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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938787/influence-of-age-and-housing-systems-on-properties-of-tibia-and-humerus-of-lohmann-white-hens1-bone-properties-of-laying-hens-in-commercial-housing-systems
#1
P Regmi, N Nelson, R C Haut, M W Orth, D M Karcher
This study was aimed at analyzing bone properties of Lohmann White hens in different commercial housing systems at various points throughout production. Pullets reared in conventional cages (CC) were either continued in CC or moved to enriched colony cages (EN) at 19 weeks. Pullets reared in cage-free aviaries (AV) were moved to AV hen houses. Bone samples were collected from 60 hens at each of 18 and 72 wk and 30 hens at 26 and 56 wk from each housing system. Left tibiae and humeri were broken under uniform bending to analyze mechanical properties...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938781/differences-in-egg-nutrient-availability-and-embryo-development-in-white-layer-breeder-genotypes
#2
E E Onbasilar, M Kahraman, O Ahlat, Ö F Güngör, A Çalik, S Taban, S Yalçin
Because of consumers' preferences and also due to changes in production systems, the importance of pure breeds has increased again. There are a lot of differences among breeds which have been studied extensively, however, the differences during the incubation period are not yet fully known. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the composition of the egg parts, absorption of nutrients, and development of embryos from different genotypes. A total of 354 fresh hatching eggs were obtained from one hybrid (Lohman White, LW) and two pure breeds (Denizli and Gerze)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938171/behavior-of-radioactive-cesium-during-incineration-of-radioactively-contaminated-wastes-from-decontamination-activities-in-fukushima
#3
Hiroshi Fujiwara, Hidetoshi Kuramochi, Kazutaka Nomura, Tomoharu Maeseto, Masahiro Osako
Large volumes of decontamination wastes (DW) generated by off-site decontamination activities in Fukushima Prefecture have been incinerated since 2015. The behavior of radioactive cesium during incineration of DW was investigated at a working incineration plant. The incineration discharged bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) with similar levels of radiocesium, and the leachability of the radiocesium from both types of ash was very low (<1%). These results are significantly different from those obtained for the incineration of contaminated municipal solid waste (CMSW) reported in earlier studies...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936988/reducing-radiation-exposure-with-iterative-reconstruction-an-inter-and-intra-scanner-analysis
#4
Aaron Rohr, Jo Wick, Jacqueline Hill, Carissa Walter, Neville Irani, Shaun Best, Kirk Miller, Ryan Ash
Our purpose in this study was to compare delivered radiation exposure via Computed Tomography Dose Index Volume (CTDIvol) and Dose Length Production (DLP) measurements from computed tomography (CT) examinations performed on scanners with and without image-quality enhancing iterative reconstruction (IR) software. A retrospective analysis was conducted on randomly selected chest, abdomen, and/or pelvis CT examinations from three different scanners from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013. CTDIvol and DLP measurements were obtained from two CT scanners with and one CT scanner without IR software...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935859/a-non-transcriptional-role-for-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-mediating-the-cell-stress-response
#5
Marina Ptushkina, Toryn Poolman, Mudassar Iqbal, Mark Ashe, Janni Petersen, Joanna Woodburn, Magnus Rattray, Anthony Whetton, David Ray
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is essential for the stress response in mammals. We investigated potential non-transcriptional roles of GR in cellular stress response using fission yeast as a model.We surprisingly discovered marked heat stress resistance in yeast ectopically expressing human GR, which required expression of both the N-terminal transactivation domain, and the C-terminal ligand binding domain, but not the DNA-binding domain of the GR. This effect was not affected by GR ligand exposure, and occurred without significant GR nuclear accumulation...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935375/the-effect-of-the-origin-of-mswi-bottom-ash-on-the-h2s-elimination-from-landfill-biogas
#6
Marta Fontseré Obis, Patrick Germain, Hassan Bouzahzah, Alain Richioud, Hassen Benbelkacem
Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) Bottom Ash (BA) is a potential alternative adsorbent for biogas treatment due to its reactivity with hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The quality of BA depends however on the nature of the waste and the process technology of the waste incineration facility. To determine whether the origin of the BA could have an influence on its H2S elimination efficiency, comparative experimental tests were conducted in a landfill site with six bottom ashes from different MSW incinerators. Results showed that one of the BAs (A) had a much higher adsorption capacity than the rest (B-F), with 37g H2S/kg dry BA, compared to 11-16g H2S/kg dry BA for the other bottom ashes...
September 18, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935374/solidification-stabilization-of-asr-fly-ash-using-thiomer-material-optimization-of-compressive-strength-and-heavy-metals-leaching
#7
Jin Woong Baek, Angelo Earvin Sy Choi, Hung Suck Park
Optimization studies of a novel and eco-friendly construction material, Thiomer, was investigated in the solidification/stabilization of automobile shredded residue (ASR) fly ash. A D-optimal mixture design was used to evaluate and optimize maximum compressive strength and heavy metals leaching by varying Thiomer (20-40wt%), ASR fly ash (30-50wt%) and sand (20-40wt%). The analysis of variance was utilized to determine the level of significance of each process parameters and interactions. The microstructure of the solidified materials was taken from a field emission-scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy that confirmed successful Thiomer solidified ASR fly ash due to reduced pores and gaps in comparison with an untreated ASR fly ash...
September 18, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935141/antioxidative-peptide-from-milk-exhibits-antiosteopenic-effects-through-inhibition-of-oxidative-damage-and-bone-resorbing-cytokines-in-ovariectomized-rats
#8
Sanusi Bello Mada, Srinu Reddi, Naveen Kumar, Rohit Kumar, Suman Kapila, Rajeev Kapila, Ritu Trivedi, Anirudha Karvande, Naseer Ahmad
OBJECTIVES: Oxidative stress has been implicated as a crucial pathogenic factor in the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Milk-derived antioxidative peptides are gaining much attention toward the development of prodrugs for alleviating several human diseases, including osteoporosis. The aim of the present study was to determine whether antioxidant peptides are good candidates for alleviating postmenopausal osteoporosis. METHODS: In the present study, an ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporotic rat model was used to investigate the protective effects of buffalo milk casein-derived novel peptide VLPVPQK (PEP) against OVX-induced bone loss and the related mechanisms...
November 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934229/above-and-below-ground-carbohydrate-allocation-differs-between-ash-fraxinus-excelsior-l-and-beech-fagus-sylvatica-l
#9
Ronny Thoms, Michael Köhler, Arthur Gessler, Gerd Gleixner
We investigated soluble carbohydrate transport in trees that differed in their phloem loading strategies in order to better understand the transport of photosynthetic products into the roots and the rhizosphere as this knowledge is needed to better understand the respiratory processes in the rhizosphere. We compared beech, which is suggested to use mainly passive loading of transport sugars along a concentration gradient into the phloem, with ash that uses active loading and polymer trapping of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933836/heat-generation-and-accumulation-in-municipal-solid-waste-landfills
#10
Zisu Hao, Mei Sun, Joel Ducoste, Craig H Benson, Scott Luettich, Marco J Castaldi, Morton A Barlaz
There have been reports of North American landfills that are experiencing temperatures in excess of 80 - 100°C. However, the processes causing elevated temperatures are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to develop a model to describe the generation, consumption and release of heat from landfills, to predict landfill temperatures, and to understand the relative importance of factors that contribute to heat generation and accumulation. Modeled heat sources include energy from aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation, anaerobic metal corrosion, ash hydration and carbonation, and acid-base neutralization...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933816/reborn-from-the-ashes-turning-organic-molecules-to-antimicrobial-carbon-quantum-dots
#11
Scott G Harroun, Jui-Yang Lai, Chih-Ching Huang, Shou-Kuan Tsai, Han-Jia Lin
Using polyamines as the initial organic raw material and by applying simple pyrolysis methods, super cationic carbon quantum dots (CQDs) can easily be made. Since polyamines are natural products and the synthesis procedure is green, these polyamine-derived CQDs display low toxicity and high biocompatibility but possess high antibacterial activity. In addition, polyamine-derived CQDs display other unique properties, such as facilitation of wound healing and passage through the tight junction, which make them a very promising bactericide in future clinical applications...
September 21, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928508/effect-of-%C3%AE-glucan-fortification-on-physico-chemical-rheological-textural-colour-and-organoleptic-characteristics-of-low-fat-dahi
#12
Dadi Bhaskar, Sunil Kumar Khatkar, Rekha Chawla, Harsh Panwar, Swati Kapoor
Fortified low fat functional dahi prepared by supplementing skimmed buffalo milk with β-glucan (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0%) was assessed for physico-chemical, rheological, textural, colour and sensorial characteristics. Total solids in dahi increased significantly with the increase in β-glucan concentration, however, values of fat, protein and ash varied non-significantly upon β-glucan addition in dahi. β-glucan at 0.5% solids levels, produced low fat dahi with superior quality, less whey separation and good textural properties than the samples containing other levels...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928346/medical-students-perceived-educational-needs-to-prevent-and-treat-childhood-obesity
#13
Natalie K Cooke, Sarah L Ash, L Suzanne Goodell
BACKGROUND: Medical schools are challenged to incorporate more prevention-based education into curricula, offering an opportunity to revisit approaches to nutrition education. The objective of this study was to explore United States (US) medical students' understanding of childhood obesity, specifically barriers to childhood obesity prevention and treatment and students' perceived educational deficits. METHODS: The research team conducted phone interviews with 78 3rd- and 4th-year medical students, representing 25 different medical schools across the US...
May 2017: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927872/physical-pretreatment-of-biogenic-rich-trommel-fines-for-fast-pyrolysis
#14
Joseph Eke, Jude A Onwudili, Anthony V Bridgwater
Energy from Waste (EfW) technologies such as fluidized bed fast pyrolysis, are beneficial for both energy generation and waste management. Such technologies, however face significant challenges due to the heterogeneous nature, particularly the high ash contents of some municipal solid waste types e.g. trommel fines. A study of the physical/mechanical and thermal characteristics of these complex wastes is important for two main reasons; (a) to inform the design and operation of pyrolysis systems to handle the characteristics of such waste; (b) to control/modify the characteristics of the waste to fit with existing EFW technologies via appropriate feedstock preparation methods...
September 15, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924742/characterization-of-pm2-5-in-delhi-role-and-impact-of-secondary-aerosol-burning-of-biomass-and-municipal-solid-waste-and-crustal-matter
#15
Pavan K Nagar, Dhirendra Singh, Mukesh Sharma, Anil Kumar, Viney P Aneja, Mohan P George, Nigam Agarwal, Sheo P Shukla
Delhi is one among the highly air polluted cities in the world. Absence of causal relationship between emitting sources of PM2.5 and their impact has resulted in inadequate actions. This research combines a set of innovative and state-of-the-art analytical techniques to establish relative predominance of PM2.5 sources. Air quality sampling at six sites in summer and winter for 40 days (at each site) showed alarmingly high PM2.5 concentrations (340 ± 135 μg/m(3)). The collected PM2.5 was subjected to chemical speciation including ions, metals, organic and elemental carbons which followed application of chemical mass balance technique for source apportionment...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923199/associations-of-short-sleep-duration-with-childhood-obesity-and-weight-gain-summary-of-a-presentation-to-the-national-academy-of-science-s-roundtable-on-obesity-solutions
#16
Tayla Ash, Elsie M Taveras
This article summarizes a presentation made in February 2017 as part of the National Academy of Sciences' Roundtable on Obesity Solutions webinar, "The Potential Role of Sleep in Obesity Prevention and Management: A Virtual Workshop." Briefly described are the patterns of childhood sleep duration in the United States, the state of the science relating insufficient sleep to overweight and obesity in infancy and early childhood, and the potential mechanisms for the association. Also discussed are intervention efforts to date...
October 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922449/needle-syringe-programmes-and-opioid-substitution-therapy-for-preventing-hepatitis-c-transmission-in-people-who-inject-drugs
#17
REVIEW
Lucy Platt, Silvia Minozzi, Jennifer Reed, Peter Vickerman, Holly Hagan, Clare French, Ashly Jordan, Louisa Degenhardt, Vivian Hope, Sharon Hutchinson, Lisa Maher, Norah Palmateer, Avril Taylor, Julie Bruneau, Matthew Hickman
BACKGROUND: Needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing hepatitis C transmission in people who inject drugsNeedle syringe programmes (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) are the primary interventions to reduce hepatitis C (HCV) transmission in people who inject drugs. There is good evidence for the effectiveness of NSP and OST in reducing injecting risk behaviour and increasing evidence for the effectiveness of OST and NSP in reducing HIV acquisition risk, but the evidence on the effectiveness of NSP and OST for preventing HCV acquisition is weak...
September 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921824/characterization-of-lacquer-films-from-the-middle-and-late-chinese-warring-states-period-476-221bc
#18
P J Jin, Y L Hu, Z B Ke
The famous lacquer wares excavated from the Jiuliandun Tombs of the middle and late Warring States period (476-221 BC) were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy/energy as well as dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS), Raman spectroscopy (RS), optical microscopy (OM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed a multilayer structure in the lacquer film, including a Qihui layer (a layer made of lacquer and various plasters), undercoat layer (or finishing coat) and colored paint layer mixed with various inorganic particles, such as quartz (SiO2 ) and hydroxyapatite [Ca5 (PO4 )3 (OH)], as fillers in the Qihui layers or orpiment (As2 S3 ) and cinnabar (HgS), which were used as a yellow or red pigment, respectively...
September 18, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920411/effect-of-inclusion-level-and-adaptation-duration-on-digestible-energy-and-nutrient-digestibility-in-palm-kernel-meal-fed-to-growing-finishing-pigs
#19
Chengfei Huang, Shuai Zhang, Hans-Henrik Stein, Jinbiao Zhao, Defa Li, Changhua Lai
Objective: An experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of inclusion level of palm kernel meal (PKM) and adaptation duration on the digestible energy (DE) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of chemical constituents in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs. Methods: Thirty crossbred barrows (Duroc × Landrace × Large White) with an average initial body weight (BW) of 85.0 ± 2.1 kg were fed to 5 diets in a completely randomized design. The diets included a corn-soybean meal basal diet and 4 additional diets in which corn and soybean meal (SBM) were partly replaced by 10, 20, 30, or 40% PKM...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920006/dosing-immunotherapy-combinations-analysis-of-3-526-patients-for-toxicity-and-response-patterns
#20
Mina Nikanjam, Harsh Patel, Razelle Kurzrock
Immunotherapy combinations are used to improve outcomes in metastatic cancer, but evidence-based knowledge of appropriate starting doses for novel combinations is lacking. Phase I-III adult combination clinical trials (≥ 1 drug was immunotherapy; anti-PD-1, PD-L1, or CTLA-4) were reviewed (PubMed Jan 1, 2010 to Sep 1, 2016; ASCO 2014-2016, ASH/ESMO 2014-2015 abstracts). The safe dose for each drug used in each combination was divided by the single-agent recommended dose to calculate dose percentage. Additive dose percentage was the sum of each dose percentage...
2017: Oncoimmunology
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