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Seok Won Lee, Chang Seok Bang, Tae Young Park, Ki Tae Suk, Gwang Ho Baik, Dong Joon Kim
Background/Aims: Adequate bowel preparation is an essential factor affecting the visibility of colonic mucosa and safety of related therapeutic interventions. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of three bowel preparation agents -2 L polyethylene glycol with ascorbic acid (PEGA), sodium picosulfate magnesium citrate (SPMC), and oral sodium phosphate tablet (NaP)- for morning colonoscopy. Methods: Here, we analyzed the medical records of patients who had taken bowel preparation agents using the split-dose method and undergone colonoscopy in a single hospital...
August 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
Sang Jin Kim, Kyung Sik Park
Chronic constipation is one of the most common digestive diseases frequently observed in a clinical setting. It has been known to cause considerable damage to the quality of life of patients. Despite recent developments, there are considerable limitations in the use of constipation-modulating agents in Korea. Chloride channel inhibitors, such as lubiprostone and linaclotide, have not been introduced in Korea yet, and prucalopride and several kinds of polyethylene glycol are not covered under medical insurance...
August 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
Lorna A Nisbet, Rafael Venson, Fiona M Wylie, Karen S Scott
NBOMes are a group of new psychoactive substances derived from phenethylamines. Recreational abuse is thought to have begun in 2010 and they are commonly associated with the "club drug" scene. They are administered in liquid form or as blotters due to their high potency. An LC-MS-MS method was validated using Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology parameters for the detection of 25B-, 25C- and 4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxy-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-benzeneethanamine (25I-NBOMe) using 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-benzeneethanamine (25B-NBOMe)-D3 as internal standard for urine and hair...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Sicong Liu, Silvestro Poccia, K Selçuk Candan, Gerardo Chowell, Maria Luisa Sapino
Background: Carefully calibrated large-scale computational models of epidemic spread represent a powerful tool to support the decision-making process during epidemic emergencies. Epidemic models are being increasingly used for generating forecasts of the spatial-temporal progression of epidemics at different spatial scales and for assessing the likely impact of different intervention strategies. However, the management and analysis of simulation ensembles stemming from large-scale computational models pose challenges, particularly when dealing with multiple interdependent parameters, spanning multiple layers and geospatial frames, affected by complex dynamic processes operating at different resolutions...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Séverine Tual, Clémentine Lemarchand, Mathilde Boulanger, Jean-Charles Dalphin, Bernard Rachet, Elisabeth Marcotullio, Michel Velten, Anne-Valérie Guizard, Bénédicte Clin, Isabelle Baldi, Pierre Lebailly
Epidemiologic studies have found lower risks of lung cancer in farmers. However, little is known about the types of agricultural activities concerned. In the Agriculture and Cancer cohort, we assessed the relationship between animal farming and lung cancer by investigating the types of animals, tasks, and timing of exposure. Analyses included 170,834 participants from the Agriculture and Cancer (AGRICAN) cohort in France. Incident lung cancers were identified through linkage with cancer registries from enrollment (2005-2007) to 2011...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
Bryan E Shepherd, Meridith Blevins Peratikos, Peter F Rebeiro, Stephany N Duda, Catherine C McGowan
Reproducible research is important for assessing the integrity of findings and disseminating methods, but it requires making original study data sets publicly available. This requirement is difficult to meet in settings with sensitive data, which can mean that resulting studies are not reproducible. For studies in which data cannot be shared, we propose a pragmatic approach to make research quasi-reproducible. On a publicly available website without restriction, researchers should post 1) analysis code used in the published study, 2) simulated data, and 3) results obtained by applying the analysis code used in the published study to the simulated data...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
Alexandrine Robert, Irvin R Schultz, Nicolas Hucher, Tiphaine Monsinjon, Thomas Knigge
The disposition and metabolism of fluoxetine in the European shore crab and the Dungeness crab were assessed. Crabs received intracardiac doses of either 0.13 μg/kg or 0.5 mg/kg fluoxetine, respectively. In addition, fluoxetine was administered to Metacarcinus cancer by oral gavage at 7.8 mg/kg. The distribution of fluoxetine was quantified in haemolymph and digestive gland for both crabs, as well as brain, muscle, and testis of Carcinus maenas, over 12 days. The metabolite norfluoxetine, was also measured in C...
August 9, 2017: Chemosphere
Foppe Smedes, Tatsiana P Rusina, Henry Beeltje, Philipp Mayer
Polymers are increasingly used for passive sampling of neutral hydrophobic organic substances (HOC) in environmental media including water, air, soil, sediment and even biological tissue. The equilibrium concentration of HOC in the polymer can be measured and then converted into equilibrium concentrations in other (defined) media, which however requires appropriate polymer to media partition coefficients. We determined thus polymer-lipid partition coefficients (KPL) of various PCB, PAH and organochlorine pesticides by equilibration of two silicones and low density polyethylene (LDPE) with fish oil and Triolein at 4 °C and 20 °C...
August 11, 2017: Chemosphere
Giovanna Ferraioli, Maria Franca Meloni
This review focuses on the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with SonoVue Epub ahead of print (Bracco Imaging) for the diagnosis of focal liver lesions (FLLs), guidance during ablative treatment, and follow-up of liver tumors. Multicenter trials have shown that the performance of CEUS for the characterization of FLLs is similar to that of contrast-enhanced computed tomography or contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. CEUS with SonoVue has been effectively used for guiding the percutaneous treatment of malignant liver tumors that are invisible or poorly visualized in traditional gray-scale ultrasonography...
July 12, 2017: Ultrasonography
Adrian Florea, Constantin Puică, Sami Hamed, Mariana Tilinca, Horea Matei
We tested here the ability of bee venom (BV) to interfere with spermatogenesis in rats in two experimental conditions. The histopathological changes were assessed with brightfield microscopy using a novel staining technique, based on methylene blue, orange G and ponceau xylidine. Transmission electron microscopy was also used to identify fine subcellular changes. BV injection for 30days in daily doses of 700μg BV/kg resulted in reducing testicular weight, along with significant larger diameters of seminiferous tubules and reduced number of Sertoli cells (SCs)...
August 16, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Arne J Beermann, Vasco Elbrecht, Svenja Karnatz, Li Ma, Christoph D Matthaei, Jeremy J Piggott, Florian Leese
Stream ecosystems are impacted by multiple stressors worldwide. Recent studies have shown that the effects of multiple stressors are often complex and difficult to predict based on the effects of single stressors. More research is needed to understand stressor impacts on stream communities and to design appropriate counteractions. We carried out an outdoor mesocosm experiment to assess single and interactive multiple-stressor effects on stream macroinvertebrates in a setup with controlled application of three globally important stressors, namely, reduced stream flow velocity, deposition of fine sediment and increased chloride concentration in a full-factorial design...
August 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Yan Lin, Jin Ma, Zhengdong Zhang, Yifang Zhu, Hong Hou, Long Zhao, Zaijin Sun, Wenjuan Xue, Huading Shi
The human population is both an emitter and receptor of metals. This study aims to clarify how the relationship of metals and metalloids to human populations influences their source characterization and health risk, based on metal concentrations in 298 soil samples in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and the corresponding zip-code level population. Nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb), but not chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As), were significantly correlated with population (p<0...
August 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Bárbara Baêsso Moura, Edenise Segala Alves, Mauro Alexandre Marabesi, Silvia Ribeiro de Souza, Marcus Schaub, Pierre Vollenweider
In southern Brazil, the recent increase in tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations poses an additional threat to the biodiverse but endangered and fragmented remnants of the Atlantic Forest. Given the mostly unknown sensitivity of tropical species to oxidative stress, the principal objective of this study was to determine whether the current O3 levels in the Metropolitan Region of Campinas (MRC), downwind of São Paulo, affect the native vegetation of forest remnants. Foliar responses to O3 of three tree species typical of the MRC forests were investigated using indoor chamber exposure experiments under controlled conditions and a field survey...
August 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Kun Dai, Qingni Yu, Zhou Zhang, Yuan Wang, Xinming Wang
Indoor air quality is vital to the health and comfort of people who live inside a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) built for long-term space explorations. Here we measured aromatic hydrocarbons to assess their sources and health risks during a 4-person-180-day integrated experiment inside a CELSS with four cabins for growing crops, vegetables and fruits and other two cabins for working, accommodations and resources management. During the experiment, the average concentrations of benzene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylenes and o-xylene were found to decrease exponentially from 7...
August 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Trevon L Fuller, Paul R Sesink Clee, Kevin Y Njabo, Anthony Tróchez, Katy Morgan, Demetrio Bocuma Meñe, Nicola M Anthony, Mary Katherine Gonder, Walter R Allen, Rachid Hanna, Thomas B Smith
Although a number of recent studies suggest that climate associated shifts in agriculture are affecting social and economic systems, there have been relatively few studies of these effects in Africa. Such studies would be particularly useful in Central Africa, where the impacts of climate warming are predicted to be high but coincide with an area with low adaptive capacity. Focusing on plantain (Musa paradisiaca), we assess whether recent climate change has led to reduced yields. Analysis of annual temperature between 1950 and 2013 indicated a 0...
August 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Matthew A Chong, Yongjun Wang, Shalini Dhir, Cheng Lin
STUDY OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: The role of the programmed intermittent bolus (PIB) technique for infusion of local anesthetics in continuous peripheral nerve blockade (CPNB) remains to be elucidated. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on PIB versus continuous infusion for CPNB have demonstrated conflicting results and no systematic review or meta-analysis currently exists. We aimed to delineate via systematic review with meta-analysis if there is any analgesic benefit to performing PIB versus continuous infusion for CPNB...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Tolulope T Sajobi, Meng Wang, Mark A Ferro, Anita Brobbey, Shane Goodwin, Kathy N Speechley, Samuel Wiebe
The diagnosis of epilepsy in children is known to impact the trajectory of their health-related quality of life (HRQOL) over time. However, there is limited knowledge about variations in longitudinal trajectories across multiple domains of HRQOL. This study aims to characterize the heterogeneity in HRQOL trajectories across multiple HRQOL domains and to evaluate predictors of differences among the identified trajectory groups in children with new-onset epilepsy. Data were obtained from the Health Related Quality of Life in Children with Epilepsy Study (HERQULES), a prospective multi-center study of 373 children newly diagnosed with new-onset epilepsy who were followed up over 2years...
August 19, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Richard L McBride, Sarah Horsfield, Carolina X Sandler, Joanne Cassar, Sally Casson, Erin Cvejic, Uté Vollmer-Conna, Andrew R Lloyd
Neurocognitive disturbance with subjectively-impaired concentration and memory is a common, disabling symptom reported by patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). We recently reported preliminary evidence for benefits of cognitive remediation as part of an integrated cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)/ graded exercise therapy (GET) program. Here, we describe a contemporaneous, case-control trial evaluating the effectiveness of an online cognitive remediation training program (cognitive exercise therapy; CET) in addition to CBT/GET (n=36), compared to CBT/GET alone (n=36)...
August 18, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Olivier Epaulard, Anne Signori-Schmuck, Sylvie Larrat, Om Kulkarni, Michael G Blum, Katia Fusillier, Myriam Blanc, Pascale Leclercq, Olivier François, Patrice Morand
BACKGROUND: Ultradeep pyrosequencing technologies permit an assessment of the genetic diversity and the presence and frequency of minority variants in a viral population. The effect of these parameters on the outcome of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected patients is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: The present study used the pyrosequencing Roche 454 prototype assay to determine whether antiretroviral efficacy is correlated with viral diversity and minority drug resistance mutations in HIV-infected treatment-naive patients and to compare assay performance in B and non-B subtypes...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Oriane Marmontel, Mathilde Di Filippo, Christophe Marcais, Séverine Nony, Marjorie Dumoux, Marine Serveaux-Dancer, Cyrielle Caussy, Sybil Charrière, Philippe Moulin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The heterogeneity and mechanisms of multifactorial chylomicronemia (MCM) remain poorly understood. To gain new insights, post heparin lipolysis measured at 60 min (PHLA60), in addition to the more commonly used 10 min (PHLA10), was assessed in patients with history of MCM. METHODS: 62 consecutive MCM patients were studied. The evaluation included LPL, APOC2, APOA5, GPIHBP1, LMF1 and APOE gene sequencing, as well as pre- and post-heparin injection biochemical analysis, including lipid profiles, determination of apolipoprotein B, B-48, CII, CIII, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) concentrations (LPLC0, LPLC10 and LPLC60) and post-heparin LPL activity (PHLA10 and PHLA60)...
July 29, 2017: Atherosclerosis
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