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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637163/the-impacts-of-biomass-properties-on-pyrolysis-yields-economic-and-environmental-performance-of-the-pyrolysis-bioenergy-biochar-platform-to-carbon-negative-energy
#1
Wenqin Li, Qi Dang, Robert C Brown, David Laird, Mark M Wright
This study evaluated the impact of biomass properties on the pyrolysis product yields, economic and environmental performance for the pyrolysis-biochar-bioenergy platform. We developed and applied a fast pyrolysis, feedstock-sensitive, regression-based chemical process model to 346 different feedstocks, which were grouped into five types: woody, stalk/cob/ear, grass/plant, organic residue/product and husk/shell/pit. The results show that biomass ash content of 0.3-7.7wt% increases biochar yield from 0.13 to 0...
June 11, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634168/contributions-of-children-with-multiple-chronic-conditions-to-pediatric-hospitalizations-in-the-united-states-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#2
Jay G Berry, Arlene S Ash, Eyal Cohen, Fareesa Hasan, Chris Feudtner, Matt Hall
BACKGROUND: Children with multiple chronic conditions (CMCC) are increasingly using hospital care. We assessed how much of US pediatric inpatient care is used by CMCC and which chronic conditions are the key drivers of hospital use. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all 2.3 million US acute-care hospital discharges in 2012 for children age 0 to 18 years in the Kids' Inpatient Database. The ∼4.5 million US hospitalizations for pregnancy, childbirth, and newborn and neonatal care were not assessed...
June 20, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633911/fate-of-metals-and-emissions-of-organic-pollutants-from-torrefaction-of-waste-wood-msw-and-rdf
#3
Mar Edo, Nils Skoglund, Qiuju Gao, Per-Erik Persson, Stina Jansson
Torrefaction of municipal solid waste (MSW), refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and demolition and construction wood (DC) was performed at 220°C and a residence time of 90min in a bench-scale reactor. The levels of toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) contained in emission from the torrefaction process were evaluated. In addition, main ash-forming elements and trace metals in the raw feedstock and char were determined. The use of MSW in fuel blends with DC resulted in lower PCDD and PCDF emissions after torrefaction, compared with the RDF blends...
June 17, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628867/the-improvement-of-multi-contaminated-sandy-loam-soil-chemical-and-biological-properties-by-the-biochar-wood-ash-and-humic-substances-amendments
#4
Maria Pukalchik, Filip Mercl, Maria Panova, Kateřina Břendová, Vera A Terekhova, Pavel Tlustoš
Addition of low amount of humic substances, as a supplement to biochar or wood ash, can markedly enhance their remediation ability.
June 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628470/vascularity-of-nail-bed-by-ultrasound-to-discriminate-psoriasis-psoriatic-arthritis-and-healthy-controls
#5
Sibel Zehra Aydin, Concepción Castillo-Gallego, Zoe R Ash, Helena Marzo-Ortega, Richard Wakefield, Dennis McGonagle
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June 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627806/improving-the-quantum-yields-of-perylene-diimide-aggregates-by-increasing-molecular-hydrophobicity-in-polar-media
#6
Jodi Szarko, Jürgen Plenge, Xiaoyu Xu, Ashli Austin, Steven Mylon
Here we report the quantum yield of four aggregated perylene diimide (PDI) species that vary by the length of the branched side chains attached at the N,N' imide positions. The PDI molecules were dissolved in binary water:methanol solvents as a means to vary the solvent polarity and control the degree of aggregation in solution. By performing spectroscopy, kinetics, and light scattering experiments, the nature of the molecular interactions in the solutions was determined. The maximum quantum yield of the aggregated molecules increased from 0...
June 19, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627057/vitamin-d-metabolism-in-growing-pigs-influence-of-uvb-irradiation-and-dietary-vitamin-d-supply-on-calcium-homeostasis-its-regulation-and-bone-metabolism
#7
E Kolp, M R Wilkens, W Pendl, B Eichenberger, A Liesegang
The aim of this study was to prove whether pigs are able to synthesize vitamin D (vitD) in the skin and to investigate the influence of ultraviolet irradiation (UVB) on vitD status and calcium (Ca) homeostasis of growing pigs. Thirty-two 11-week-old pigs were kept without access to sunlight and divided into four groups receiving the following treatment in a 2 × 2 factorial design: (i) UVB irradiation or not and (ii) vitD in feed or not. Blood, urine and faeces were sampled every third week. In serum, vitD metabolites, Ca, phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg) and bone markers were analysed...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625990/bioavailability-of-carbohydrate-content-in-natural-and-transgenic-switchgrasses-for-the-extreme-thermophile-caldicellulosiruptor-bescii
#8
Jeffrey V Zurawski, Piyum A Khatibi, Hannah O Akinosho, Christopher T Straub, Scott H Compton, Jonathan M Conway, Laura L Lee, Arthur J Ragauskas, Brian H Davison, Michael W W Adams, Robert M Kelly
Improving access to the carbohydrate content of lignocellulose is key to reducing recalcitrance for microbial deconstruction and conversion to fuels and chemicals. Caldicellulosiruptor bescii completely solubilizes naked microcrystalline cellulose, yet this transformation is impeded within the context of the plant cell wall by a network of lignin and hemicellulose. Here, the bioavailability of carbohydrates to C. bescii at 70°C was examined for reduced lignin transgenic switchgrass lines COMT3(+) and MYB Trans, their corresponding parental lines (cultivar Alamo) COMT3(-) and MYB WT, and natural variant cultivar Cave-in-Rock (CR)...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623310/one-pot-synthesis-of-geas-ultrafine-particles-from-coal-fly-ash-by-vacuum-dynamic-flash-reduction-and-inert-gas-condensation
#9
Lingen Zhang, Zhenming Xu
Ge-monopnictides (GeAs) plays critical role in high-tech industry, especially in the field of advanced optical devices and infrared. As a secondary material, coal fly ash could be further recycled to retrieve germanium and prepare GeAs material with high added values. Hence, the aim of this paper is to propose a one-pot synthesis that uses vacuum flash reduction and inert-gas consolidation method to prepare GeAs ultrafine particles. Germanium in coal fly ash can be successfully recycled; simultaneously, GeAs ultrafine particles were prepared...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621445/nutritional-and-functional-bioactivity-value-of-selected-azorean-macroalgae-ulva-compressa-ulva-rigida-gelidium-microdon-and-pterocladiella-capillacea
#10
Lisete Paiva, Elisabete Lima, Ana Isabel Neto, Massimo Marcone, José Baptista
This study presents information on the biochemical composition (dry weight basis), nutritional aspects, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties of selected macroalgae (Ulva compressa, Ulva rigida, Gelidium microdon, and Pterocladiella capillacea) from Azores. Moisture content was very high (83.2% to 90.0% of fresh weight). Total dietary fiber (33.7% to 41.0%) that presented a good balance of both soluble and insoluble fibers (15.5% to 19.2% and 18.2% to 21.8%, respectively) was the most abundant component in these macroalgae...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619532/major-physical-health-conditions-and-risk-of-suicide
#11
Brian K Ahmedani, Edward L Peterson, Yong Hu, Rebecca C Rossom, Frances Lynch, Christine Y Lu, Beth E Waitzfelder, Ashli A Owen-Smith, Samuel Hubley, Deepak Prabhakar, L Keoki Williams, Nicole Zeld, Elizabeth Mutter, Arne Beck, Dennis Tolsma, Gregory E Simon
INTRODUCTION: Most individuals make healthcare visits before suicide, but many do not have a diagnosed mental health condition. This study seeks to investigate suicide risk among patients with a range of physical health conditions in a U.S. general population sample and whether risk persists after adjustment for mental health and substance use diagnoses. METHODS: This study included 2,674 individuals who died by suicide between 2000 and 2013 along with 267,400 controls matched on year and location in a case-control study conducted in 2016 across eight Mental Health Research Network healthcare systems...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616146/infrared-spectroscopy-of-the-nitrogenase-mofe-protein-under-electrochemical-control-potential-triggered-co-binding
#12
P Paengnakorn, P A Ash, S Shaw, K Danyal, T Chen, D R Dean, L C Seefeldt, K A Vincent
We demonstrate electrochemical control of the nitrogenase MoFe protein, in the absence of Fe protein or ATP, using europium(iii/ii) polyaminocarboxylate complexes as electron transfer mediators. This allows the potential dependence of proton reduction and inhibitor (CO) binding to the active site FeMo-cofactor to be established. Reduction of protons to H2 is catalyzed by the wild type MoFe protein and β-98(Tyr→His) and β-99(Phe→His) variants of the MoFe protein at potentials more negative than -800 mV (vs...
February 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611816/environmental-influences-on-the-growing-season-duration-and-ripening-of-diverse-miscanthus-germplasm-grown-in-six-countries
#13
Christopher Nunn, Astley Francis St John Hastings, Olena Kalinina, Mensure Özgüven, Heinrich Schüle, Ivan G Tarakanov, Tim Van Der Weijde, Aleksander A Anisimov, Yasir Iqbal, Andreas Kiesel, Nikolay F Khokhlov, Jon P McCalmont, Heike Meyer, Michal Mos, Kai-Uwe Schwarz, Luisa M Trindade, Iris Lewandowski, John C Clifton-Brown
The development of models to predict yield potential and quality of a Miscanthus crop must consider climatic limitations and the duration of growing season. As a biomass crop, yield and quality are impacted by the timing of plant developmental transitions such as flowering and senescence. Growth models are available for the commercially grown clone Miscanthus x giganteus (Mxg), but breeding programs have been working to expand the germplasm available, including development of interspecies hybrids. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of diverse germplasm beyond the range of environments considered suitable for a Miscanthus crop to be grown...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611071/seedling-response-to-environmental-variability-the-relationship-between-phenotypic-plasticity-and-evolutionary-history-in-closely-related-eucalyptus-species
#14
Susan Rutherford, Stephen P Bonser, Peter G Wilson, Maurizio Rossetto
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Phenotypic plasticity is an important means through which organisms cope with environmental variability. We investigated seedling plasticity in the green ash eucalypts within a phylogenetic framework to examine the relationship between plasticity and evolutionary history. The green ashes are a diverse group, which include the tallest flowering plant in the world (Eucalyptus regnans) and a rare mallee less than 1 m tall (E. cunninghamii). METHODS: Seedlings of 12 species were exposed to high and low nutrient and water availability in a factorial experiment...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610400/shammah-smokeless-tobacco-and-public-health
#15
Abdulsallam Bakdash
Shammah is a preparation of smokeless tobacco (ST) that is frequently used in the Arabian Peninsula, especially in Saudi Arabia. A mixture of powdered tobacco, lime, ash, black pepper, oils and flavorings, shammah in is placed in the buccal cavity or lower labial vestibule of the mouth. The user (or dipper) spits out insoluble debris. ST is linked to a number of harmful effects such as dental disease, oral cancer, oesophagus cancer, and pancreas cancer. It also causes adverse reproductive effects including stillbirth, premature birth and low birth weight...
May 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610301/redescription-of-the-numbat-tick-ixodes-sternalixodes-myrmecobii-roberts-1962-acari-ixodidae-with-descriptions-of-the-male-and-nymph-and-new-host-records
#16
Mackenzie L Kwak, Amanda Ash, Aileen Elliot
Limited knowledge regarding the biology and identification of the Australian tick Ixodes myrmecobii exists with only the female described to date. Here we provide a description of the male and nymph as well as a redescription of the female. All described stages are molecularly characterised using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) loci. An updated list of hosts is presented including the first records from humans, cattle and several native species. Information on the distribution and conservation status of this species is also included...
May 26, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607681/hydration-stickers-improving-oral-hydration-in-vulnerable-patients
#17
Alysha Bhatti, Javier Ash, Shyam Gokani, Suveer Singh
Dehydration is a growing problem among elderly patients in hospital wards. Incidents such as those raised in the Francis Report highlight a problem that may not have been sufficiently addressed by current schemes. This improvement project aimed to identify the barriers faced by staff in improving oral hydration and to design and implement an effective solution. A 33 patient pilot study carried out at Chelsea & Westminster Hospital NHS Trust, United Kingdom, revealed that a significant proportion of patients were reported to be dehydrated on admission, with few having their hydration needs addressed...
2017: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606555/a-methodological-review-of-confidence-measurement-scales-for-dietitians-working-with-individuals
#18
Kerryn Buttenshaw, Jane Shakespeare-Finch, Susan Ash
Confidence is frequently used to assess practitioner effectiveness, and its evaluation requires valid and reliable domain-specific tools. However, the quality of existing measures is unknown. This review identifies studies measuring dietitians' confidence in working with individuals; assesses psychometric (measurement) qualities of relevant tools; and identifies areas for future research. Seven electronic databases, the internet, and reference lists were searched to identify the development or use of relevant confidence measurement scales...
June 9, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605988/effect-of-curing-time-on-selected-properties-of-soil-stabilized-with-fly-ash-marble-dust-and-waste-sand-for-road-sub-base-materials
#19
Seyhan Firat, Jamal M Khatib, Gulgun Yilmaz, A T Comert
The properties of sub-base filling materials in highway construction are essential, as they can determine the performance of the road in service. Normally, the existing materials are removed and replaced with new materials that have adequate load-bearing capacity. Rising environmental concern and new environmental legislations have made construction professionals consider other methods. These methods include stabilizing the existing materials with other additives to improve their performance. Additives can be waste materials generated by different industries...
June 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605326/effect-of-different-proportions-of-agrowaste-on-cultivation-yield-and-nutritional-composition-of-the-culinary-medicinal-jelly-mushroom-auricularia-polytricha-higher-basidiomycetes
#20
Chiu-Yeh Wu, Chih-Hung Liang, Kuan-Jzen Wu, Hsin-Der Shih, Zeng-Chin Liang
In this study, Auricularia polytricha was cultivated on a sawdust basal substrate supplemented with different proportions (30%, 45%, and 60%, respectively) of agrowastes-sugarcane bagasse (SB), rice straw (RS), and rice husk (RH)-to evaluate the alternative substrates. The mycelial growth rate, total colonization time, time to first primordia, biological efficiency, and chemical composition of the fruiting bodies were determined. Results indicated that the 60% SB substrate was the best substrate for mycelial growth of A...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
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