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Ventricular arrhythmias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454137/mechanisms-and-management-of-refractory-ventricular-arrhythmias-in-the-age-of-autonomic-modulation
#1
Jason S Bradfield, Olujimi A Ajijola, Marmar Vaseghi, Kalyanam Shivkumar
Ventricular arrhythmias are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths every year. Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) is an essential component of the management of these life-threatening arrhythmias. However, in many patients, despite medical and interventional therapy, VT recurs. Further, some VT substrates (mid-myocardial, left ventricular summit, intra-septal) are not easily targeted, due to limitations of currently available technology. In certain clinical settings, ventricular fibrillation (VF) episodes that have premature ventricular contraction (PVC) triggers can also be targeted with catheter ablation...
February 14, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453615/vidarabine-an-anti-herpesvirus-agent-prevents-catecholamine-induced-arrhythmias-without-adverse-effect-on-heart-function-in-mice
#2
Kenji Suita, Takayuki Fujita, Wenqian Cai, Yuko Hidaka, Huiling Jin, Rajesh Prajapati, Masanari Umemura, Utako Yokoyama, Motohiko Sato, Björn C Knollmann, Satoshi Okumura, Yoshihiro Ishikawa
Sympathetic activation causes clinically important arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation (AF) and ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Although the usefulness of β-adrenergic receptor blockade therapy is widely accepted, its multiple critical side effects often prevent its initiation or continuation. The aim of this study is to determine the advantages of vidarabine, an adenylyl cyclase (AC)-targeted anti-sympathetic agent, as an alternative treatment for arrhythmia. We found that vidarabine, which we identified as a cardiac AC inhibitor, consistently shortens AF duration and reduces the incidence of sympathetic activation-induced ventricular arrhythmias...
February 16, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453325/performance-of-the-2015-international-task-force-consensus-statement-risk-stratification-algorithm-for-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-placement-in-arrhythmogenic-right-ventricular-dysplasia-cardiomyopathy
#3
Gabriela M Orgeron, Anneline Te Riele, Crystal Tichnell, Weijia Wang, Brittney Murray, Aditya Bhonsale, Daniel P Judge, Ihab R Kamel, Stephan L Zimmerman, Harikrishna Tandri, Hugh Calkins, Cynthia A James
BACKGROUND: Ventricular arrhythmias are a feared complication of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy. In 2015, an International Task Force Consensus Statement proposed a risk stratification algorithm for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: To evaluate performance of the algorithm, 365 arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy patients were classified as having a Class I, IIa, IIb, or III indication per the algorithm at baseline...
February 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452692/prognostic-significance-of-complex-ventricular-arrhythmias-complicating-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#4
Tomasz Podolecki, Radoslaw Lenarczyk, Jacek Kowalczyk, Ewa Jedrzejczyk-Patej, Piotr Chodor, Michal Mazurek, Pawel Francuz, Witold Streb, Katarzyna Mitrega, Zbigniew Kalarus
The aim of the study was to assess the clinical significance of complex ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) (sustained ventricular tachycardia [sVT] and ventricular fibrillation [VF]) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) depending on timing of arrhythmia. We analyzed 4,363 consecutive patients with STEMI treated invasively between 2004 and 2014. The median follow-up was 69.6 months (range: 0 to 139.8 months). The study population was divided into 2 main groups; VA group encompassed 476 patients (10...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452255/radiofrequency-ablation-of-premature-ventricular-contractions-originating-from-uncommon-sites-of-right-ventricle
#5
Krishna Kumar Mohanan Nair, Narayanan Namboodiri, Arun Gopalakrishnan, Ajitkumar Valaparambil
Premature Ventricular Contraction (PVC)/ventricular tachycardia (VT) with left bundle branch block (LBBB) morphology and inferior axis has been described classically to originate from the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). Some uncommon sites of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia (VA) origins have been revealed including tricuspid annulus (TA) and right ventricular (RV) inflow free wall region. We present a series of two cases who have undergone electrophysiological study and successful radiofrequency ablation of frequent monomorphic PVCs with LBBB pattern originating from relatively uncommon sites of RV - TA and RV inflow free wall region...
February 13, 2018: Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451372/morphological-spectra-of-adult-human-stellate-ganglia-implications-for-thoracic-sympathetic-denervation
#6
Oh Jin Kwon, Shrita Pendekanti, Jacob N Fox, Jane Yanagawa, Michael C Fishbein, Kalyanam Shivkumar, H Wayne Lambert, Olujimi Ajijola
BACKGROUND: Cardiac sympathetic denervation (CSD) to treat ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) requires transection at the middle or lower third of stellate (cervicothoracic) ganglia (SG). However, the morphological appearance of the adult SG and distribution of neuronal somata within it are not well described. OBJECTIVE: To determine the morphology of left and right SG (LSG and RSG) and the distribution of somata within. METHODS: LSG and RSG (n=28) from 14 embalmed adult cadavers were dissected intact...
February 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450695/a-clinical-approach-to-arrhythmias-revisited-in-2018-from-ecg-over-noninvasive-and-invasive-electrophysiology-to-advanced-imaging
#7
REVIEW
L Jordaens
Understanding arrhythmias and their treatment is not always easy. The current straightforward approach with catheter ablation and device therapy is an amazing achievement, but does not make management of underlying or other cardiac disease and pharmacological therapy unnecessary. The goal of this paper is to describe how much of the knowledge of the 1980s and early 1990s can and should still be applied in the modern treatment of patients with arrhythmias. After an introduction, this review will focus on paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and a prototype of 'idiopathic' ventricular arrhythmias, two diseases with a striking similarity, and will discuss the arrhythmogenesis...
February 15, 2018: Netherlands Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450594/position-paper-for-the-organization-of-ecmo-programs-for-cardiac-failure-in-adults
#8
Darryl Abrams, A Reshad Garan, Akram Abdelbary, Matthew Bacchetta, Robert H Bartlett, James Beck, Jan Belohlavek, Yih-Sharng Chen, Eddy Fan, Niall D Ferguson, Jo-Anne Fowles, John Fraser, Michelle Gong, Ibrahim F Hassan, Carol Hodgson, Xiaotong Hou, Katarzyna Hryniewicz, Shingo Ichiba, William A Jakobleff, Roberto Lorusso, Graeme MacLaren, Shay McGuinness, Thomas Mueller, Pauline K Park, Giles Peek, Vin Pellegrino, Susanna Price, Erika B Rosenzweig, Tetsuya Sakamoto, Leonardo Salazar, Matthieu Schmidt, Arthur S Slutsky, Christian Spaulding, Hiroo Takayama, Koji Takeda, Alain Vuylsteke, Alain Combes, Daniel Brodie
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used increasingly for both respiratory and cardiac failure in adult patients. Indications for ECMO use in cardiac failure include severe refractory cardiogenic shock, refractory ventricular arrhythmia, active cardiopulmonary resuscitation for cardiac arrest, and acute or decompensated right heart failure. Evidence is emerging to guide the use of this therapy for some of these indications, but there remains a need for additional evidence to guide best practices...
February 15, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450560/-ecg-results-tips-and-tricks-for-the-correct-diagnosis-bradycardia-and-tachycardia-rhythm-disorders
#9
H-J Trappe
The 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG) is of great importance for the diagnostics of cardiac arrhythmias. For the correct and systematic analysis it has a sensitivity and specificity for the correct diagnosis of supraventricular tachycardia or ventricular tachycardia of more than 95%. Nevertheless, the assessment of cardiac rhythm disorders is difficult for many physicians. In this way errors can occur, frequently due to a non-systematic analysis of the ECG; therefore, the aim of this article is to present the techniques and the necessary knowledge for assessment of the most frequent bradycardiac and tachycardiac heart rhythm disorders...
February 15, 2018: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447731/genetics-clinical-features-and-long-term-outcome-of-noncompaction-cardiomyopathy
#10
Jaap I van Waning, Kadir Caliskan, Yvonne M Hoedemaekers, Karin Y van Spaendonck-Zwarts, Annette F Baas, S Matthijs Boekholdt, Joost P van Melle, Arco J Teske, Folkert W Asselbergs, Ad P C M Backx, Gideon J du Marchie Sarvaas, Michiel Dalinghaus, Johannes M P J Breur, Marijke P M Linschoten, Laura A Verlooij, Isabella Kardys, Dennis Dooijes, Ronald H Lekanne Deprez, Arne S IJpma, Maarten P van den Berg, Robert M W Hofstra, Marjon A van Slegtenhorst, Jan D H Jongbloed, Danielle Majoor-Krakauer
BACKGROUND: The clinical outcomes of noncompaction cardiomyopathy (NCCM) range from asymptomatic to heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Genetics play an important role in NCCM. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the correlations among genetics, clinical features, and outcomes in adults and children diagnosed with NCCM. METHODS: A retrospective multicenter study from 4 cardiogenetic centers in the Netherlands classified 327 unrelated NCCM patients into 3 categories: 1) genetic, with a mutation in 32% (81 adults; 23 children) of patients; 2) probably genetic, familial cardiomyopathy without a mutation in 16% (45 adults; 8 children) of patients; or 3) sporadic, no family history, without mutation in 52% (149 adults; 21 children) of patients...
February 20, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446182/catheter-ablation-of-ventricular-arrhythmias-with-qrs-morphology-resembling-that-of-aortic-sinus-cusp-arrhythmias-significance-of-mapping-the-left-pulmonary-sinus-cusp
#11
Zhuo Liang, Wang Yunlong, Tao Zhang, Zhihong Han, Jianzeng Dong, Xuejun Ren
BACKGROUND: There is a close anatomical relationship between aortic sinus cusp (ASC) and the left pulmonary sinus cusp (LPSC). PURPOSE: The study was to investigate the significance of mapping and ablation of LPSC for VAs with QRS morphology resembling that of ASC arrhythmias. METHODS: In 33 consecutive patients undergoing successful catheter ablation of idiopathic VAs with ASC arrhythmia-like QRS morphology, LPSC was mapped carefully. RESULTS: Among the 33 patients studied, QRS morphology resembled that of arrhythmias of either right or left coronary cusp (LCC or RCC) origin in 17 and 16 patients, respectively...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445464/takotsubo-syndrome-associated-ventricular-standstill-in-a-peripartum-patient-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Nelson Lee, Kevin Wade Lee, Matthew Michael D'Ambrosio, Joseph Vaughan Banta, Apostolos Voudouris, Antonios Tsompanidis
Takotsubo syndrome is classically characterized by apical ballooning and left ventricle akinesis associated with an underlying catecholamine surge. In patients with suspected Takotsubo syndrome, clinicians should be vigilant for acute coronary syndrome and arrhythmias. Ventricular standstill with underlying Takotsubo syndrome should be managed with a dual-chambered pacemaker to improve patient outcome.
February 2018: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445263/noncompaction-cardiomyopathy-and-heterotaxy-syndrome
#13
Hugo R Martinez, Stephanie M Ware, Marcus S Schamberger, John J Parent
Left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) is characterized by compact and trabecular layers of the left ventricular myocardium. This cardiomyopathy may occur with congenital heart disease (CHD). Single cases document co-occurrence of LVNC and heterotaxy, but no data exist regarding the prevalence of this association. This study sought to determine whether a non-random association of LVNC and heterotaxy exists by evaluating the prevalence of LVNC in patients with heterotaxy. In a retrospective review of the Indiana Network for Patient Care, we identified 172 patients with heterotaxy (69 male, 103 female)...
September 2017: Progress in Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445096/chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-promotes-myocardial-ischemia-related-ventricular-arrhythmias-and-sudden-cardiac-death
#14
Jessica Morand, Claire Arnaud, Jean-Louis Pepin, Diane Godin-Ribuot
We investigated the effects of intermittent hypoxia (IH), such as that encountered in severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients, on the development and severity of myocardial ischemia-related ventricular arrhythmias. Rats were exposed to 14 days of IH (30 s at 5%O 2 and 30 s at 21%O 2 , 8 h·day -1 ) or normoxia (N, similar air-air cycles) and submitted to a 30-min coronary ligature. Arterial blood pressure (BP) and ECG were recorded for power spectral analysis, ECG interval measurement and arrhythmia quantification...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441747/the-complexity-of-pediatric-multifocal-atrial-tachycardia-and-its-prognostic-factors
#15
Seung Min Baek, Hyun Chung, Mi Kyoung Song, Eun Jung Bae, Gi Beom Kim, Chung Il Noh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Multifocal atrial tachycardia (MAT), in general, has a favorable outcome. However, there are insufficient data regarding MAT in a pediatric population. This study sought to determine the clinical course of MAT and identify potential prognostic factors. METHODS: The medical records of MAT patients from 1997-2015 were reviewed. The arrhythmia control rate and factors for unfavorable outcomes were assessed and compared to those in the literature...
February 2018: Korean Circulation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441683/cardiovascular-safety-of-prokinetic-agents-a-focus-on-drug-induced-arrhythmias
#16
REVIEW
J R Giudicessi, M J Ackerman, M Camilleri
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal sensorimotor dysfunction underlies a wide range of esophageal, gastric, and intestinal motility and functional disorders that collectively constitute nearly half of all referrals to gastroenterologists. As a result, substantial effort has been dedicated toward the development of prokinetic agents intended to augment or restore normal gastrointestinal motility. However, the use of several clinically efficacious gastroprokinetic agents, such as cisapride, domperidone, erythromycin, and tegaserod, is associated with unfavorable cardiovascular safety profiles, leading to restrictions in their use...
February 14, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440763/rhythm-an-open-source-imaging-toolkit-for-cardiac-panoramic-optical-mapping
#17
Christopher Gloschat, Kedar Aras, Shubham Gupta, N Rokhaya Faye, Hanyu Zhang, Roman A Syunyaev, Roman A Pryamonosov, Jack Rogers, Matthew W Kay, Igor R Efimov
Fluorescence optical imaging techniques have revolutionized the field of cardiac electrophysiology and advanced our understanding of complex electrical activities such as arrhythmias. However, traditional monocular optical mapping systems, despite having high spatial resolution, are restricted to a two-dimensional (2D) field of view. Consequently, tracking complex three-dimensional (3D) electrical waves such as during ventricular fibrillation is challenging as the waves rapidly move in and out of the field of view...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440625/safety-and-feasibility-of-a-novel-active-fixation-temporary-pacing-lead
#18
Mark Webster, Sanjeevan Pasupati, Nigel Lever, Martin Stiles
OBJECTIVE: This first-in-human study evaluated the safety and technical feasibility of the Tempo temporary cardiac pacing lead (BioTrace Medical), which includes a novel fixation mechanism and soft tip. BACKGROUND: Complications of temporary pacing leads include dislodgment, arrhythmias, and ventricular perforation. Temporary pacing applications have increased with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) growth, for rapid pacing during balloon valvuloplasty (BAV) and valve deployment, and for periprocedural bradyarrhythmia support...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Invasive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440186/long-term-outcome-of-substrate-modification-in-ablation-of-post-myocardial-infarction-ventricular-tachycardia
#19
Michael Wolf, Frédéric Sacher, Hubert Cochet, Takeshi Kitamura, Masateru Takigawa, Seigo Yamashita, Konstantinos Vlachos, Ghassen Cheniti, Antonio Frontera, Ruairidh Martin, Nathaniel Thompson, Grégoire Massoullié, Anna Lam, Claire Martin, Florent Collot, Josselin Duchateau, Thomas Pambrun, Arnaud Denis, Nicolas Derval, Mélèze Hocini, Michel Haïssaguerre, Pierre Jaïs
BACKGROUND: Long-term results of substrate modification for ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) have not been reported. We report long-term outcomes of substrate elimination targeting local abnormal ventricular activities (LAVA) for post-myocardial infarction VT. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred fifty-nine consecutive patients undergoing first ablation were included (65±11 years, 92% implantable cardioverter defibrillators, 54% storms, and 73% appropriate shocks)...
February 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439404/high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-produces-spontaneous-ventricular-arrhythmias-and-increases-the-activity-of-ryanodine-receptors-in-mice
#20
Gina Sánchez, Felipe Araneda, Juan Pedro Peña, José Pablo Finkelstein, Jaime A Riquelme, Luis Montecinos, Genaro Barrientos, Paola Llanos, Zully Pedrozo, Matilde Said, Ricardo Bull, Paulina Donoso
Ventricular arrhythmias are a common cause of sudden cardiac death, and their occurrence is higher in obese subjects. Abnormal gating of ryanodine receptors (RyR2), the calcium release channels of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, can produce ventricular arrhythmias. Since obesity promotes oxidative stress and RyR2 are redox-sensitive channels, we investigated whether the RyR2 activity was altered in obese mice. Mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) became obese after eight weeks and exhibited a significant increase in the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias...
February 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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