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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544994/12h-abstinence-induced-right-anterior-insula-network-pattern-changes-in-young-smokers
#1
Yanzhi Bi, Yajuan Zhang, Yangding Li, Dahua Yu, Kai Yuan, Jie Tian
BACKGROUND: The strong craving to smoke is a core factor of smoking abstinence that precipitates relapse. Insula plays critical roles in maintaining nicotine dependence, especially in the interoceptive awareness of craving. Despite evidence indicating a link between insula and abstinence-induced craving, less is known about the neural basis of abstinence-induced craving from the circuit level of insula. METHODS: The present study examined the effects of 12h of abstinence from smoking on the resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of anterior (AI) and posterior insula in young smokers using a within-subject design...
May 15, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544602/drug-residues-in-syringes-and-other-injecting-paraphernalia-in-hungary
#2
Anna Péterfi, József Csorba, Tamás Figeczki, József Kiss, Katalin Medgyesi-Frank, János Posta, V Anna Gyarmathy
The appearance and spread of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is a phenomenon detected throughout Europe since 2008. Synthetic cathinones, a group of NPS, have been self-reported as the drug injected by the vast majority of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Hungary. This study aims at updating our knowledge on what exactly the compounds injected by PWID. This multi-site study analysed residues from used injecting drug paraphernalia collected from PWID via low threshold services and from public places in Budapest, Debrecen, Miskolc, Szeged, Békéscsaba and Pécs between March 2015 and February 2016...
May 23, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544558/psychiatric-and-physical-comorbidities-and-their-impact-on-the-course-of-bipolar-disorder-a-prospective-naturalistic-4-year-follow-up-study
#3
Benedikt L Amann, Joaquim Radua, Christian Wunsch, Barbara König, Christian Simhandl
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to increase the available evidence on how physical and psychiatric comorbidities influence the long-term outcome in bipolar I and II disorder. METHODS: We examined the prevalence of comorbid physical (metabolic, cardiovascular, thyroid, and neurological) diseases and psychiatric (neurotic, stress-related, somatoform, and personality) disorders and their impact on the risk of relapse in bipolar disorder. A total of 284 consecutively admitted patients with ICD-10 bipolar I (n=161) and II (n=123) disorder were followed up naturalistically over a period of 4 years...
May 22, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544367/the-diverging-trajectories-of-cannabis-and-tobacco-policies-in-the-united-states-reasons-and-possible-implications
#4
Wayne Hall, Lynn T Kozlowski
AIM: To examine briefly the (i) rationales for two policy proposals in the United States to make it mandatory for cigarettes to contain very low levels of nicotine and to legalize cannabis for recreational use by adults; and (ii) possible lessons that participants in each policy debate may learn from each other. METHOD: We briefly describe the diverging policies towards cannabis and tobacco in the United States, explain and critically analyse their rationales and discuss possible policy lessons...
May 22, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544049/tone-identification-behavior-in-rattus-norvergicus-muscarinic-receptor-blockage-lowers-responsiveness-in-non-target-selective-neurons-while-nicotinic-receptor-blockage-selectively-lowers-target-responses
#5
Ezekiel P Carpenter-Hyland, Jackson Griffeth, Kristopher Bunting, Alvin Terry, Almira Vazdarjanova, David T Blake
Learning to associate a stimulus with reinforcement causes plasticity in primary sensory cortex. Neural activity caused by the associated stimulus is paired with reinforcement, but population analyses have not found a selective increase in response to that stimulus. Responses to other stimuli increase as much as, or more than, responses to the associated stimulus. Here, we applied population analysis at a new time point, and additionally evaluated whether cholinergic receptor blockers interacted with the plastic changes in cortex...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543723/neuromuscular-junctions-nmjs-ultrastructural-analysis-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-nachr-subunit-mrna-expression-in-offspring-subjected-to-protein-restriction-throughout-pregnancy
#6
Paula Aiello Tomé de Souza Castro, Ludimila Canuto Faccioni, Patrícia Aline Boer, Robson Francisco Carvalho, Selma Maria Michelin Matheus, Maeli Dal-Pai-Silva
Protein restriction during gestation can alter the skeletal muscle phenotype of offspring; however, little is known with regard to whether this also affects the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), as muscle phenotype maintenance depends upon NMJ functional integrity. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a low protein (6%) intake by dams throughout gestation on male offspring NMJ morphology and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α1, γ and ε subunit expression in the soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542511/association-of-cyp2a6-activity-with-lung-cancer-incidence-in-smokers-the-multiethnic-cohort-study
#7
Sungshim L Park, Sharon E Murphy, Lynne R Wilkens, Daniel O Stram, Stephen S Hecht, Loïc Le Marchand
While smoking is the primary cause of lung cancer, only 11-24% of smokers develop the malignancy over their lifetime. The primary addictive agent in tobacco smoke is nicotine and variation in nicotine metabolism may influence the smoking levels of an individual. Therefore, inter-individual variation in lung cancer risk among smokers may be due in part to differences in the activity of enzymes involved in nicotine metabolism. In most smokers, cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6)-catalyzed C-oxidation accounts for >75% of nicotine metabolism, and the activity of this enzyme has been shown to correlate with the amount of nicotine and carcinogens drawn from cigarettes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542301/electronic-cigarette-aerosols-suppress-cellular-antioxidant-defenses-and-induce-significant-oxidative-dna-damage
#8
Vengatesh Ganapathy, Jimmy Manyanga, Lacy Brame, Dehra McGuire, Balaji Sadhasivam, Evan Floyd, David A Rubenstein, Ilangovan Ramachandran, Theodore Wagener, Lurdes Queimado
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarette (EC) aerosols contain unique compounds in addition to toxicants and carcinogens traditionally found in tobacco smoke. Studies are warranted to understand the public health risks of ECs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the genotoxicity and the mechanisms induced by EC aerosol extracts on human oral and lung epithelial cells. METHODS: Cells were exposed to EC aerosol or mainstream smoke extracts and DNA damage was measured using the primer anchored DNA damage detection assay (q-PADDA) and 8-oxo-dG ELISA assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541868/perceptions-of-harm-to-children-exposed-to-secondhand-aerosol-from-electronic-vapor-products-styles-survey-2015
#9
Kimberly H Nguyen, Van T Tong, Kristy Marynak, Brian A King
INTRODUCTION: The US Surgeon General has concluded that e-cigarette aerosol is not harmless and can contain harmful and potentially harmful chemicals, including nicotine. We assessed factors associated with adults' perceptions of harm related to children's exposure to secondhand aerosol from electronic vapor products (EVPs). METHODS: Data came from the 2015 Styles, an Internet panel survey of US adults aged 18 years or older (n = 4,127). Respondents were asked whether they believe aerosol from other people's EVPs causes children harm...
May 25, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541827/brain-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-are-involved-in-stress-induced-potentiation-of-nicotine-reward-in-rats
#10
Parastoo Javadi, Ameneh Rezayof, Maryam Sardari, Zahra Ghasemzadeh
The aim of the present study was to examine the possible role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1 regions), the medial prefrontal cortex or the basolateral amygdala in the effect of acute or sub-chronic stress on nicotine-induced conditioned place preference. Our results indicated that subcutaneous administration of nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) induced significant conditioned place preference. Exposure to acute or sub-chronic elevated platform stress potentiated the response of an ineffective dose of nicotine...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541582/definition-of-a-tolerable-upper-intake-level-of-niacin-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-dose-dependent-effects-of-nicotinamide-and-nicotinic-acid-supplementation
#11
Clara Minto, Maria Gabriella Vecchio, Manfred Lamprecht, Dario Gregori
Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are soluble compounds of the vitamin B group, widely used to regulate the lipid profile in hyperlipidemic individuals. Higher doses of nicotinic acid are associated with adverse effects, especially flushing. A unique tolerable upper intake level (UL) of nicotinic acid has not been defined. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate adverse effects and their incidence after supplementation with different doses of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, comparing results with current ULs in Europe and the United States...
May 25, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540032/in-vitro-hemotoxic-%C3%AE-neurotoxic-and-vasculotoxic-effects-of-the-mexican-black-tailed-rattlesnake-crotalus-molossus-nigrescens-venom
#12
David Meléndez-Martínez, Eduardo Macías-Rodríguez, Rodrigo Vázquez-Briones, Estuardo López-Vera, Martha Sandra Cruz-Pérez, Alejandra Vargas-Caraveo, Ana Gatica-Colima, Luis Fernando Plenge-Tellechea
The Mexican black-tailed rattlesnake Crotalus molossus nigrescens is distributed in the Mexican plateau. Its venom is known to cause hemolysis and presents fibrinogen coagulase, collagenase and fibrinolytic activities. These activities may be associated with hemostatic alterations, such as platelet aggregation, hemolysis and fibrinolysis, often described in ophidic accidents. However, the mechanisms of action of the C. m. nigrescens venom remain unclear. In this study we investigated the in vitro hemotoxic, neurotoxic, and vasculotoxic effects of the venom...
2017: Journal of Venom Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539361/synthesis-of-the-ca-2-mobilizing-messengers-naadp-and-cadpr-by-intracellular-cd38-enzyme-in-mouse-heart-role-in-%C3%AE-adrenoceptor-signaling
#13
Wee K Lin, Emma L Bolton, Wilian A Cortopassi, Yanwen Wang, Fiona O'Brien, Matylda Maciejewska, Matthew P Jacobson, Clive Garnham, Margarida Ruas, John Parrington, Ming Lei, Rebecca Sitsapesan, Antony Galione, Derek A Terrar
Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) and cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) are Ca(2+)-mobilizing messengers important for modulating cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and pathophysiology. CD38, which belongs to the ADP-ribosyl cyclase (ARC) family, catalyzes synthesis of both NAADP and cADPR in vitro However, it remains unclear whether this is the main enzyme for their production under physiological conditions. Here, we show that membrane fractions from WT but not CD38(-/-) mouse hearts supported NAADP and cADPR synthesis...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538810/factors-associated-with-smoking-initiation-among-school-aged-adolescents
#14
Carolina de Castilhos Teixeira, Luciano Santos Pinto Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Echer
Objective: To identify factors associated with smoking initiation in adolescent secondary school students. Method: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in 2014 with 864 adolescents at a secondary school in southern Brazil. Data were collected using an instrument with sociodemographic questions, application of the Fagerström Nicotine Dependence Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory, and analysed using descriptive statistics, Fisher's Exact test, Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney's test, and the Poisson Regression test...
May 18, 2017: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536713/calibration-transfer-of-near-infrared-spectroscopy-by-canonical-correlation-analysis-coupled-with-wavelet-transform
#15
Jun Bin, Xin Li, Wei Fan, Ji-Heng Zhou, Cheng-Wei Wang
Calibration model transfer has played a prominent role in the practical application of NIR spectral analysis. The change of instruments and sample physical states may lead to variation of the NIR spectrum, which results in the applicability of the model in judicatory practice being unsatisfactory. Therefore, a transfer for the calibration model considering both the variation of instruments and sample states is a necessity to ensure its availability. In this paper, a novel approach, namely canonical correlation analysis coupled with wavelet transform (WTCCA), was proposed for calibration transfer between two near infrared spectrometers (a portable and a laboratory instrument), and simultaneously, among three physical states (tobacco powder, tobacco filament and intact leaf) to determine the content of total sugars, reducing sugars, and nicotine in tobacco leaf samples, respectively...
May 24, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536194/wild-tobacco-genomes-reveal-the-evolution-of-nicotine-biosynthesis
#16
Shuqing Xu, Thomas Brockmöller, Aura Navarro-Quezada, Heiner Kuhl, Klaus Gase, Zhihao Ling, Wenwu Zhou, Christoph Kreitzer, Mario Stanke, Haibao Tang, Eric Lyons, Priyanka Pandey, Shree P Pandey, Bernd Timmermann, Emmanuel Gaquerel, Ian T Baldwin
Nicotine, the signature alkaloid of Nicotiana species responsible for the addictive properties of human tobacco smoking, functions as a defensive neurotoxin against attacking herbivores. However, the evolution of the genetic features that contributed to the assembly of the nicotine biosynthetic pathway remains unknown. We sequenced and assembled genomes of two wild tobaccos, Nicotiana attenuata (2.5 Gb) and Nicotiana obtusifolia (1.5 Gb), two ecological models for investigating adaptive traits in nature. We show that after the Solanaceae whole-genome triplication event, a repertoire of rapidly expanding transposable elements (TEs) bloated these Nicotiana genomes, promoted expression divergences among duplicated genes, and contributed to the evolution of herbivory-induced signaling and defenses, including nicotine biosynthesis...
May 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536070/cotinine-improves-visual-recognition-memory-and-decreases-cortical-tau-phosphorylation-in-the-tg6799-mice
#17
J Alex Grizzell, Sagar Patel, George E Barreto, Valentina Echeverria
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the progressive aggregation of hyperphosphorylated forms of the microtubule associated protein Tau in the central nervous system. Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, reduced working memory deficits, synaptic loss, and amyloid β peptide aggregation into oligomers and plaques as well as inhibited the cerebral Tau kinase, glycogen synthase 3β (GSK3β) in the transgenic (Tg)6799 (5XFAD) mice. In this study, the effect of cotinine on visual recognition memory and cortical Tau phosphorylation at the GSK3β sites Serine (Ser)-396/Ser-404 and phospho-CREB were investigated in the Tg6799 and non-transgenic (NT) littermate mice...
May 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536051/altered-thalamo-cortical-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-smokers
#18
Chaoyan Wang, Jie Bai, Caihong Wang, Karen M von Deneen, Kai Yuan, Jingliang Cheng
The thalamus has widespread connections with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and modulates communication between the striatum and PFC, which is crucial to the neural mechanisms of smoking. However, relatively few studies focused on the thalamic resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) patterns and their association with smoking behaviors in smokers. 24 young male smokers and 24 non-smokers were enrolled in our study. Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was used to assess the nicotine dependence level...
May 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535687/positive-smoking-cessation-related-interactions-with-hiv-care-providers-increase-the-likelihood-of-interest-in-cessation-among-hiv-positive-cigarette-smokers
#19
Lauren R Pacek, Olga Rass, Matthew W Johnson
Smoking cessation has proven to be a challenge for HIV-positive smokers. Patient and provider characteristics may provide barriers to smoking cessation. We aimed to identify characteristics associated with interest in cessation as well as characterize use of, current interest in, and provider recommendations for smoking cessation modalities. Data came from 275 HIV-positive smokers recruited online. Half (49.1%) of the sample was interested in quitting; daily smoking was associated with decreased likelihood of interest in cessation, whereas making a lifetime quit attempt, receiving encouragement to quit from an HIV care provider, and greater frequency of discussions regarding cessation with HIV care providers were associated with increased likelihood of interest in cessation...
May 23, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534097/increased-hpa-axis-activity-and-serum-tryptophan-in-naswar-dipping-tobacco-users-a-case-control-study
#20
Faiza Sajid, Samina Bano
Nicotine is the principal addictive agent present in Naswar, a smokeless dipping tobacco product. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) has been implicated in the reinforcement properties of nicotine. Also, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is of vital importance in evaluating the response to stress and nicotine addiction. The study aimed to evaluate serum tryptophan and cortisol levels in Naswar users in relation to addiction. Additionally, serum cotinine levels were also determined to assess daily nicotine exposure...
May 22, 2017: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
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