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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225493/acetylcholinesterase-inhibitor-treatment-alleviated-cognitive-impairment-caused-by-delayed-encephalopathy-due-to-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-two-case-reports-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#1
Kumi Yanagiha, Kazuhiro Ishii, Akira Tamaoka
INTRODUCTION: Delayed encephalopathy due to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning can even occur in patients with mild symptoms of acute CO poisoning. Some cases taking conventional hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy or steroid-pulse therapy may be insufficient, and AchEI may be effective. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: We report two cases of delayed encephalopathy after acute CO poisoning involving two women aged 69 (Case 1) and 60 years (Case 2) whose cognitive function improved with acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AchEI) treatment...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225158/solid-state-17-o%C3%A2-nmr-reveals-hydrogen-bonding-energetics-not-all-low-barrier-hydrogen-bonds-are-strong
#2
Jiasheng Lu, Ivan Hung, Andreas Brinkmann, Zhehong Gan, Xianqi Kong, Gang Wu
While NMR and IR spectroscopic signatures and structural characteristics of low-barrier hydrogen bond (LBHB) formation are well documented in the literature, direct measurement of the LBHB energy is difficult. Here, we show that solid-state (17) O NMR spectroscopy can provide unique information about the energy required to break a LBHB. Our solid-state (17) O NMR data show that the HB enthalpy of the O⋅⋅⋅H⋅⋅⋅N LBHB formed in crystalline nicotinic acid is only 7.7±0.5 kcal mol(-1) , suggesting that not all LBHBs are particularly strong...
February 22, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225105/elucidating-the-biosynthetic-pathways-of-volatile-organic-compounds-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-through-a-computational-approach
#3
Purva Bhatter, Karthik Raman, Vani Janakiraman
Microbial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have gained prominence in the recent past for their potential use as disease markers. The discovery of microbial VOCs has benefited 'difficult to detect' diseases such as tuberculosis (TB). Few of the identified VOCs of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are currently being explored for their diagnostic potential. However, very little is known about the biosynthesis of these small lipophilic molecules. Here, we propose putative biosynthetic pathways in Mycobacterium tuberculosis for three VOCs, namely methyl nicotinate, methyl phenylacetate and methyl p-anisate, using computational approaches...
February 22, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224877/-helping-people-to-give-up-smoking-efficacy-and-safety-of-smoking-cessation-interventions
#4
R C van de Graaf, O C P van Schayck
- This review evaluates the safety and efficacy of, smoking cessation interventions.- Behavioural counselling is the cornerstone of smoking cessation programmes.- This counselling can be supplemented with written self-help materials, telephone counselling and e-health tailored to individual patient preferences.- Behavioural counselling may be combined with pharmacotherapy for increased effectiveness. First choice is a combination of a nicotine patch and a nicotine lozenge or chewing gum, mainly because of the favourable side-effect profile...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224315/modeling-of-free-fatty-acid-dynamics-insulin-and-nicotinic-acid-resistance-under-acute-and-chronic-treatments
#5
Robert Andersson, Tobias Kroon, Joachim Almquist, Mats Jirstrand, Nicholas D Oakes, Neil D Evans, Michael J Chappel, Johan Gabrielsson
Nicotinic acid (NiAc) is a potent inhibitor of adipose tissue lipolysis. Acute administration results in a rapid reduction of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. Sustained NiAc exposure is associated with tolerance development (drug resistance) and complete adaptation (FFA returning to pretreatment levels). We conducted a meta-analysis on a rich pre-clinical data set of the NiAc-FFA interaction to establish the acute and chronic exposure-response relations from a macro perspective. The data were analyzed using a nonlinear mixed-effects framework...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223528/inhibition-of-%C3%AE-9%C3%AE-10-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-prevents-chemotherapy-induced-neuropathic-pain
#6
Haylie K Romero, Sean B Christensen, Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, Joanna Gajewiak, Renuka Ramachandra, Keith S Elmslie, Douglas E Vetter, Carla Ghelardini, Shawn P Iadonato, Jose L Mercado, Baldomera M Olivera, J Michael McIntosh
Opioids are first-line drugs for moderate to severe acute pain and cancer pain. However, these medications are associated with severe side effects, and whether they are efficacious in treatment of chronic nonmalignant pain remains controversial. Medications that act through alternative molecular mechanisms are critically needed. Antagonists of α9α10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been proposed as an important nonopioid mechanism based on studies demonstrating prevention of neuropathology after trauma-induced nerve injury...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223265/use-of-a-novel-artificial-intelligence-platform-on-mobile-devices-to-assess-dosing-compliance-in-a-phase-2-clinical-trial-in-subjects-with-schizophrenia
#7
Earle E Bain, Laura Shafner, David P Walling, Ahmed A Othman, Christy Chuang-Stein, John Hinkle, Adam Hanina
BACKGROUND: Accurately monitoring and collecting drug adherence data can allow for better understanding and interpretation of the outcomes of clinical trials. Most clinical trials use a combination of pill counts and self-reported data to measure drug adherence, despite the drawbacks of relying on these types of indirect measures. It is assumed that doses are taken, but the exact timing of these events is often incomplete and imprecise. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the use of a novel artificial intelligence (AI) platform (AiCure) on mobile devices for measuring medication adherence, compared with modified directly observed therapy (mDOT) in a substudy of a Phase 2 trial of the α7 nicotinic receptor agonist (ABT-126) in subjects with schizophrenia...
February 21, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222901/pharmacotherapy-in-smoking-cessation-corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptors-as-emerging-intervention-targets
#8
REVIEW
Ioannis Sotiriou, Kleanthi Chalkiadaki, Christos Nikolaidis, Kyriaki Sidiropoulou, Ekaterini Chatzaki
Smoking represents perhaps the single most important health risk factor and a global contributor to mortality that can unquestionably be prevented. Smoking is responsible for many diseases, including various types of cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease and peptic ulcer, while it adversely affects fetal formation and development. Since smoking habit duration is a critical factor for mortality, the goal of treatment should be its timely cessation and relapse prevention...
February 14, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221788/substituted-2-aminopyrimidines-selective-for-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-activation-and-association-with-acetylcholine-binding-proteins
#9
Katarzyna Kaczanowska, Gisela Andrea Camacho Hernandez, Larissa Bendiks, Larissa Kohs, Jose Manuel Cornejo Bravo, Michal Harel, M G Finn, Palmer Taylor
Through studies with ligand binding to the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), we previously identified a series of 4,6 substituted 2-aminopyrimidines that associate with this soluble surrogate of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in a cooperative fashion, not seen for classical nicotinic agonists and antagonists. To examine receptor interactions of this structural family on ligand-gated ion channels, we employed HEK cells transfected with cDNA's encoding three requisite receptor subtypes: α7-nAChR, α4β2-nAChR and a serotonin receptor (5-HT3AR), along with a fluorescent reporter...
February 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220149/chemical-characterization-of-mainstream-smoke-from-spectrum-variable-nicotine-research-cigarettes
#10
Yan S Ding, Patricia Richter, Bryan Hearn, Liqin Zhang, Roberto Bravo, Xizheng Yan, Jose J Perez, Michele Chan, Jared Hughes, Patrick Chen, Wayne Chen, Joshua Wong, Sydney Holmberg, Shakia Smith, Morgan Larango, Liza Valentín-Blasini, Clifford H Watson
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to characterize mainstream smoke constituent deliveries from SPECTRUM variable nicotine research cigarettes under 2 machine smoking regimens. SPECTRUM cigarettes are manufactured by the 22nd Century company for the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health to contain varying (including reduced) levels of nicotine. METHODS: Mainstream smoke constituent deliveries of "tar," nicotine, carbon monoxide, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)), benzo[a]pyrene, aromatic amines, and carbonyls were analyzed in 23 varieties of SPECTRUM cigarettes using ISO 17025 accredited methods...
December 1, 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219984/motor-neurons-tune-premotor-activity-in-a-vertebrate-central-pattern-generator
#11
Kristy J Lawton, Wick M Perry, Ayako Yamaguchi, Erik Zornik
Central patterns generators (CPGs) are neural circuits that drive rhythmic motor output without sensory feedback. Vertebrate CPGs are generally believed to operate in a top-down manner in which premotor interneurons activate motor neurons that in turn drive muscles. In contrast, the frog (Xenopus laevis) vocal CPG contains a functionally unexplored neuronal projection from the motor nucleus to the premotor nucleus, indicating a recurrent pathway that may contribute to rhythm generation. In this study we characterized the function of this bottom-up connection...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219337/chronic-nicotine-differentially-affects-murine-transcriptome-profiling-in-isolated-cortical-interneurons-and-pyramidal-neurons
#12
Jie Yang, Ai-Yi Liu, Bo Tang, Dong Luo, Yu-Jie Lai, Bing-Lin Zhu, Xue-Feng Wang, Zhen Yan, Guo-Jun Chen
BACKGROUND: Nicotine is known to differentially regulate cortical interneuron and pyramidal neuron activities in the neocortex, while the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been well studied. In this study, RNA-sequencing was performed in acutely isolated cortical somatostatin (Sst)- positive interneurons and pyramidal neurons (Thy1) from mice treated with systemic nicotine for 14 days. We assessed the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by nicotine in Sst- or Thy1- neurons, respectively, and then compared DEGs between Sst- and Thy1- neurons in the absence and presence of nicotine...
February 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218274/trapping-of-ivermectin-by-a-pentameric-ligand-gated-ion-channel-upon-open-to-closed-isomerization
#13
Nurit Degani-Katzav, Moshe Klein, Moran Har-Even, Revital Gortler, Ruthi Tobi, Yoav Paas
Ivermectin (IVM) is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug used to treat human parasitic diseases like river blindness and lymphatic filariasis. By activating invertebrate pentameric glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCl receptors; GluClRs), IVM induces sustained chloride influx and long-lasting membrane hyperpolarization that inhibit neural excitation in nematodes. Although IVM activates the C. elegans heteromeric GluClα/β receptor, it cannot activate a homomeric receptor composed of the C. elegans GluClβ subunits...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217868/an-anti-nicotinic-cognitive-challenge-model-using-mecamylamine-in-comparison-with-the-anti-muscarinic-cognitive-challenge-using-scopolamine
#14
A C Baakman, R Alvarez-Jimenez, R Rissmann, E S Klaassen, J Stevens, S C Goulooze, J Burger, E L Swart, J M A van Gerven, G J Groeneveld
INTRODUCTION: The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist scopolamine is often used for proof-of-pharmacology studies with pro-cognitive compounds. From a pharmacological point of view, it would seem more rational to use a nicotinic rather than a muscarinic anticholinergic challenge to prove pharmacology of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. This study aims to characterize a nicotinic anticholinergic challenge model using mecamylamine and to compare it to the scopolamine model...
February 20, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216497/-visual-evoked-functional-connectivity-before-and-after-smoking-cessation-based-on-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#15
Shaofeng Mo, Xiaokai Zhang, Hongbo Chen, Jingtian Tang
To explore differences in visual information processing for smoking addicts between before and after smoking cessation based on functional magnetic resonance imaging technology.
 Methods: Seventeen volunteers, with heavy dependence on nicotine, agreed to give up smoking and to complete the test. The primary visual network and secondary visual network were extracted by independent component analysis technology. The region of interest was defined as the region with significant difference between before and after smoking cessation...
January 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216197/older-adults-who-use-or-have-used-marijuana-help-seeking-for-marijuana-and-other-substance-use-problems
#16
Namkee G Choi, Diana M DiNitto, C Nathan Marti
OBJECTIVE: Increasing numbers of older adults are using marijuana and may experience problems related to marijuana use. This study examined relationships (1) between help-seeking for marijuana use and the presence of other substance use and/or mental disorders and (2) between help-seeking for other substance use disorders and marijuana use among adults aged 50+. METHODS: The 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions provided data (N=14...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216123/ablation-of-the-auditory-cortex-results-in-changes-in-the-expression-of-neurotransmission-related-mrnas-in-the-cochlea
#17
Verónica Lamas, José M Juiz, Miguel A Merchán
The auditory cortex (AC) dynamically regulates responses of the Organ of Corti to sound through descending connections to both the medial (MOC) and lateral (LOC) olivocochlear efferent systems. We have recently provided evidence that AC has a reinforcement role in the responses to sound of the auditory brainstem nuclei. In a molecular level, we have shown that descending inputs from AC are needed to regulate the expression of molecules involved in outer hair cell (OHC) electromotility control, such as prestin and the α10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAchR)...
February 16, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216063/the-nad-precursor-nicotinic-acid-improves-genomic-integrity-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-after-x-irradiation
#18
Kathrin Weidele, Sascha Beneke, Alexander Bürkle
NAD(+) is an essential cofactor for enzymes catalyzing redox-reactions as well as an electron carrier in energy metabolism. Aside from this, NAD(+) consuming enzymes like poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases and sirtuins are important regulators involved in chromatin-restructuring processes during repair and epigenetics/transcriptional adaption. In order to replenish cellular NAD(+) levels after cleavage, synthesis starts from precursors such as nicotinamide, nicotinamide riboside or nicotinic acid to match the need for this essential molecule...
February 13, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215231/use-of-varenicline-in-smokeless-tobacco-cessation-influences-sleep-quality-and-dream-recall-frequency-but-not-dream-affect
#19
Francesca Polini, Rosastella Principe, Serena Scarpelli, Francesca Clementi, Luigi De Gennaro
OBJECTIVE: Varenicline (VCL) treatment has become popular as a part of smoking-cessation therapies, even though its possible implications in neuropsychiatric adverse events include abnormal sleep and nightmares. Our study is the first aimed at prospectively investigating changes in sleep and dream measures across such treatment by using a one week sleep diary and collecting dream recall (DR). METHODS: Thirty-eight smokers participated in two different effective smoking-cessation programs: 25 subjects received VCL, 13 subjects received nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214708/evaluating-the-role-of-smokeless-tobacco-use-indices-as-brief-measures-of-dependence
#20
Nasir Mushtaq, Laura A Beebe
INTRODUCTION: There is considerable interest in using brief measures of dependence for evaluation and treatment of tobacco dependence. The Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) is a validated measure of dependence among cigarette smokers. However, a similar index has not been studied among ST users. The aim of this study is to develop similar ST use indices and evaluate their utility as concise dependence measures. Time to first chew/dip of the day (TTFD), number of cans of ST used per week (CPW), and number of dips/chews per day (DPD) were used to create three ST use indices; heaviness of ST use index (HSTI), ST dependence index (STDI), and ST quantity frequency index (ST-QFI)...
February 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
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