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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054128/combination-varenicline-bupropion-treatment-benefits-highly-dependent-smokers-in-an-adaptive-smoking-cessation-paradigm
#1
Jed E Rose, Frédérique M Behm
Introduction: This study replicated and extended results of a previous trial, which found that combination varenicline/bupropion treatment increased smoking abstinence in smokers who were male, highly dependent, and who did not respond to prequit nicotine patch treatment with a >50% reduction in expired-air carbon monoxide in the first week. Methods: One hundred and twenty-two male nicotine patch nonresponders and 52 responders were identified. Smokers in each group were randomized to receive 12 weeks of varenicline plus bupropion treatment versus varenicline plus placebo...
August 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053986/metacognitions-in-smoking-evidence-from-a-cross-cultural-validation-of-the-metacognitions-about-smoking-questionnaire-in-a-turkish-sample
#2
Leyla Alma, Marcantonio M Spada, Bruce A Fernie, Adviye Esin Yilmaz-Samanci, Gabriele Caselli, Ana V Nikčević
Metacognitions about the positive and negative effects of smoking have been associated with cigarette use and nicotine dependence. The aim of the present study was to validate the Turkish version of the Metacognitions about Smoking Questionnaire (MSQ; Nikčević et al., 2015). The sample consisted of 859 self-declared smokers (452 female) aged between 18 and 68 years (mean = 28.3; SD = 7.9). Once the English to Turkish translation of the MDQ was completed, confirmatory factor analyses were conducted based on the four-factor structure of the original measure...
October 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053606/lung-toxicity-of-condensed-aerosol-from-e-cig-liquids-influence-of-the-flavor-and-the-in-vitro-model-used
#3
Rossella Bengalli, Emanuele Ferri, Massimo Labra, Paride Mantecca
The diffusion of e-cigarette (e-CIG) opens a great scientific and regulatory debate about its safety. The huge number of commercialized devices, e-liquids with almost infinite chemical formulations and the growing market demand for a rapid and efficient toxicity screen system that is able to test all of these references and related aerosols. A consensus on the best protocols for the e-CIG safety assessment is still far to be achieved, since the huge number of variables characterizing these products (e.g., flavoring type and concentration, nicotine concentration, type of the device, including the battery and the atomizer)...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052981/cation-induced-dimerization-of-crown-substituted-phthalocyanines-by-complexation-with-rubidium-nicotinate-as-revealed-by-x-ray-structural-data
#4
Lyudmila A Lapkina, Vladimir E Larchenko, Gayane A Kirakosyan, Aslan Yu Tsivadze, Sergey I Troyanov, Yulia G Gorbunova
The supramolecular dimeric complex [(μ-oxo)bis(tetra-15-crown-5-phthalocyaninato)(nicotinato)aluminum(III)]tetra(rubidium) bis(nicotinate) was prepared by addition of an excess of a methanol solution of rubidium nicotinate to a chloroform solution of the aluminum crown-phthalocyaninate, [(HO)Al(15C5)4Pc]. A single-crystal X-ray diffraction study of {[Rb4(NicAl(15C5)4Pc)2(μ-O)](2+)(Nic(-))2}·2.36HNic·11H2O demonstrated that two molecules of the aluminum crown-phthalocyaninate nicotinate are connected through an Al-O-Al bridge supported by sandwiching of crown ether moieties by Rb(+) cations...
October 20, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051105/nicotine-and-autoimmunity-the-lotus-flower-in-tobacco
#5
REVIEW
João Pedro Gomes, Abdulla Watad, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Nicotine, the major component of cigarettes, has demonstrated conflicting impact on the immune system: some authors suggest that increases pro-inflammatory cytokines and provokes cellular apoptosis of neutrophils, releasing intracellular components that act as auto-antigens; others claimed that nicotine has a protective and anti-inflammatory effects, especially by binding to α7 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The cholinergic pathway contributes to an anti-inflammatory environment characterized by increasing T regulatory cells response, down-regulating of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a pro-inflammatory cells apoptosis...
October 16, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050783/design-and-synthesis-of-a-novel-series-of-1-s-2r-4-s-3h-4-azaspiro-benzo-4-5-imidazo-2-1-b-oxazole-2-2-bicyclo-2-2-2-octanes-with-high-affinity-for-the-%C3%AE-7-neuronal-nicotinic-receptor
#6
James Cook, F Christopher Zusi, Matthew D Hill, Haiquan Fang, Bradley Pearce, Hyunsoo Park, Lizbeth Gallagher, Ivar M McDonald, Linda Bristow, John E Macor, Richard E Olson
We describe an efficient and convergent synthesis of a series of (1'S,2R,4'S)-3H-4'-azaspiro[benzo[4,5]imidazo[2,1-b]oxazole-2,2'-bicyclo[2.2.2]octanes] displaying potency for the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and good selectivity vs. the related 5-HT3A receptor.
October 10, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050484/enos-and-xrcc4-vntr-variants-contribute-to-formation-of-nicotine-dependence-and-or-schizophrenia
#7
S Pehlivan, M A Uysal, P C Aydin, M Pehlivan, A F Nursal, H Yavuzlar, S Kurnaz, U Sever, F K Yavuz, S Uysal, N Aydin
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate whether VNTR variants in the Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) and the XRCC4 gene play any role in nicotine dependence (ND) and/or Schizophrenia+ND (Sch+ND) ethiopathogenesis. METHODS: Present study included 100 individuals with ND, 60 patients with Sch+ND, and 70 healthy controls. These variants were analyzed using PCR. RESULTS: The cases with ND had higher eNOS VNTR-BB genotype than the healthy control subjects (p = 0...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049971/food-addiction-prevalence-psychopathological-correlates-and-associations-with-quality-of-life-in-a-large-sample
#8
Paulo R Nunes-Neto, Cristiano A Köhler, Felipe B Schuch, Marco Solmi, João Quevedo, Michael Maes, Andrea Murru, Eduard Vieta, Roger S McIntyre, Susan L McElroy, Ashley N Gearhardt, Brendon Stubbs, André F Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of food addiction in a large Brazilian non-clinical sample. Sociodemographic and psychopathological correlates of food addiction as well as associations with quality (QoL) domains were also investigated. METHODS: This cross-sectional study obtained data from a Brazilian anonymous web-based research platform (N = 7639; 71.3% females). Participants provided sociodemographic data and completed the modified Yale Food Addiction Scale 2...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048816/-determination-of-nicotine-and-cotinine-in-urine-by-hydrophilic-interaction-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#9
Mingxin Li, Qian Wang, Jing Zhu, Lin Ren, Li Yong, Xiaoli Zou
The analytical method of nicotine and cotinine in human urine with hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) was established. After the urine sample containing nicotine-d4 and cotinine-d3 isotope internal standards being diluted with water, the filtrate was introduced into ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for analysis. Separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC(®) BEH HILIC column (50 mm×3.0 mm, 1.7 μ m), in which methanol and 0...
August 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048454/are-the-school-prevention-programmes-aimed-at-de-normalizing-smoking-among-youths-beneficial-in-the-long-term-an-example-from-the-smoke-free-class-competition-in-italy
#10
V Zagà, F Giordano, P Gremigni, D L Amram, A De Blasi, M Amendola, J F Osborn, M S Cattaruzza
Tobacco smoking by young people is of great concern because it usually leads to regular smoking, nicotine addiction and quitting difficulties. Young people "hooked" by tobacco maintain the profits of the tobacco industry by replacing smokers who quit or die. If new generations could be tobacco-free, as supported by tobacco endgame strategies, the tobacco epidemic could end within decades. Smoking prevention programmes for teens are offered by schools with the aim to prevent or delay smoking onset. Among these, the Smoke Free Class Competition (SFC) was widely implemented in Europe...
November 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048188/effects-of-environmental-enrichment-on-d-amphetamine-self-administration-following-nicotine-exposure
#11
Dustin J Stairs, Sarah E Ewin, Megan M Kangiser, Markus N Pfaff
Adolescent nicotine exposure has been shown to lead to further psychostimulant use in adulthood. Previous preclinical research in rats has shown that environmental enrichment may protect against drug abuse vulnerability. The current study was designed to examine whether environmental enrichment can block the ability of adolescent nicotine exposure to increase d-amphetamine self-administration in adulthood. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were raised in either enriched conditions (ECs) or isolated conditions (ICs) and then injected with saline or nicotine (0...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048187/electronic-cigarette-user-plasma-nicotine-concentration-puff-topography-heart-rate-and-subjective-effects-influence-of-liquid-nicotine-concentration-and-user-experience
#12
Marzena Hiler, Alison Breland, Tory Spindle, Sarah Maloney, Thokozeni Lipato, Nareg Karaoghlanian, Alan Shihadeh, Alexa Lopez, Carolina Ramôa, Thomas Eissenberg
Electronic cigarette (ECIG) nicotine delivery and other effects may depend on liquid nicotine concentration and user experience. This study is the first to systematically examine the influence of ECIG liquid nicotine concentration and user experience on nicotine delivery, heart rate, puff topography, and subjective effects. Thirty-three ECIG-experienced individuals and 31 ECIG-naïve cigarette smokers completed 4 laboratory conditions consisting of 2, 10-puff bouts (30-sec interpuff interval) with a 3.3-V ECIG battery attached to a 1...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048186/toward-a-laboratory-model-for-psychotherapeutic-treatment-screening-implementation-intentions-and-incentives-for-abstinence-in-an-analog-of-smoking-relapse
#13
Lara N Moody, Lindsey M Poe, Warren K Bickel
Despite reductions in cigarette smoking in the United States, approximately 40 million Americans are smokers. Innovative interventions are needed to help remaining smokers quit. To develop innovative interventions, precise and effective tools are needed. Here, a laboratory model of smoking relapse is assessed for its ability to detect increased resistance to smoking across 2 interventions and for its sensitivity to differing degrees of effectiveness. Nicotine-deprived participants (N = 36) completed, in randomized order, 4 smoking resistance sessions with and without implementation intentions and monetary incentives...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048184/association-of-nicotine-metabolism-and-sex-with-relapse-following-varenicline-and-nicotine-replacement-therapy
#14
Anaïs Glatard, Maria Dobrinas, Mehdi Gholamrezaee, Rubin Lubomirov, Jacques Cornuz, Chantal Csajka, Chin B Eap
Nicotine is metabolized into cotinine and then into trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, mainly by cytochrome P450 2A6. Recent studies reported better effectiveness of varenicline in women and in nicotine normal metabolizers phenotypically determined by nicotine-metabolite ratio. Our objective was to study the influence of nicotine-metabolite ratio, CYP2A6 genotype and sex on the response to nicotine replacement therapy and varenicline. Data were extracted from a longitudinal study which included smokers participating in a smoking cessation program...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046769/factors-that-affect-the-onset-of-action-of-non-depolarizing-neuromuscular-blocking-agents
#15
REVIEW
Yong Byum Kim, Tae-Yun Sung, Hong Seuk Yang
Neuromuscular blockade plays an important role in the safe management of patient airways, surgical field improvement, and respiratory care. Rapid-sequence induction of anesthesia is indispensable to emergency surgery and obstetric anesthesia, and its purpose is to obtain a stable airway, adequate depth of anesthesia, and appropriate respiration within a short period of time without causing irritation or damage to the patient. There has been a continued search for new neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs) with a rapid onset of action...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046158/e-cigarettes-impact-of-e-liquid-components-and-device-characteristics-on-nicotine-exposure
#16
Elise E DeVito, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use has increased substantially in recent years. While e-cigarettes have been proposed as a potentially effective smoking cessation tool, dual-use in smokers is common and e-cigarettes are widely used by non-smokers, including youth and young-adult non-smokers. Nicotine, the primary addictive component in cigarettes, is present at varying levels in many e-liquids. E-cigarettes may lead to initiation of nicotine use in adult and youth non-smokers, re-initiation of nicotine dependence in ex-smokers or increased severity of nicotine dependence in dual-users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes...
October 16, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046149/schizophrenia-and-nicotine-dependence-what-psychopharmacological-treatment-options-are-available-for-the-duo-perturbationes
#17
Yoong Mei Theng, Suzaily Wahab, Noor Alaudin Wahab, Hatta Sidi, Srijit Das
Nicotine dependence has progressively become a foremost community health interest in the both developed and developing nations due to the economic burden and health-related problem. Smoking was significantly higher among patients with schizophrenia in comparison to the general population. Nicotine dependence is not only associated with public stress, but among patients with schizophrenia, smoking brings major challenges to the management. Nicotine may diminish the therapeutic efficacy of the bioavailability of the psychopharmacological agents in-vivo...
October 17, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044138/the-neonicotinoid-insecticide-clothianidin-adversely-affects-immune-signaling-in-a-human-cell-line
#18
Gennaro Di Prisco, Marco Iannaccone, Flora Ianniello, Rosalba Ferrara, Emilio Caprio, Francesco Pennacchio, Rosanna Capparelli
Clothianidin is a widely used neonicotinoid insecticide, which is a potent agonist of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in insects. This neurotoxic compound has a negative impact on insect immunity, as it down-regulates the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. Given the evolutionary conserved role of NF-κB in the modulation of the immune response in the animal kingdom, here we want to assess any effect of Clothianidin on vertebrate defense barriers. In presence of this neonicotinoid insecticide, a pro-inflammatory challenge with LPS on the human monocytic cell line THP-1 results both in a reduced production of the cytokine TNF-α and in a down-regulation of a reporter gene under control of NF-κB promoter...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043097/histological-study-on-the-effect-of-nicotine-on-adult-male-guinea-pig-thin-skin
#19
Sohair A Eltony, Safaa S Ali
Tobacco smoking has been identified as an important factor in premature skin aging to detect the histological changes occurred in adult male guinea pig thin skin under the influence of low and high doses of nicotine; which constitutes approximately 0.6%-3.0% of the dry weight of tobacco. Fifteen adult male pigmented guinea pigs were equally divided into three groups: group I, control; group IIA, low dose nicotine treated; 3 mg/kg subcutaneously for 4 weeks; and group IIB, high dose nicotine treated; 6 mg/kg subcutaneously for 4 weeks...
September 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042416/nicotine-prevents-and-reverses-paclitaxel-induced-mechanical-allodynia-in-a-mouse-model-of-cipn
#20
S Lauren Kyte, Wisam Toma, Deniz Bagdas, Julie A Meade, Lesley D Schurman, Aron H Lichtman, Zhi-Jian Chen, Egidio Del Fabbro, Xianjun Fang, John W Bigbee, M Imad Damaj, David A Gewirtz
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), a consequence of peripheral nerve fiber dysfunction or degeneration, continues to be a dose-limiting and debilitating side effect during and/or after cancer chemotherapy. Paclitaxel, a taxane commonly used to treat breast, lung, and ovarian cancers, causes CIPN in 59-78% of cancer patients. Novel interventions are needed due to the current lack of effective CIPN treatments. Our studies were designed to investigate if nicotine can prevent and/or reverse paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in a mouse model of CIPN, while ensuring that nicotine will not stimulate lung tumor cell proliferation or interfere with the anti-tumor properties of paclitaxel...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
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