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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244675/high-pressure-injection-injury-caused-by-electronic-cigarette-explosion-a-case-report
#1
Ian Foran, Nikhil R Oak, Matthew J Meunier
CASE: Electronic cigarettes are an increasingly popular and poorly regulated alternative to traditional cigarettes that deliver nicotine and other aerosolized substances to the user via a battery-powered atomizer. We report a case in which an electronic cigarette explosion resulted in a high-pressure injection injury of the finger. CONCLUSION: Explosions involving electronic cigarettes and similar handheld products should be treated as high-pressure injection injuries until proven otherwise...
April 2017: JBJS Case Connector
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242560/characterising-the-nicotine-metabolite-ratio-and-its-association-with-treatment-choice-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-stop-smoking-services-in-england
#2
Lion Shahab, Emily Mortimer, Linda Bauld, Jennifer A McGowan, Ann McNeill, Rachel F Tyndale
Pharmacotherapy provision based on Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR) status (slow/normal metabolism) may improve smoking cessation rates. However, it is unclear whether NMR status is consistent across patient characteristics and current treatment choice. Data come from 1,826 participants attending Stop Smoking Services (SSS) across England in 2012/13. Sociodemographic, mental/physical health, smoking and treatment characteristics (nicotine replacement therapy vs. other pharmacotherapy; group vs. one-to-one behavioural support) were assessed...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242147/shared-and-divergent-neural-reactivity-to-non-drug-operant-response-outcomes-in-current-smokers-and-ex-smokers
#3
Liam J Nestor, Ella McCabe, Jennifer Jones, Luke Clancy, Hugh Garavan
Addiction to cigarettes presents with considerable health risks and induces high costs on healthcare resources. While the majority of cigarette smokers endorse the desire to quit, only a small percentage of quit attempts lead to full abstinence. Failure to achieve abstinence may arise from maladaptive reactivity in fronto-striatal regions that track positive and negative valence outcomes, thus biasing the choice to smoke in the presence of alternative, non-drug reinforcement. Alternatively, long-term nicotine abstinence may reveal neural substrates of adaptive valence outcome processing that promote and maintain smoking cessation...
December 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241539/functional-and-molecular-characterization-of-mechanoinsensitive-silent-nociceptors
#4
Vincenzo Prato, Francisco J Taberner, James R F Hockley, Gerard Callejo, Alice Arcourt, Bassim Tazir, Leonie Hammer, Paulina Schad, Paul A Heppenstall, Ewan S Smith, Stefan G Lechner
Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia (pain hypersensitivity) are cardinal signs of inflammation. Although the mechanism underlying thermal hyperalgesia is well understood, the cellular and molecular basis of mechanical hyperalgesia is poorly described. Here, we have identified a subset of peptidergic C-fiber nociceptors that are insensitive to noxious mechanical stimuli under normal conditions but become sensitized to such stimuli when exposed to the inflammatory mediator nerve growth factor (NGF). Strikingly, NGF did not affect mechanosensitivity of other nociceptors...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240768/the-association-between-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-%C3%AE-4-subunit-gene-chrna4-rs1044396-and-internet-gaming-disorder-in-korean-male-adults
#5
Jo-Eun Jeong, Je-Keun Rhee, Tae-Min Kim, Su-Min Kwak, Sol-Hee Bang, Hyun Cho, Young-Hoon Cheon, Jung Ah Min, Gil Sang Yoo, Kyudong Kim, Jung-Seok Choi, Sam-Wook Choi, Dai-Jin Kim
The primary aim of this study was to investigate the genetic predisposition of Internet gaming disorder (IGD), and the secondary aim was to compare the results to those of alcohol dependence (AD). Two independent case-control studies were conducted. A total of 30 male participants with IGD, diagnosed according to the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria, and 30 sex-matched controls participated in study 1. We designed targeted exome sequencing (TES) to test for 72 candidate genes that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of addiction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240728/state-laws-regarding-indoor-public-use-retail-sales-and-prices-of-electronic-cigarettes-u-s-states-guam-puerto-rico-and-u-s-virgin-islands-september-30-2017
#6
Kristy Marynak, Brandon Kenemer, Brian A King, Michael A Tynan, Allison MacNeil, Elizabeth Reimels
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are the most frequently used tobacco product among U.S. youths, and past 30-day e-cigarette use is more prevalent among high school students than among adults (1,2). E-cigarettes typically deliver nicotine, and the U.S. Surgeon General has concluded that nicotine exposure during adolescence can cause addiction and can harm the developing adolescent brain (2). Through authority granted by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prohibits e-cigarette sales to minors, free samples, and vending machine sales, except in adult-only facilities (3)...
December 15, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238017/-the-interface-between-the-immune-system-and-autonomic-nervous-system
#7
Shunya Nakane, Akihiro Mukaino, Yukio Ando
  The nervous system and the immune system are two major systems in human body. Although it was revealed these two systems correlated, the control of immune cell dynamics by the nervous system has come to draw a lot of attention at the present time. Recent advances in basic and preclinical science reveal that reflex neural circuits inhibit the production of cytokines and inflammation in several animal models. One well-characterized cytokine-inhibiting mechanism, termed the "inflammatory reflex", is dependent upon vagus nerve stimulation that inhibits cytokine production and attenuates the inflammation...
2017: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237730/an-allosteric-binding-site-of-the-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-revealed-in-a-humanized-acetylcholine-binding-protein
#8
Florian Delbart, Marijke Brams, Fabian Gruss, Sam Noppen, Steve Peigneur, Sandro Boland, Patrick Chaltin, Jose Brandao-Neto, Frank von Delft, Wouter G Touw, Robbie Joosten, Sandra Liekens, Jan Tytgat, Chris Ulens
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to the family of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels and mediate fast excitatory transmission in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Among the different existing receptor subtypes, the homomeric & α7 nAChR has attracted considerable attention because of its possible implication in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia. Allosteric modulators of ligand-gated ion channels are of particular interest as therapeutic agents, as they modulate receptor activity without affecting normal fluctuations of synaptic neurotransmitter release...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236702/oral-nicotine-aggravates-endothelial-dysfunction-and-vascular-inflammation-in-diet-induced-obese-rats-role-of-macrophage-tnf%C3%AE
#9
Chang Liu, Ming-Sheng Zhou, Yao Li, Aimei Wang, Kiranmai Chadipiralla, Runxia Tian, Leopoldo Raij
Obesity and cigarette smoke are major cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and, when coexisting in the same individuals, have additive/synergistic effects upon CVD. We studied the mechanisms involved in nicotine enhancement of CVD in Sprague Dawley rats with diet-induced obesity. The rats were fed either a high fat (HFD) or normal rat chow diet with or without nicotine (100 mg/L in drinking water) for 20 weeks. HFD rats developed central obesity, increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), aortic superoxide (O2-) production, and impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (EDR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236669/-optically-dissecting-brain-nicotinic-receptor-function-with-photo-controllable-designer-receptors
#10
Romain Durand-de Cuttoli, Sarah Mondoloni, Alexandre Mourot
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels widely expressed in the central nervous system and the periphery. They play an important modulatory role in learning, memory and attention, and have been implicated in various diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, schizophrenia and addiction. These receptors are activated by the endogenous neurotransmitter acetylcholine, or by nicotine, the alkaloid found in tobacco leaves. Both molecules open the ion channel and cause the movement of cations across the membrane, which directly affects neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236668/-claude-bernard-and-nicotinic-receptors-from-the-neuromuscular-junction-to-tobacco-weaning
#11
Laurent Monassier
Claude Bernard (1813-1878) was fascinated by the pharmacological mechanisms of poisons. In particular, using a huge amount of ingenious and robust experiments, he demonstrated the peripheral toxic action of the natural compound curare. His work generated controversies in a period where scientific methodology and technical development followed the progression of concepts and ideas. From his intense debates with Albert Vulpian emerged the location of curare's toxicity at the neuromuscular junction. These two fascinating scientists could not imagine how important were these discoveries which allowed John Langley to propose the concept of receptor early in the 20th century...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236542/systematic-review-of-health-communication-for-non-cigarette-tobacco-products
#12
Jennifer Cornacchione Ross, Seth M Noar, Erin L Sutfin
The Food and Drug Administration, which now has regulatory authority over all tobacco products meeting the statutory definition, is tasked with communicating the risks of these products to the public through health warnings and public education. However, there have been no attempts to summarize what is known about non-cigarette tobacco product (NCTP) health messaging. We conducted a systematic review to examine the existing literature on health communication for NCTPs and identify key research gaps. A total of 45 unique studies were retrieved and coded, with the majority focused on messaging for smokeless tobacco (SLT, k = 32, 71...
December 13, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235746/clinical-problem-solving-a-tobacco-merchant-who-can-t-spit
#13
Sandra Benizri, Nancy Agmon-Levin, Noam D Kitrey, Dan Carter, Elinor Goshen, Yehonathan Sharabi
A 47 year old man presented with a combination of dry mouth and lightheadedness while standing. His medical background was unremarkable except for cigarette smoking and hyperlipidemia. Sjögren's syndrome was ruled out, and he was referred for evaluation of orthostatic hypotension, which by then included syncopal episodes and injuries. Additional symptoms included dry eyes, constipation, reduced sweating, and erectile dysfunction. After excluding medications and structural cardiac abnormalities as causes of orthostatic hypotension, a clinical autonomic evaluation was performed...
December 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234509/assessing-the-second-hand-effects-of-a-new-no-smoking-policy-in-an-acute-mental-health-trust
#14
Benjamin Ian Perry, Katherine Meehan, Ashok Kumar Jainer
Aims and method To examine whether a new no-smoking policy in an in-patient mental health setting had any effects outside of smoking cessation. Our hypothesis stated that a forced smoking ban for in-patients may result in an increased susceptibility for clinical incidents, aggression and lower admission rates. All patients admitted to adult in-patient mental health services in Coventry and Warwickshire Partnership NHS Trust were included in the analysis. Data 6 months post-implementation of the smoking policy (1 July 2015 to 1 January 2016) were compared with the same period 1 year prior (1 July 2014 to 1 January 2015)...
December 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233920/global-sale-of-tobacco-products-and-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-in-community-pharmacies
#15
Karen Suchanek Hudmon, Nervana Elkhadragy, Zuzana Kusynová, Luc Besançon, Tina Penick Brock, Robin L Corelli
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the proportion of countries/territories that allow sales of tobacco products and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) in community pharmacies. METHODS: International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) member organisations were contacted by email and asked to respond to a two-item survey assessing whether their country/territory allowed sales of (a) tobacco products and (b) ENDS in community pharmacies. RESULTS: Of 95 countries/territories contacted, responses were received from 60 (63...
December 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233157/medical-student-intervention-to-promote-effective-nicotine-dependence-and-tobacco-healthcare-mind-the-gap-single-centre-feasibility-randomised-trial-results
#16
Anusha Kumar, Kenneth D Ward, Lisa Mellon, Miriam Gunning, Sinead Stynes, Anne Hickey, Ronán Conroy, Shane MacSweeney, David Horan, Liam Cormican, Seamus Sreenan, Frank Doyle
BACKGROUND: Although brief cessation advice from healthcare professionals increases quit rates, smokers typically do not get this advice during hospitalisation, possibly due to resource issues, lack of training and professionals' own attitudes to providing such counselling. Medical students are a potentially untapped resource who could deliver cessation counselling, while upskilling themselves and changing their own attitudes to delivering such advice in the future; however, no studies have investigated this...
December 11, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232593/improvement-of-the-association-between-self-reported-pill-count-and-varenicline-levels-following-exclusion-of-participants-with-misreported-pill-count-a-commentary-on-peng-et-al-2017
#17
Annie R Peng, Bernard Le Foll, Mark Morales, Caryn Lerman, Robert Schnoll, Rachel F Tyndale
INTRODUCTION: We previously reported poor associations between salivary varenicline and pill counts, and a substantial overestimation of adherence by pill counts in "Measures and predictors of varenicline adherence in the treatment of nicotine dependence" (Peng et al., 2017). We have since conducted supplementary analyses characterizing, and then excluding, individuals with established inaccurate pill count recall. METHODS: Based on published varenicline pharmacokinetics (including drug levels, and the long half-life) and our detection limits, conservatively we should be able to detect varenicline in anyone who took at least one pill during the 48h prior to saliva collection; thus, those reporting 1 or more pills in this time frame but who had undetectable salivary varenicline were deemed to have inaccurate pill count recall...
December 2, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232328/novel-cyp2a6-diplotypes-identified-through-next-generation-sequencing-are-associated-with-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-nicotine-metabolism
#18
Julie-Anne Tanner, Andy Z Zhu, Katrina G Claw, Bhagwat Prasad, Viktoriya Korchina, Jianhong Hu, HarshaVardhan Doddapaneni, Donna M Muzny, Erin G Schuetz, Caryn Lerman, Kenneth E Thummel, Steven E Scherer, Rachel F Tyndale
OBJECTIVES: Smoking patterns and cessation rates vary widely across smokers and can be influenced by variation in rates of nicotine metabolism [i.e. cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6), enzyme activity]. There is high heritability of CYP2A6-mediated nicotine metabolism (60-80%) owing to known and unidentified genetic variation in the CYP2A6 gene. We aimed to identify and characterize additional genetic variants at the CYP2A6 gene locus. METHODS: A new CYP2A6-specific sequencing method was used to investigate genetic variation in CYP2A6...
January 2018: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231054/polytobacco-use-and-the-customization-generation-new-perspectives-for-tobacco-control
#19
Kimberly Horn, Jennifer L Pearson, Andrea C Villanti
In recent years, the United States observed a significant uptake in concurrent use of multiple tobacco products and alternative nicotine delivery devices among youth-a phenomenon identified as polytobacco use-making tobacco control efforts more complex for clinicians, policy makers, and scientists, alike.The present commentary stimulates new perspectives on tobacco control in the context of polytobacco use and a youth culture of customization. This culture-based value of today's youth may inform current patterns of tobacco use...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Drug Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230810/trauma-exposure-interacts-with-the-genetic-risk-of-bipolar-disorder-in-alcohol-misuse-of-us-soldiers
#20
R Polimanti, J Kaufman, H Zhao, H R Kranzler, R J Ursano, R C Kessler, M B Stein, J Gelernter
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether trauma exposure moderates the genetic correlation between substance use disorders and psychiatric disorders, we tested whether trauma exposure modifies the association of genetic risks for mental disorders with alcohol misuse and nicotine dependence (ND) symptoms. METHODS: High-resolution polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were calculated for 10 732 US Army soldiers (8346 trauma-exposed and 2386 trauma-unexposed) based on genome-wide association studies of bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia...
December 11, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
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