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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927883/retinol-saturase-modulates-lipid-metabolism-and-the-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#1
Xiao-Yan Pang, Suya Wang, Michael J Jurczak, Gerald I Shulman, Alexander R Moise
Retinol saturase (RetSat) catalyzes the saturation of double bonds of all-trans-retinol leading to the production of dihydroretinoid metabolites. Beside its role in retinoid metabolism, there is evidence that RetSat modulates the cellular response to oxidative stress and plays critical roles in adipogenesis and the accumulation of lipids. Here, we explore the relationship between RetSat, lipid metabolism and oxidative stress using in vitro and in vivo models with altered expression of RetSat. Our results reveal that RetSat is a potent modulator of the cellular response to oxidative stress and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
September 16, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927768/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-peptide-derived-tslp-inhibitors
#2
Seonghu Park, Yeeun Park, Sang-Hyun Son, Kiho Lee, Yong Woo Jung, Ki Yong Lee, Young Ho Jeon, Youngjoo Byun
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a type II cytokine which is associated with most inflammatory allergic disorders in humans. It is produced mainly by epithelial cells with important role in the development of chronic inflammatory diseases by activating T-helper cell type-2 (TH2) pathways. In this study, a total of 16 peptides were prepared by solid phase peptide synthesis based on amino acid sequences of the interface between TSLP and TSLP receptor. Their TSLP inhibition activities were determined by ELISA assay...
September 7, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927346/deep-venous-thrombosis-prophylaxis-in-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstructive-surgery-what-is-the-current-state-of-practice
#3
Robert A Keller, Vasilios Moutzouros, Joshua S Dines, Charles A Bush-Joseph, Orr Limpisvasti
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant perioperative risk with many common orthopaedic procedures. Currently, there is no standardized recommendation for the use of VTE prophylaxis during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. This study sought to evaluate the current prophylactic practices of fellowship-trained sports medicine orthopaedic surgeons in the United States. HYPOTHESIS: Very few surgeons use perioperative VTE prophylaxis for ACL reconstructive surgery...
September 1, 2017: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924523/the-interplay-of-genetics-and-environmental-factors-in-the-development-of-obesity
#4
REVIEW
Abu Baker Sheikh, Adeel Nasrullah, Shujaul Haq, Aisha Akhtar, Haider Ghazanfar, Amara Nasir, Rao M Afzal, Marvi M Bukhari, Ahtsham Yousaf Chaudhary, Syed W Naqvi
Obesity is a major health issue in the developed nations, and it has been increasingly clear that both genetics and environment play an important role in determining if an individual will be obese or not. We reviewed the latest researches which were carried out to identify the obesity susceptible genes and to identify the metabolic pathways having a central role in energy balance. Obesity is a heritable disorder, and some of the many obesity susceptible genes are fat mass and obesity (FTO), leptin, and Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R)...
July 6, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924037/intrinsically-disordered-sequences-enable-modulation-of-protein-phase-separation-through-distributed-tyrosine-motifs
#5
Yuan Lin, Simon L Currie, Michael Keith Rosen
Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) is thought to contribute to establishment of many biomolecular condensates, eukaryotic cell structures that concentrate diverse macromolecules but lack a bounding membrane. RNA granules control RNA metabolism and comprise a large class of condensates that are enriched in RNA-binding proteins and RNA molecules. Many RNA granule proteins are composed of both modular domains and intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) having low amino acid sequence complexity. Phase separation of these molecules likely plays an important role in the generation and stability of RNA granules...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924012/inhibition-of-il-1%C3%AE-signaling-normalizes-nmda-dependent-neurotransmission-and-reduces-seizure-susceptibility-in-a-mouse-model-of-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease
#6
Ilaria Bertani, Valentina Iori, Massimo Trusel, Mattia Maroso, Claudia Foray, Susanna Mantovani, Raffaella Tonini, Annamaria Vezzani, Roberto Chiesa
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by prion protein (PrP) misfolding, clinically recognized by cognitive and motor deficits, electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities and seizures. Its neurophysiological bases are not known. To assess the potential involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dysfunction, we analyzed NMDA-dependent synaptic plasticity in hippocampal slices from Tg(CJD) mice, which model a genetic form of CJD. Because PrP depletion may result in functional upregulation of NMDARs, we also analyzed PrP knockout (KO) mice...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919002/x-linked-adrenoleukodystrophy-in-a-chimpanzee-due-to-an-abcd1-mutation-reported-in-multiple-unrelated-humans
#7
Julian Curiel, Steven Jeffrey Steinberg, Sarah Bright, Ann Snowden, Ann B Moser, Florian Eichler, Holly A Dubbs, Joseph G Hacia, John J Ely, Jocelyn Bezner, Alisa Gean, Adeline Vanderver
BACKGROUND: X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a genetic disorder leading to the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) due to a mutation in the ABCD1 gene. ABCD1 mutations lead to a variety of phenotypes, including cerebral X-ALD and adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) in affected males and 80% of carrier females. There is no definite genotype-phenotype correlation with intrafamilial variability. Cerebral X-ALD typically presents in childhood, but can also present in juveniles and adults...
September 1, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918129/where-do-substrates-of-diacylglycerol-kinases-come-from-diacylglycerol-kinases-utilize-diacylglycerol-species-supplied-from-phosphatidylinositol-turnover-independent-pathways
#8
REVIEW
Fumio Sakane, Satoru Mizuno, Daisuke Takahashi, Hiromichi Sakai
Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) phosphorylates diacylglycerol (DG) to produce phosphatidic acid (PA). Mammalian DGK comprises ten isozymes (α-κ) and regulates a wide variety of physiological and pathological events, such as cancer, type II diabetes, neuronal disorders and immune responses. DG and PA consist of various molecular species that have different acyl chains at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions, and consequently, mammalian cells contain at least 50 structurally distinct DG/PA species. Because DGK is one of the components of phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover, the generally accepted dogma is that all DGK isozymes utilize 18:0/20:4-DG derived from PI turnover...
September 9, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915150/tics-and-tourette-a-clinical-pathophysiological-and-etiological-review
#9
Russell C Dale
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Describe developments in the etiological understanding of Tourette syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Tourette syndrome is a complex heterogenous clinical syndrome, which is not a unitary entity. Pathophysiological models describe gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic-associated disinhibition of cortico-basal ganglia motor, sensory and limbic loops. MRI studies support basal ganglia volume loss, with additional white matter and cerebellar changes. Tourette syndrome cause likely involves multiple vulnerability genes and environmental factors...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912717/global-metabolomics-reveals-the-metabolic-dysfunction-in-ox-ldl-induced-macrophage-derived-foam-cells
#10
Wenjuan Xu, Ziyi Wei, Jiaojiao Dong, Feipeng Duan, Kuikui Chen, Chang Chen, Jie Liu, Xiaowei Yang, Lianming Chen, Hongbin Xiao, An Liu
Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic disorder of large arteries that is a major risk factors of high morbidity and mortality. Oxidative modification LDL is one of the important contributors to atherogenesis. Macrophages take up ox-LDL and convert into foam cells, which is the hallmark of AS. To advance the understanding of the metabolic perturbation involved in ox-LDL induced macrophage-derived foam cells and discover the potential biomarkers of early AS, a global metabolomics approach was applied based on UHPLC-QTOF/MS...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905951/order-disorder-phase-transition-in-an-anhydrous-pyrazole-based-proton-conductor-the-enhancement-of-electrical-transport-properties
#11
M Widelicka, K Pogorzelec-Glaser, A Pietraszko, P Ławniczak, R Pankiewicz, A Łapiński
The crystal structure of 1H-pyrazol-2-ium hydrogen oxalate has been studied at 100 K. It consists of two-dimensional layers built with one-dimensional chains that contain pyrazolium and oxalate acids bonded by N-HO and O-HO hydrogen bonds. According to the X-ray data and the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules, it was shown that weak and moderate hydrogen bonds are present in the crystal at room temperature. The thermal stability was studied with the DSC, TGA, and DTG methods: three endothermic peaks are observed at 384, 420, and 469 K...
September 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905885/long-term-correction-of-hemophilia-a-mice-following-lentiviral-mediated-delivery-of-an-optimized-canine-factor-viii-gene
#12
J M Staber, M J Pollpeter, C-G Anderson, M Burrascano, A L Cooney, P L Sinn, D T Rutkowski, W C Raschke, P B McCray
Current therapies for hemophilia A include frequent prophylactic or on-demand intravenous factor treatments which are costly, inconvenient and may lead to inhibitor formation. Viral vector delivery of factor VIII (FVIII) cDNA has the potential to alleviate the debilitating clotting defects. Lentiviral-based vectors delivered to murine models of hemophilia A mediate phenotypic correction. However, a limitation of lentiviral-mediated FVIII delivery is inefficient transduction of target cells. Here, we engineer a feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) -based lentiviral vector pseudotyped with the baculovirus GP64 envelope glycoprotein to mediate efficient gene transfer to mouse hepatocytes...
September 14, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904977/misuse-of-topical-corticosteroids-for-cosmetic-purpose-in-antananarivo-madagascar
#13
F A Sendrasoa, I M Ranaivo, M Andrianarison, O Raharolahy, N H Razanakoto, L S Ramarozatovo, F Rapelanoro Rabenja
This cross-sectional study was conducted in Antananarivo, Madagascar, from June to September 2012. We aim to evaluate the misuse of TC on the face for cosmetic purpose and the adverse effects due to its application. A questionnaire-based analysis was done among females who use topical corticosteroids on the face for cosmetic purpose. Of the 770 women questioned, 384 (49,8%) used topical corticosteroids for cosmetic purpose whose mean age was 38 years (range 16-73 years). Two hundred and sixty-one females (68%) used TC combined with handcrafted cosmetics, and 123 (32%) used TC alone...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904678/-epidemiological-profile-of-hemoglobinopathies-a-cross-sectional-and-descriptive-index-case-study
#14
Fatima Dahmani, Souad Benkirane, Jaafar Kouzih, Aziz Woumki, Hassan Mamad, Azlarab Masrar
Hemoglobinopathies are congenital disorders resultimg from hemoglobin abnormalities. Major forms are often severe, their management is difficult and associated with a great psychosocial impact on patients and their families. They are classified as rare diseases and are still insufficiently known by health professionals. This lack of knowledge is at the origin of diagnostic errors, delay in their management and therefore high morbidity and mortality rate for these patients. In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) has published data on hemoglobinopathies epidemiology: more than 330...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904440/primary-hyperoxaluria-type-1-with-homozygosity-for-a-double-mutated-agxt-allele-in-a-2-year-old-child
#15
S Krishnamurthy, G B Kartha, V S Venkateswaran, M Prasannakumar, S Mahadevan, M Gowda, A Pelle, D Giachino
Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) Type 1 is a rare, genetic disorder caused by deficiency of the liver enzyme alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase, which is encoded by AGXT gene. We report a 2-year-old South Indian Tamil child with nephrocalcinosis due to PH Type 1, in whom a homozygous genotype for two missense mutations in the AGXT gene was found: first, a C to G transversion (c. 32C>G) in exon 1 resulting in the amino acid substitution p.Pro11Arg; second, a T to A transversion (c. 167T>A) in exon 2 resulting in p...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902459/exome-sequences-of-multiplex-multigenerational-families-reveal-schizophrenia-risk-loci-with-potential-implications-for-neurocognitive-performance
#16
Mark Z Kos, Melanie A Carless, Juan Peralta, Joanne E Curran, Ellen E Quillen, Marcio Almeida, August Blackburn, Lucy Blondell, David R Roalf, Michael F Pogue-Geile, Ruben C Gur, Harald H H Göring, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar, Raquel E Gur, Laura Almasy
Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness, involving disruptions in thought and behavior, with a worldwide prevalence of about one percent. Although highly heritable, much of the genetic liability of schizophrenia is yet to be explained. We searched for susceptibility loci in multiplex, multigenerational families affected by schizophrenia, targeting protein-altering variation with in silico predicted functional effects. Exome sequencing was performed on 136 samples from eight European-American families, including 23 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902016/raman-microscopy-a-noninvasive-method-to-visualize-the-localizations-of-biomolecules-in-the-cornea
#17
Yuichi Kaji, Toshihiro Akiyama, Hiroki Segawa, Tetsuro Oshika, Hideaki Kano
PURPOSE: In vivo and in situ visualization of biomolecules without pretreatment will be important for diagnosis and treatment of ocular disorders in the future. Recently, multiphoton microscopy, based on the nonlinear interactions between molecules and photons, has been applied to reveal the localizations of various molecules in tissues. We aimed to use multimodal multiphoton microscopy to visualize the localizations of specific biomolecules in rat corneas. METHODS: Multiphoton images of the corneas were obtained from nonlinear signals of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, third-order sum frequency generation, and second-harmonic generation...
September 7, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899753/precise-gene-editing-of-chicken-na-h-exchange-type-1-chnhe1-confers-resistance-to-avian-leukosis-virus-subgroup-j-alv-j
#18
Hong Jo Lee, Kyung Youn Lee, Kyung Min Jung, Kyung Je Park, Ko On Lee, Jeong-Yong Suh, Yongxiu Yao, Venugopal Nair, Jae Yong Han
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), first isolated in the late 1980s, has caused economic losses to the poultry industry in many countries. As all chicken lines studied to date are susceptible to ALV infection, there is enormous interest in developing resistant chicken lines. The ALV-J receptor, chicken Na(+)/H(+) exchange 1 (chNHE1) and the critical amino acid sequences involved in viral attachment and entry have already been characterized. However, there are no reported attempts to induce resistance to the virus by targeted genome modification of the receptor sequences...
September 9, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899670/definition-pathogenesis-and-management-of-that-cursed-dyspepsia
#19
REVIEW
Pramoda Koduru, Malcolm Irani, Eamonn M M Quigley
Dyspepsia is an umbrella term used to encompass a number of symptoms thought to originate from the upper gastrointestinal tract. These symptoms are relatively non-specific; not surprisingly, therefore, a myriad of conditions may present with any one or a combination of these symptoms. Therein lies the clinician's first challenge: detecting the minority who may have a potentially life-threatening disorder, such as gastric cancer, from a population whose symptoms are, for the most part, considered functional in origin...
September 9, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892070/anterior-cingulate-cortex-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-deficits-in-youth-with-depression
#20
V Gabbay, K A Bradley, X Mao, R Ostrover, G Kang, D C Shungu
Abnormally low γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels have been consistently reported in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). Our group extended this finding to adolescents, and documented that GABA deficits were associated with anhedonia. Here we aimed to confirm our prior finding of decreased brain GABA in youth with depression and explore its associations with clinical variables. Forty-four psychotropic medication-free youth with MDD and 36 healthy control (HC) participants (12-21 years) were studied...
August 22, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
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