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Z Koné, G Coulibaly, A T J Daix, A S Bakayoko, K Samaké, D P Kouassi, K M S Domoua
INTRODUCTION: The National tuberculosis program (NTP) in Ivory Coast recommends that children under 5 years living in a family environment with contagious tuberculosis patients, should receive Prophylactic treatment with INH (PTI), whatever the result of the tuberculin skin test (positive or negative) and their BCG status (vaccinated or not), at a dose of 5mg/kg/day for 6 months. We conducted this study to check the implementation of this recommendation in three support services of tuberculosis in Abidjan, the economic capital...
October 21, 2016: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
K He, Y Wu
Plants are sessile organisms exposed constantly to potential virulent microbes seeking for full pathogenesis in hosts. Different from animals employing both adaptive and innate immune systems, plants only rely on innate immunity to detect and fight against pathogen invasions. Plant innate immunity is proposed to be a two-tiered immune system including pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity. In PTI, PAMPs, the elicitors derived from microbial pathogens, are perceived by cell surface-localized proteins, known as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs)...
2016: Enzymes
Zhengnan Zhou, Weiping Li, Tianrui He, Lei Qian, Guoxin Tan, Chengyun Ning
To enhance the surface bioactivity of titanium (Ti) prostheses, an electroactive polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film was prepared on a Ti substrate to provide a mimetic of the electrical microenvironment, which facilitated the performance of cell functions. The results of cell proliferation and differentiation assays indicated that polarization of the PVDF-Ti (PTi) altered its surface charge, thus inducing adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of cells. The polarized PVDF-Ti (PPTi) may therefore find applications in bone regeneration...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hui Zhang, Feng Liu, Zhigang Mou, Xiaofeng Liu, Jianhua Sun, Weiwei Lei
A heterojunction of crystalline poly(triazine imide) (PTI) nanosheets and ZnO quantum dots (QDs) (∼3 nm) was synthesized by a one-step ionothermal condensation of cyanamide. The resulting PTI/ZnO-QDs heterostructure exhibits a significantly enhanced H2 evolution to 63 times that of pure PTI and 3.4 times that of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) under visible light.
October 17, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Marissa Bacay Roldan, Afsana Islam, Phuong T Y Dinh, Susanna Leung, Michael T McManus
The expression and accumulation of members of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO) gene families was examined in white clover roots grown in either Pi (phosphate) sufficient or Pi-deprived defined media. The accumulation of one ACO isoform, TR-ACO1, was positively influenced after only 1 h of exposure to low Pi, and this was maintained over a 7 d time-course. Up-regulation of TR-ACS1, TR-ACS2 and TR-ACS3 transcript abundance was also observed within 1 h of exposure to low Pi in different tissue regions of the roots, followed by a second increase in abundance of TR-ACS2 after 5 - 7 days of exposure...
October 13, 2016: Bioscience Reports
Maria B Mesch, Kilian Bärwinkel, Yaşar Krysiak, Charlotte Martineau, Francis Taulelle, Reinhard B Neder, Ute Kolb, Jürgen Senker
Poly(triazine imide) with incorporated lithium chloride has recently attracted substantial attention due to its photocatalytic activity for water splitting. However, an apparent H/Li disorder prevents the delineation of structure-property relationships, for example, with respect to band-gap tuning. Herein, we show that through a combination of one- and two-dimensional, multinuclear solid-state NMR spectroscopy, chemical modelling, automated electron diffraction tomography, and an analysis based on X-ray pair distribution functions, it is finally possible to resolve the H/Li substructure...
October 13, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Y Turgunov, D Matyushko, A Nurbekov, D Kaliyeva, A Alibekov
The analysis of the influence of the intra-abdominal hypertension on the blood coagulation system by carrying out an experimental research with laboratory animals is presented in article. After simulating intra-abdominal hypertension with different degree and exposition we made the laboratory research of blood coagulation system (fibrinogen, PTI, SFMC, APTT) and ELISA research on the concentration of the modern marker of thrombozis - D-dimer. The results in article clearly demonstrate that there is a direct linear dependence of level of fibrinogen and SFMC on degree of intra-abdominal hypertension, and the multidirectional changes of indicators with increase of intra-abdominal hypertension duration - towards hypercoagulation for 3-12 hours, and then by 24 o'clock - in the opposite direction towards hypocoagulation...
July 2016: Georgian Medical News
Murali G Rao, Dalbir Singh, Rakesh Kumar Vashista, Suresh Kumar Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Microscopic study of the organization of the Subdural Haemorrhage (SDH) verified against the time period can help us in the determination of its age which has serious medico-legal implications. Very few studies concerning the dating of SDH are present in the literature. AIM: This study was conducted for dating the early subdural haemorrhage by routine histopathological stains. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective analytical study was conducted during July 2009 to December 2010...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Suayib Üstün, Arsheed Sheikh, Selena Gimenez-Ibanez, Alexandra M E Jones, Vardis Ntoukakis, Frederik Börnke
Recent evidence suggests that the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is involved in several aspects of plant immunity and a range of plant pathogens subvert the UPS to enhance their virulence. Here we show that proteasome activity is strongly induced during basal defense in Arabidopsis. Mutant lines of the proteasome subunits RPT2a and RPN12a support increased bacterial growth of virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola ES4326. Both proteasome subunits are required for Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) responses...
September 9, 2016: Plant Physiology
Xiaolei Cai, Chong-Jing Zhang, Frances Ting Wei Lim, Su Jing Chan, Aishwarya Bandla, Chan Kim Chuan, Fang Hu, Shidang Xu, Nitish V Thakor, Lun-De Liao, Bin Liu
Stem-cell based therapy is an emerging therapeutic approach for ischemic stroke treatment. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are in common use as a cell source for stem cell therapy and show promising therapeutic outcomes for stroke treatment. One challenge is to develop a reliable tracking strategy to monitor the fate of BMSCs and assess their therapeutic effects in order to improve the success rate of such treatment. Herein, TPEEP, a fluorogen with aggregation-induced emission characteristics and near-infrared emission are designed and synthesized and further fabricated into organic nanoparticles (NPs)...
September 4, 2016: Small
Rafael Rosell, Elia Neninger, Marianne Nicolson, Rudolf M Huber, Sumitra Thongprasert, Purvish M Parikh, Erik D'Hondt
Abnormalities in the Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and EGF receptor pathway promote progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Immunisation with EGF vaccine induces specific, neutralizing anti-EGF antibodies that prevent binding of the ligand to its receptor. This concept of Pathway Targeted Immunotherapy (PTI) was validated in vitro by dose-related suppression of EGFR, Akt and Erk 1-2 phosphorylation in cell lines with different mutations. A randomised phase II trial demonstrated improved overall survival (OS) in advanced NSCLC subgroups showing clear immunological response...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Da Jing, Mingming Zhai, Shichao Tong, Fei Xu, Jing Cai, Guanghao Shen, Yan Wu, Xiaokang Li, Kangning Xie, Juan Liu, Qiaoling Xu, Erping Luo
Treatment of osseous defects remains a formidable clinical challenge. Porous titanium alloys (pTi) have been emerging as ideal endosseous implants due to the excellent biocompatibility and structural properties, whereas inadequate osseointegration poses risks for unreliable long-term implant stability. Substantial evidence indicates that pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF), as a safe noninvasive method, inhibit osteopenia/osteoporosis experimentally and clinically. We herein investigated the efficiency and potential mechanisms of PEMF on osteogenesis and osseointegration of pTi in vitro and in vivo...
2016: Scientific Reports
Georgy Popov, Malou Fraiture, Frederic Brunner, Guido Sessa
Xanthomonas euvesicatoria is the causal agent of bacterial spot disease in pepper and tomato. X. euvesicatoria bacteria interfere with plant cellular processes by injecting effector proteins into host cells through the type III secretion (T3S) system. About 35 T3S effectors have been identified in X. euvesicatoria 85-10, and a few of them were implicated in suppression of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). We used an Arabidopsis thaliana pathogen-free protoplast-based assay to identify X. euvesicatoria 85-10 effectors that interfere with PTI signaling induced by the bacterial peptide flg22...
August 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Fei He, Lili Feng, Piaoping Yang, Bin Liu, Shili Gai, Guixin Yang, Yunlu Dai, Jun Lin
Upon near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation, the Nd(3+) doping derived down-conversion luminescence (DCL) in NIR region and thermal effect are extremely fascinating in bio-imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) fields. However, the concentration quenching induced opposite changing trend of the two properties makes it difficult to get desired DCL and thermal effect together in one single particle. In this study, we firstly designed a unique NaGdF4:0.3%Nd@NaGdF4@NaGdF4:10%Yb/1%Er@NaGdF4:10%Yb @NaNdF4:10%Yb multiple core-shell structure...
October 2016: Biomaterials
Daniel Couto, Roda Niebergall, Xiangxiu Liang, Christoph A Bücherl, Jan Sklenar, Alberto P Macho, Vardis Ntoukakis, Paul Derbyshire, Denise Altenbach, Dan Maclean, Silke Robatzek, Joachim Uhrig, Frank Menke, Jian-Min Zhou, Cyril Zipfel
Plants recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via cell surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to PRR-triggered immunity (PTI). The Arabidopsis cytoplasmic kinase BIK1 is a downstream substrate of several PRR complexes. How plant PTI is negatively regulated is not fully understood. Here, we identify the protein phosphatase PP2C38 as a negative regulator of BIK1 activity and BIK1-mediated immunity. PP2C38 dynamically associates with BIK1, as well as with the PRRs FLS2 and EFR, but not with the co-receptor BAK1...
August 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Huijuan Zhang, Yongbo Hong, Lei Huang, Dayong Li, Fengming Song
ERF transcription factors play critical roles in plant immune responses. Here, we report the function of AtERF014, a nucleus-localized transcriptional activator, in Arabidopsis immunity. Expression of AtERF014 was induced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) and Botrytis cinerea (Bc). AtERF014-overexpressing (OE) plants displayed increased Pst resistance but decreased Bc resistance, whereas AtERF014-RNAi plants exhibited decreased Pst resistance but increased Bc resistance. After Pst infection, expression of salicylic acid (SA)-responsive genes AtPR1 and AtPR5 in AtERF014-OE plants and of a jasmonic acid/ethylene-responsive gene AtPDF1...
2016: Scientific Reports
Agata Maslon, Dorota Czechowska, Elzbieta Szczygiel, Joanna Golec, Edward Golec
BACKGROUND: Both walking and running contains the same cyclical movement phases, however, they differ greatly in time proportions, as well as magnitude of acting forces. The objective of this study was to ascertain that the regular jogging activity induced the adaptive modifications of foot pressure distribution pattern in fore-aft and lateral-medial dimensions during walking for female joggers. METHODS: The research base consisted of 96 women between 20 and 50 years of age; and included 50 female active joggers, and 46 of female non- joggers...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Meenu Madan, Arjun Patel, Kristen Skruber, Dirk Geerts, Deborah A Altomare, Otto Phanstiel Iv
The purpose of this paper was to better understand the role of polyamine transport in pancreatic cancers.This paper identifies potential biomarkers for assessing the relative tumor commitment to polyamine biosynthesis or transport. Cell lines with low polyamine import activity and low ATP13A3 protein levels appear committed to polyamine biosynthesis and required high concentrations of the polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor, difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) to inhibit their growth (e.g., AsPC-1 and Capan 1). In contrast, cell lines with high polyamine import activity and high ATP13A3 protein expression (e...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
Johannes Peter Roman Priller, Stephen Reid, Patrick Konein, Petra Dietrich, Sophia Sonnewald
The bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria 85-10 (Xcv) translocates about 30 type-3 effector proteins (T3Es) into pepper plants (Capsicum annuum) to suppress plant immune responses. Among them is XopB which interferes with PTI, ETI and sugar-mediated defence responses, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and direct targets are unknown so far. Here, we examined the XopB-mediated suppression of plant defence responses in more detail. Infection of susceptible pepper plants with Xcv lacking xopB resulted in delayed symptom development compared to Xcv wild type infection concomitant with an increased formation of salicylic acid (SA) and expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes...
2016: PloS One
Ralph Hückelhoven, Anna Seidl
Pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) builds one of the first layers of plant disease resistance. In susceptible plants, PTI is overcome by adapted pathogens. This can be achieved by suppression of PTI with the help of pathogen virulence effectors. However, effectors may also contribute to modification of host metabolism or cell architecture to ensure successful pathogenesis. Barley responds to treatment with the pathogen-associated molecular patterns flg22 or chitin with phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and an oxidative burst...
July 2, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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