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Acid-base disorders

Audrey M Bernstein, Robert Ritch, J Mario Wolosin
Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is an age-related disease involving the deposition of aggregated fibrillar material (XFM) at extracellular matrices in tissues that synthesize elastic fibers. Its main morbidity is in the eye, where XFM accumulations form on the surface of the ciliary body, iris and lens. Exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) occurs in a high proportion of persons with XFS and can be a rapidly progressing disease. Worldwide, XFG accounts for about 25% of open-angle glaucoma cases. XFS and XFG show a sharp age-dependence, similarly to the many age-related diseases classified as aggregopathies...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Samia Hadj Ahmed, Wafa Kharroubi, Nadia Kaoubaa, Amira Zarrouk, Fathi Batbout, Habib Gamra, Mohamed Fadhel Najjar, Gérard Lizard, Isabelle Hininger-Favier, Mohamed Hammami
BACKGROUND: Nutritional choices, which include the source of dietary fatty acids (FA), have an important significant impact on coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to determine on patients with CAD the relationships between Trans fatty acids (Trans FA) and different CAD associated parameters such as inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in addition to Gensini score as a vascular severity index. METHODS: Fatty acid profiles were established by gas chromatography from 111 CAD patients compared to 120 age-matched control group...
March 15, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Niloy Kundu, Debasis Banik, Nilmoni Sarkar
Amphiphiles are class of molecules which are known to assemble into a variety of nanostructures. The understanding and applications of self-assembled systems are based on what has been learned from biology. Among the vast number of self-assemblies, in this article, we have described the formation, characterization and dynamics of two important biologically inspired assemblies, vesicles and fibrils. Vesicles, which can be classified into several categories depending on the sizes and components, are of great interest due to their potential application in drug delivery and as nanoscale reactor...
March 15, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Charles K Davis, Sreekala S Nampoothiri, G K Rajanikant
The constant failure of single-target drug therapies for ischemic stroke necessitates the development of novel pleiotropic pharmacological treatment approaches, to effectively combat the aftermath of this devastating disorder. The major objective of our study involves a multi-target drug repurposing strategy to stabilize hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α (HIF-1α) via a structure-based screening approach to simultaneously inhibit its regulatory proteins, PHD2, FIH, and pVHL. Out of 1424 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs that were screened, folic acid (FA) emerged as the top hit and its binding potential to PHD2, FIH, and pVHL was further verified by re-docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and by Drug Affinity Responsive Target Stability (DARTS) assay...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Reiji Yoshimura, Taro Kishi, Kiyokazu Atake, Asuka Katsuki, Nakao Iwata
Background: There are complicated interactions between catecholaminergic neurons and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain. However, no reports have addressed the relationship among 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), homovanillic acid (HVA), and BDNF in the blood. Objective: This paper sought to investigate correlations between serum BDNF and plasma levels of MHPG and HVA in people with major depression (MD). Materials and methods: A total of 148 patients (male/female 65/83, age 49...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Adele S Ricciardi, Elias Quijano, Rachael Putman, W Mark Saltzman, Peter M Glazer
Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) can bind duplex DNA in a sequence-targeted manner, forming a triplex structure capable of inducing DNA repair and producing specific genome modifications. Since the first description of PNA-mediated gene editing in cell free extracts, PNAs have been used to successfully correct human disease-causing mutations in cell culture and in vivo in preclinical mouse models. Gene correction via PNAs has resulted in clinically-relevant functional protein restoration and disease improvement, with low off-target genome effects, indicating a strong therapeutic potential for PNAs in the treatment or cure of genetic disorders...
March 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Maryam Malmir, Rita Serrano, Manuela Caniça, Beatriz Silva-Lima, Olga Silva
Abstract : Plant-based systems continue to play an essential role in healthcare, and their use by different cultures has been extensively documented. Asphodelus L. ( Asphodelaceae ) is a genus of 18 species and of a total of 27 species, sub-species and varieties, distributed along the Mediterranean basin, and has been traditionally used for treating several diseases particularly associated with inflammatory and infectious skin disorders. The present study aimed to provide a general review of the available literature on ethnomedical, phytochemical, and biological data related to the genus Asphodelus as a potential source of new compounds with biological activity...
March 13, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Jin-Kyoung Yang, Eunjin Lee, In-Jun Hwang, DaBin Yim, Juhee Han, Yoon-Sik Lee, Jong-Ho Kim
The regulation of tyrosinase activity and reactive oxygen species is of great importance for the prevention of dermatological disorders in the fields of medicine and cosmetics. Herein, we report a strategy based on solid-phase peptide chemistry for the synthesis of β-lactoglobulin peptide fragment/caffeic acid (CA) conjugates (CA-Peps) with dual activities of tyrosinase inhibition and antioxidation. The purity of the prepared conjugates, CA-MHIR, CA-HIRL, and CA-HIR significantly increased to 99%, as acetonide-protected CA was employed in solid-phase coupling reactions on Rink amide resins...
March 13, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Noriko Fujii, Takumi Takata, Norihiko Fujii, Kenzo Aki, Hiroaki Sakaue
Proteins are composed exclusively of l-amino acids. Among elderly individuals, however, d-aspartic acid (d-Asp) residues have been found in eye lens and brain, as well as in other tissues. The presence of d-Asp may change the higher-order structure of a protein, which in turn may have a role in age-related disorders such as cataract and Alzheimer's disease. d-Asp results from the spontaneous racemization of Asp residues in susceptible proteins. During aging, natural lα-Asp residues in proteins are non-enzymatically isomerized via a succinimidyl intermediate to l-β-, d-α- and d-β-isomers...
March 9, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Michael Malone, Abdul Waheed, Samiullah Samiullah
Functional upper gastrointestinal disorders are common and cause significant patient distress and health care cost. These disorders typically are classified as either esophageal or gastroduodenal. Functional esophageal disorders include functional heartburn, reflux hypersensitivity, and functional dysphagia. Functional gastroduodenal disorders include functional dyspepsia and cyclic vomiting syndrome. Cyclic vomiting syndrome should be suspected in any patient with multiple episodes of vomiting with no apparent cause that completely resolve between episodes...
March 2018: FP Essentials
Michelle L Ratay, Stephen C Balmert, Ethan J Bassin, Steven R Little
Dry eye disease (DED), also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca, is an ocular surface disease characterized by T-cell-mediated inflammation. Current therapeutics, such as immunosuppressive agents, act to suppress the clinical signs and inflammation. However, long-term usage of these treatments can cause severe side effects. In this study, we present an alternative therapeutic approach that utilizes a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) to regulate transcription of a variety of immunomodulatory genes. Specifically, HDACi have emerged as a potential anti-inflammatory agent, which can modulate the functions of a subset of suppressive T lymphocytes known as regulatory T cells (Tregs), enhancing FoxP3 acetylation and subsequently guarding the transcription factor from proteasomal degradation...
March 8, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Tasneem S Alaqzam, Angela C Stanley, Pippa M Simpson, Veronica H Flood, Seema Menon
STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine the relationship of bleeding disorders to iron deficiency anemia. Additionally, this study was undertaken to examine all current treatment modalities used in a menorrhagia clinic with respect to heavy menstrual bleeding management to identify the most effective options for menstrual management in the setting of an underlying bleeding disorder. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANT, INTERVENTION, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Retrospective chart review of adolescent <21 years with heavy menstrual bleeding attending a multidisciplinary hematology-adolescent gynecology clinic...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Virginie-Anne Chouinard, David C Henderson, Chiara Dalla Man, Linda Valeri, Brianna E Gray, Kyle P Ryan, Aaron M Cypess, Claudio Cobelli, Bruce M Cohen, Dost Öngür
Patients with psychotic disorders are at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, and there is increasing evidence that patients display glucose metabolism abnormalities before significant antipsychotic medication exposure. In the present study, we examined insulin action by quantifying insulin sensitivity in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and unaffected siblings, compared to healthy individuals, using a physiological-based model and comprehensive assessment battery. Twenty-two unaffected siblings, 18 FEP patients, and 15 healthy unrelated controls were evaluated using a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), with 7 samples of plasma glucose and serum insulin concentration measurements...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Benjamin David Thumamo Pokam, Jude E Enoh, Aniekan-Augusta O Eyo, Nse O Umoh, Prisca W Guemdjom
Background: Antituberculosis drugs (ATDs) efficiently combat Mycobacterium tuberculosis either through direct molecular interactions or those of its metabolites. However, a variety of adverse effects have been reported, leading to frequent interruptions of treatment. To investigate the possible metabolic disturbances resulting from antituberculosis (TB) treatment, the uric acid (UA) level of patients on ATDs was measured in the southwest region of Cameroon. Methods: This hospital-based cross-sectional study involved 96 TB patients on ATDs and 32 controls who were neither on ATDs nor any other treatment that could increase UA levels...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Jicheng Wang, Huiling Guo, Chenxia Cao, Wei Zhao, Lai-Yu Kwok, Heping Zhang, Wenyi Zhang
Amoxicillin is one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics for bacterial infections and gastrointestinal disorders. To investigate the adaptation of Lactobacillus ( L .) casei Zhang to amoxicillin stress, an iTRAQ-based comparative proteomic analysis was performed to compare the protein profiles between the parental L . casei Zhang and its amoxicillin-resistant descendent strains. Our results revealed a significant increase in the relative expression of 38 proteins (>2.0-folds, P < 0.05), while the relative expression of 34 proteins significantly decreased (<-2...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Monica Chowdhry, Kuldeep Shah, Suzanne Kemper, David Zekan, William Carter, Brittain McJunkin
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors are among the most commonly prescribed medications worldwide, with dramatic efficacy for upper GI acid related disorders. In recent years, however, the safety of long-term PPI use has been questioned. One issue based on scant and conflicting literature is the possibility of PPI related hypomagnesemia. Our purpose was to assess for any clinically significant alteration in serum magnesium levels in large groups of patients taking different PPIs in varying doses, with or without diuretics...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Timothy W Rhoads, Maggie S Burhans, Vincent B Chen, Paul D Hutchins, Matthew J P Rush, Josef P Clark, Jaime L Stark, Sean J McIlwain, Hamid R Eghbalnia, Derek M Pavelec, Irene M Ong, John M Denu, John L Markley, Joshua J Coon, Ricki J Colman, Rozalyn M Anderson
Caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan and delays the onset of age-related disorders in diverse species. Metabolic regulatory pathways have been implicated in the mechanisms of CR, but the molecular details have not been elucidated. Here, we show that CR engages RNA processing of genes associated with a highly integrated reprogramming of hepatic metabolism. We conducted molecular profiling of liver biopsies collected from adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) at baseline and after 2 years on control or CR (30% restricted) diet...
March 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
E Fiani, F Guisset, Q Fontanges, J Deviere, A Lemmers
INTRODUCTION : Esophagitis dissecans superficialis (EDS) is a rare desquamative disorder of the eso-phagus, characterized by sloughing of the superficial mucosa. It is a benign entity of uncertain etiology. Most cases of EDS are idiopathic but can be caused by medications, hot beverages, chemical irritants, celiac disease and many skin conditions. AIM AND METHODS: Knowing that few case series have described this entity, we decided to review all the cases diagnosed in our center to characterize them...
July 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
José Teixeira, Catarina Oliveira, Fernando Cagide, Ricardo Amorim, Jorge Garrido, Fernanda Borges, Paulo J Oliveira
Pharmacological interventions targeting mitochondria present several barriers for a complete efficacy. Therefore, a new mitochondriotropic antioxidant (AntiOxBEN3 ) based on the dietary antioxidant gallic acid was developed. AntiOxBEN3 accumulated several thousand-fold inside isolated rat liver mitochondria, without causing disruption of the oxidative phosphorylation apparatus, as seen by the unchanged respiratory control ratio, phosphorylation efficiency, and transmembrane electric potential. AntiOxBEN3 showed also limited toxicity on human hepatocarcinoma cells...
December 2018: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Monica Moresco, Fabio Pizza, Elena Antelmi, Giuseppe Plazzi
Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) is a rare chronic neurologic disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hallucinations and disrupted nocturnal sleep, usually with onset during childhood/adolescence. Pediatric NT1 is associated with limitations on children's activities and achievements, especially poor performance at school, difficulty with peers due to disease symptoms and comorbidities including depression, obesity, and precocious puberty. NT1 disease is caused by the selective loss of hypocretin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, most probably related to an autoimmune pathophysiology...
March 5, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
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