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Arlener D Turner, Andrew S Lim, Sue E Leurgans, David A Bennett, Aron S Buchman, Lisa L Barnes
OBJECTIVE: Assess the relationship of self-reported sleep quality and possible sleep disorders with disability in a racially diverse sample of community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: Participants included 943 non-demented older African Americans (n=452) and Whites (n=491) from two cohort studies, the Minority Aging Research Study (MARS) and the Rush Memory and Aging Project (MAP). Participants completed a 32-item questionnaire assessing sleep quality and the possible presence of three sleep disorders (sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome [RLS] and REM behavior disorder [RBD])...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Richard Wong, Larry Feig
RalGDS is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that promotes the active GTP-bound form of Ral GTPases, RalA and RalB. GTP-bound Ras has the capacity to activate Ral GTPases at least in part by binding to the C-terminal Ras-binding domain (RBD) of RalGDS and directing the protein to Ral GTPases in the plasma membrane. In many cases, activation of Ral proteins complements other Ras effector pathways to carry out a cell function, but in others it opposes them. Moreover, in many cases activation of Ral proteins contributes to the oncogenic potential of Ras...
October 20, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Bao-Zhong Zhang, Jianpiao Cai, Bin Yu, Yanhong Hua, Candy Choiyi Lau, Richard Yi-Tsun Tsun Kao, Kong-Hung Sze, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Jian-Dong Huang
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) constitutes a great majority of hospital diarrhea cases in industrialized countries and is induced by two types of large toxin molecules: toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB). Development of immunotherapeutic approaches, either active or passive, has seen a resurgence in recent years. Studies have described vaccine plasmids that express either TcdA and/or TcdB receptor binding domain (RBD). However, the effectiveness of one vector encoding both toxin RBDs against CDAD has not been evaluated...
October 22, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Xiaona Zhang, Xiaoxuan Sun, Junhong Wang, Liou Tang, Anmu Xie
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is thought to be one of the most frequent preceding symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the prevalence of RBD in PD stated in the published studies is still inconsistent. We conducted a meta and meta-regression analysis in this paper to estimate the pooled prevalence. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed, ScienceDirect, EMBASE and EBSCO up to June 2016 for related articles. STATA 12.0 statistics software was used to calculate the available data from each research...
October 21, 2016: Neurological Sciences
Yu Hua Wong, Halimah Muhamad, Faridah Abas, Oi Ming Lai, Kar Lin Nyam, Chin Ping Tan
The effects of frying duration, frying temperature and concentration of sodium chloride on the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters and glycidyl esters (GEs) of refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein during deep-fat frying (at 160°C and 180°C) of potato chips (0%, 1%, 3% and 5% NaCl) for 100min/d for five consecutive days in eight systems were compared in this study. All oil samples collected after each frying cycle were analyzed for 3-MCPD esters, GEs, free fatty acid (FFA) contents, specific extinction at 232 and 268 nm (K232 and K268), p-anisidine value (pAV), and fatty acid composition...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Priyanka Dutta, Ahnaf Siddiqui, Mohsen Botlani, Sameer Varma
Nipah is an emerging paramyxovirus that is of serious concern to human health. It invades host cells using two of its membrane proteins-G and F. G binds to host ephrins and this stimulates G to activate F. Upon activation, F mediates virus-host membrane fusion. Here we focus on mechanisms that underlie the stimulation of G by ephrins. Experiments show that G interacts with ephrin and F through separate sites located on two different domains, the receptor binding domain (RBD) and the F activation domain (FAD)...
October 18, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Mitchell G Miglis, Srikanth Muppidi, Emmanuel During, Safwan Jaradeh
PURPOSE: Data on the prevalence of RBD in patients with PAF are limited, with discrepancies in the literature regarding prevalence. We aimed to provide further data on this association with a series of eight patients with PAF. METHODS: We reviewed the electronic medical records of all patients seen at the Stanford neurology clinics from 2012 to 2016 who were given a provisional diagnosis of PAF (343 patients), and further screened by procedure codes to identify those patients who underwent both attended video-polysomonography and autonomic testing (18 patients), and met strict exclusionary criteria (8 patients)...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
Youngsin Jung, Erik K St Louis
REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a common parasomnia disorder affecting between 1 and 7 % of community-dwelling adults, most frequently older adults. RBD is characterized by nocturnal complex motor behavior and polysomnographic REM sleep without atonia. RBD is strongly associated with synucleinopathy neurodegeneration. The approach to RBD management is currently twofold: symptomatic treatment to prevent injury and prognostic counseling and longitudinal follow-up surveillance for phenoconversion toward overt neurodegenerative disorders...
November 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Wanbo Tai, Guangyu Zhao, Shihun Sun, Yan Guo, Yufei Wang, Xinrong Tao, Chien-Te K Tseng, Fang Li, Shibo Jiang, Lanying Du, Yusen Zhou
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first identified in 2012, and it continues to threaten human health worldwide. No MERS vaccines are licensed for human use, reinforcing the urgency to develop safe and efficacious vaccines to prevent MERS. MERS-CoV spike protein forms a trimer, and its receptor-binding domain (RBD) serves as a vaccine target. Nevertheless, the protective efficacy of RBD in its native trimeric form has never been evaluated. In this study, a trimeric protein, RBD-Fd, was generated by fusing RBD with foldon trimerization motif...
October 14, 2016: Virology
I C Sampaio, P H Q S Medeiros, F A P Rodrigues, P A Cavalcante, S A Ribeiro, J S Oliveira, M M G Prata, D V S Costa, S G C Fonseca, M M Guedes, A M Soares, G A C Brito, A Havt, S R Moore, A A M Lima
Undernutrition represents a major public health challenge for middle- and low-income countries. This study aimed to evaluate whether a multideficient Northeast Brazil regional basic diet (RBD) induces acute morphological and functional changes in the ileum of mice. Swiss mice (∼25 g) were allocated into two groups: i) control mice were fed a standard diet and II) undernourished mice were fed the RBD. After 7 days, mice were killed and the ileum collected for evaluation of electrophysiological parameters (Ussing chambers), transcription (RT-qPCR) and protein expression (western blotting) of intestinal transporters and tight junctions...
October 10, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Tamara Shiner, Anat Mirelman, Mali Gana Weisz, Anat Bar-Shira, Elissa Ash, Ron Cialic, Naomi Nevler, Tanya Gurevich, Noa Bregman, Avi Orr-Urtreger, Nir Giladi
Importance: Mutations in the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene are a risk factor for the development of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). These mutations are common among Ashkenazi Jews (AJ) and appear to have an effect on the natural history of the disease. Objectives: To evaluate the clinical and genetic characteristics of an AJ cohort of patients diagnosed with DLB, assess the association of phenotype of DLB with GBA mutations, and explore the effects of these mutations on the clinical course of the disease...
October 10, 2016: JAMA Neurology
N A Amosova, I G Smolentseva, P M Guseinova, O A Maslyuk, E L Gavrilov
Disorders of sleep and wakefulness occur in about 60-98% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The majority of research on the scale and nature of the disorders was performed in patients treated with antiparkinsonian drugs, and, therefore, the true picture of sleep disorders was interfering with side effects of therapy. The spectrum of these disorders in PD patients is broad and includes insomnia, parasomnia and hypersomnia. The main symptoms of insomnia are difficulty in maintaining sleep, associated with nocturia, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD), night cramps, akinesia and tremor...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Stuart J McCarter, Michael J Howell
Sleep disorders and neurodegenerative diseases are commonly encountered in primary care. A common, but underdiagnosed sleep disorder, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), is highly associated with Parkinson disease and related disorders. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is common. It is estimated to affect 0.5% of the general population and more than 7% of individuals older than 60 years; however, most cases go unrecognized. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder presents as dream enactment, often with patients thrashing, punching, and kicking while they are sleeping...
October 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Constantin Brinkmann, Inga Nehlmeier, Kerstin Walendy-Gnirß, Julia Nehls, Mariana González Hernández, Markus Hoffmann, Xiangguo Qiu, Ayato Takada, Michael Schindler, Stefan Pöhlmann
: The glycoprotein of Ebola virus (EBOV-GP), a member of the Filoviridae family, facilitates viral entry into target cells. In addition, EBOV-GP antagonizes the antiviral activity of the host cell protein tetherin, which may otherwise restrict EBOV-release from infected cells. However, it is unclear how EBOV-GP antagonizes tetherin and it is unknown whether the GP of Lloviu virus (LLOV), a filovirus found in dead bats in Northern Spain, also counteracts tetherin. Here, we show that LLOV-GP antagonizes tetherin, indicating that tetherin may not impede LLOV spread in human cells...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
Canping Huang, Jianxun Qi, Guang-Wen Lu, Qihui Wang, Yuan Yuan, Ying Wu, Yanfang Zhang, Jinghua Yan, George F Gao
The suggested bat-origin for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has revitalized the studies on other bat-derived coronaviruses for the interspecies transmission potential. Bat coronavirus (BatCoV) HKU9 is an important betacoronavirus (betaCoV) that is phylogenetically affiliated to the same genus as MERS-CoV. The bat-surveillance data indicated that BatCoV HKU9 has been widely spreading and circulating in bats. This highlights the necessity of characterizing the virus for its potential of crossing species barriers...
October 3, 2016: Biochemistry
Daphné Génier Marchand, Jacques Montplaisir, Ronald B Postuma, Shady Rahayel, Jean-François Gagnon
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Long-term studies in REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) have shown a high rate of conversion into synucleinopathies. We aimed to prospectively follow up a large cohort of RBD patients to identify cognitive markers for early detection of prodromal dementia. METHODS: Seventy-six idiopathic RBD patients underwent polysomnography and a complete neuropsychological and neurological assessment and were then followed for a mean of 3.6 years. Cognitive characteristics at baseline were compared between patients who remained disease-free and those who developed a synucleinopathy, and between those who developed dementia first and those who developed parkinsonism first...
September 26, 2016: Sleep
Remo Leisi, Marcus Von Nordheim, Carlos Ros, Christoph Kempf
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a small non-enveloped virus and known as the causative agent for the mild childhood disease erythema infectiosum. B19V has an extraordinary narrow tissue tropism, showing only productive infection in erythroid precursor cells in the bone marrow. We recently found that the viral protein 1 unique region (VP1u) contains an N-terminal receptor-binding domain (RBD), which mediates the uptake of the virus into cells of the erythroid lineage. To further investigate the role of the RBD in connection with a B19V-unrelated capsid, we chemically coupled the VP1u of B19V to the bacteriophage MS2 capsid and tested the internalization capacity of the bioconjugate on permissive cells...
2016: Viruses
Sara Marelli, Paola M V Rancoita, Federica Giarrusso, Andrea Galbiati, Marco Zucconi, Alessandro Oldani, Clelia Di Serio, Luigi Ferini-Strambi
We validated the Italian version of the rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) screening questionnaire (RBDSQ) and calculated its cut-off value for discriminating RBD group from other sleep disorders and healthy controls (HC). 380 patients with sleep disorders and 101 HC were enrolled. RBDSQ achieved an acceptable Cronbach's α value of 0.787 and item 10 was the only one with a very low item-total biserial correlation (0.141). At ROC analysis, we obtained an AUC of 0.888, denoting a good performance of the RBDSQ total score for predicting the RBD status...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Michela Candini, Marina Farinelli, Francesca Ferri, Stefano Avanzi, Daniela Cevolani, Vittorio Gallese, Georg Northoff, Francesca Frassinetti
Much research suggested that recognizing our own body-parts and attributing a body-part to our physical self-likely involve distinct processes. Accordingly, facilitation for self-body-parts was found when an implicit, but not an explicit, self-recognition was required. Here, we assess whether implicit and explicit bodily self-recognition is mediated by different cerebral networks and can be selectively impaired after brain lesion. To this aim, right- (RBD) and left- (LBD) brain damaged patients and age-matched controls were presented with rotated pictures of either self- or other-people hands...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Yan Ding, Yue-Qing Hu, Shu-Qin Zhan, Cun-Jiang Li, Hong-Xing Wang, Yu-Ping Wang
BACKGROUND: The brain stem is found to be impaired in multiple system atrophy-cerebellar types (MSA-C). Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is reported as a marker of progressive brain stem dysfunction. Few systematic studies about the sleep disturbances in MSA-C patients combined with or without RBD were reported. This study aimed to explore the polysomnographic (PSG) features of sleep disturbances between MSA-C patients with and without RBD. METHODS: Totally, 46 MSA-C patients (23 with RBD, and 23 without RBD) were enrolled in this study...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
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