stress-and-depression
#15
V Kafetzopoulos, N Kokras, I Sotiropoulos, J F Oliveira, H Leite-Almeida, A Vasalou, V M Sardinha, Z Papadopoulou-Daifoti, O F X Almeida, K Antoniou, N Sousa, C Dalla
The hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) are connected in a reciprocal manner: whereas the hippocampus projects directly to the PFC, a polysynaptic pathway that passes through the nucleus reuniens (RE) of the thalamus relays inputs from the PFC to the hippocampus. The present study demonstrates that lesioning and/or inactivation of the RE reduces coherence in the PFC-hippocampal pathway, provokes an antidepressant-like behavioral response in the forced swim test and prevents, but does not ameliorate, anhedonia in the chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391319/allele-specific-expression-analysis-does-not-support-sex-chromosome-inactivation-on-the-chicken-z-chromosome
#16
Qiong Wang, Judith E Mank, Junying Li, Ning Yang, Lujiang Qu
Heterogametic sex chromosomes have evolved many times independently, and in many cases, the loss of functional genes from the sex-limited Y or W chromosome leaves only one functional gene copy on the corresponding X or Z chromosome in the heterogametic sex. Because gene dose often correlates with gene expression level, this difference in gene dose between males and females for X- or Z-linked genes in some cases has selected for chromosome-wide transcriptional dosage compensation mechanisms to counteract any reduction in expression in the heterogametic sex...
March 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387970/mutation-of-the-xist-gene-up-regulates-expression-of-x-linked-genes-but-decreases-the-developmental-rates-of-cloned-male-porcine-embryos
#17
Yang Yang, Dan Wu, Dewu Liu, Junsong Shi, Rong Zhou, Xiaoyan He, Jianping Quan, Gengyuan Cai, Enqin Zheng, Zhenfang Wu, Zicong Li
XIST is an X-linked, non-coding gene responsible for the cis induction of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI). Knockout of the XIST allele on an active X chromosome abolishes erroneous XCI and enhances the in vivo development of cloned mouse embryos by more than tenfold. This study aimed to investigate if a similar manipulation would improve cloning efficiency in pigs. A male, porcine kidney cell line containing an EGFP insert in exon 1 of the XIST gene, resulting in a knockout allele (XIST-KO), was generated by homologous recombination using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs)...
April 7, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386044/foxp3-exhibits-antiepileptic-effects-in-ictogenesis-involved-in-tlr4-signaling
#18
Fa-Xiang Wang, Xiao-Yi Xiong, Qi Zhong, Zhao-You Meng, Hui Yang, Qing-Wu Yang
Inflammatory processes play critical roles in epileptogenesis but the exact mechanisms that underlie these processes are still not completely understood. In this study, we investigated the role of forkhead transcription factor 3 (Foxp3), a transcription factor that is involved in T-cell differentiation, in epileptogenesis. In both human epileptic tissues and experimental seizure models, we found significant up-regulation of Foxp3 in neurons and glial cells. Of importance, Foxp3(-/-) mice were susceptible to kainic acid-induced seizures, whereas overexpression of Foxp3 reduced acute seizure occurrence and decreased chronic seizure recurrence...
April 6, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381555/inclusion-of-an-arg-gly-asp-receptor-recognition-motif-into-the-capsid-protein-of-rabbit-hemorrhagic-disease-virus-enables-culture-of-the-virus-in-vitro
#19
Jie Zhu, Qiuhong Miao, Yonggui Tan, Huimin Guo, Teng Liu, Binbin Wang, Zongyan Chen, Chuanfeng Li, Guangqing Liu
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), an important member of the caliciviridae family, cannot be propagated in vitro, which has greatly impeded the progress of investigations into the mechanisms of pathogenesis, translation, and replication of this and related viruses. In this study, we have successfully bypassed this obstacle by constructing a mutant RHDV (mRHDV) by using a reverse genetics-technique. By changing two amino acids (305S→R, 307N→D), we produced a specific receptor recognition motif (Arg-Gly-Asp, called RGD) on the surface of the RHDV capsid protein...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380507/twin-or-single-screw-extrusion-of-raw-soybeans-and-preconditioned-soybean-meal-and-corn-as-individual-ingredients-or-as-corn-soybean-product-blends-in-diets-for-weanling-swine
#20
T L Veum, X Serrano, F H Hsieh
Two 28-d experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of extrusion of ground yellow corn, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM), and cracked whole soybeans (CWS) individually or as corn-soybean product blends on growth performance of weanling pigs. For Exp. 1, ground corn, SBM, and the corn-SBM blend were extruded at 137.5°C, 131.5°C, and 135.0°C, respectively, in a twin-screw extruder. Transit time was 60 s. Water was injected at 125 gmin during extrusion. The 5 treatments were the corn-SBM control diet and the diets with extruded (EX) corn + SBM, EX-SBM + corn, EX-corn + EX-SBM, and the EX-blend of corn-SBM...
March 2017: Journal of Animal Science
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