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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811287/a-plant-effector-triggered-immunity-signaling-sector-is-inhibited-by-pattern-triggered-immunity
#1
Noriyuki Hatsugai, Daisuke Igarashi, Keisuke Mase, You Lu, Yayoi Tsuda, Suma Chakravarthy, Hai-Lei Wei, Joseph W Foley, Alan Collmer, Jane Glazebrook, Fumiaki Katagiri
Since signaling machineries for two modes of plant-induced immunity, pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), extensively overlap, PTI and ETI signaling likely interact. In an Arabidopsis quadruple mutant, in which four major sectors of the signaling network, jasmonate, ethylene, PAD4, and salicylate, are disabled, the hypersensitive response (HR) typical of ETI is abolished when the Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrRpt2 is bacterially delivered but is intact when AvrRpt2 is directly expressed in planta These observations led us to discovery of a network-buffered signaling mechanism that mediates HR signaling and is strongly inhibited by PTI signaling...
August 15, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802893/complex-mixtures-of-dissolved-pesticides-show-potential-aquatic-toxicity-in-a-synoptic-study-of-midwestern-u-s-streams
#2
Lisa H Nowell, Patrick W Moran, Travis S Schmidt, Julia E Norman, Naomi Nakagaki, Megan E Shoda, Barbara J Mahler, Peter C Van Metre, Wesley W Stone, Mark W Sandstrom, Michelle L Hladik
Aquatic organisms in streams are exposed to pesticide mixtures that vary in composition over time in response to changes in flow conditions, pesticide inputs to the stream, and pesticide fate and degradation within the stream. To characterize mixtures of dissolved-phase pesticides and degradates in Midwestern streams, a synoptic study was conducted at 100 streams during May-August 2013. In weekly water samples, 94 pesticides and 89 degradates were detected, with a median of 25 compounds detected per sample and 54 detected per site...
August 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792629/alteration-of-cell-wall-xylan-acetylation-trigger-defense-responses-that-counterbalance-the-immune-deficiencies-of-plants-impaired-in-the-%C3%AE-subunit-of-the-heterotrimeric-g-protein
#3
Viviana Escudero, Lucía Jordá, Sara Sopeña-Torres, Hugo Mélida, Eva Miedes, Antonio Muñoz-Barrios, Sanjay Swami, Danny Alexander, Lauren S McKee, Andrea Sánchez-Vallet, Vincent Bulone, Alan M Jones, Antonio Molina
Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G protein complex modulates Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and disease resistance responses to different type of pathogens. It also plays a role in plant cell wall integrity as mutants impaired in the Gβ (agb1-2) or Gγ subunits have an altered wall composition compared to wild-type plants. Here we performed a mutant screen to identify suppressors of agb1-2 (sgb) that restore susceptibility to pathogens to wild-type levels. Out of the four sgb mutants (sgb10-sgb13) identified, sgb11 is a new mutant allele of ESKIMO1 (ESK1), which encodes a plant-specific polysaccharide O-acetyltransferase involved in xylan acetylation...
August 9, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766105/the-development-of-a-novel-knowledge-based-weaning-algorithm-using-pulmonary-parameters-a-simulation-study
#4
Hasan Guler, Ugur Kilic
Weaning is important for patients and clinicians who have to determine correct weaning time so that patients do not become addicted to the ventilator. There are already some predictors developed, such as the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI), the pressure time index (PTI), and Jabour weaning index. Many important dimensions of weaning are sometimes ignored by these predictors. This is an attempt to develop a knowledge-based weaning process via fuzzy logic that eliminates the disadvantages of the present predictors...
August 2, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762076/the-accumulation-of-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-is-controlled-by-the-plant-s-immune-system
#5
Ivan Baccelli, Gaétan Glauser, Brigitte Mauch-Mani
Endogenous levels of β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) increase after the molecular recognition of pathogen presence. BABA is accumulated differently during resistance or susceptibility to disease. The priming molecule β-aminobutyric acid has been recently shown to be a natural product of plants, and this has provided significance to the previous discovery of a perception mechanism in Arabidopsis. BABA levels were found to increase after abiotic stress or infection with virulent pathogens, but the role of endogenous BABA in defence has remained to be established...
August 1, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725271/normal-foot-loading-parameters-and-repeatability-of-the-footscan%C3%A2-platform-system
#6
Chao Xu, Xin-Xin Wen, Lu-Yu Huang, Lei Shang, Xi-Xia Cheng, Ya-Bo Yan, Wei Lei
BACKGROUND: The Footscan® platform system is one of the most commonly used clinical tools for the measurement of the foot pressure. The present study was designed to assess the repeatability of the system and identify the range of loading parameters observed in the normal foot. METHODS: Measurements were collected from 32 healthy participants, 15 females and 17 males, twice at an interval of 1 week. Peak pressure (PP), contact time (CT), contact area (CA), pressure-time integral (PTI), and maximum force (MaF) were recorded; these parameters were investigated in 10 areas of the foot: medial heel, lateral heel, midfoot, first to fifth metatarsals, hallux, and toes 2-5...
2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708051/ralstonia-solanacearum-novel-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-nel-effectors-ripaw-and-ripar-suppress-pattern-triggered-immunity-in-plants
#7
Masahito Nakano, Kenji Oda, Takafumi Mukaihara
Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal agent of bacterial wilt in solanaceous crops. This pathogen injects more than 70 effector proteins into host plant cells via the Hrp type III secretion system to cause a successful infection. However, the function of these effectors in plant cells, especially in the suppression of plant immunity, remains largely unknown. In this study, we characterized two Ralstonia solanacearum effectors, RipAW and RipAR, which share homology with the IpaH family of effectors from animal and plant pathogenic bacteria, that have a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase (NEL) domain...
July 15, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699103/expansion-of-pathogen-recognition-specificity-in-plants-using-pattern-recognition-receptors-and-artificially-designed-decoys
#8
REVIEW
Lifan Sun, Jun Qin, Kailun Wang, Jie Zhang
Pathogen/microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) are recognized by plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) localized on the cell surface to activate immune responses. This PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) confers resistance to a broad range of pathogenic microbes and, therefore, has a great potential for genetically engineering broad-spectrum resistance by transferring PRRs across plant families. Pathogenic effectors secreted by phytopathogens often directly target and inhibit key components of PTI signaling pathways via diverse biochemical mechanisms...
July 10, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691210/e3-ligase-saul1-serves-as-a-positive-regulator-of-pamp-triggered-immunity-and-its-homeostasis-is-monitored-by-immune-receptor-soc3
#9
Meixuezi Tong, Tanja Kotur, Wanwan Liang, Katja Vogelmann, Tatjana Kleine, Dario Leister, Catharina Brieske, Shuhua Yang, Daniel Lüdke, Marcel Wiermer, Yuelin Zhang, Xin Li, Stefan Hoth
In both plants and animals, intracellular nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs; or Nod-like receptors) serve as immune receptors to recognize pathogen-derived molecules and mount effective immune responses against microbial infections. Plant NLRs often guard the presence or activity of other host proteins, which are the direct virulence targets of pathogen effectors. These guardees are sometimes immune-promoting components such as those in a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Plant E3 ligases serve many roles in immune regulation, but it is unclear whether they can also be guarded by NLRs...
September 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687784/whole-transcriptome-sequencing-of-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-actinidiae-infected-kiwifruit-plants-reveals-species-specific-interaction-between-long-non-coding-rna-and-coding-genes
#10
Zupeng Wang, Yifei Liu, Li Li, Dawei Li, Qiong Zhang, Yangtao Guo, Shuaibin Wang, Caihong Zhong, Hongwen Huang
An outbreak of kiwifruit bacterial canker disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) beginning in 2008 caused disaster to the kiwifruit industry. However the mechanisms of interaction between kiwifruit and Psa are unknown. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to regulate many biological processes, but comprehensive repertoires of kiwifruit lncRNAs and their effects on the interaction between kiwifruit and Psa are unknown. Here, based on in-depth transcriptomic analysis of four kiwifruit materials at three stages of infection with Psa, we identified 14,845 transcripts from 12,280 loci as putative lncRNAs...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685662/simultaneous-functional-photoacoustic-microscopy-and-electrocorticography-reveal-the-impact-of-rtpa-on-dynamic-neurovascular-functions-after-cerebral-ischemia
#11
Aishwarya Bandla, Lun-De Liao, Su Jing Chan, Ji Min Ling, Yu-Hang Liu, Yen-Yu Ian Shih, Han-Chi Pan, Peter Tsun-Hon Wong, Hsin-Yi Lai, Nicolas Kon Kam King, You-Yin Chen, Wai Hoe Ng, Nitish V Thakor
The advance of thrombolytic therapy has been hampered by the lack of optimization of the therapy during the hyperacute phase of focal ischemia. Here, we investigate neurovascular dynamics using a custom-designed hybrid electrocorticography (ECoG)-functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM) imaging system during the hyperacute phase (first 6 h) of photothrombotic ischemia (PTI) in male Wistar rats following recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA)-mediated thrombolysis. We reported, for the first time, the changes in neural activity and cerebral hemodynamic responses following rtPA infusion at different time points post PTI...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678518/single-crystal-luminescent-carbon-nitride-nanosheets-formed-by-spontaneous-dissolution
#12
Thomas S Miller, Theo M Suter, Andrew M Telford, Loren Picco, Oliver D Payton, Freddie Russell-Pavier, Patrick L Cullen, Andrea Sella, Milo S P Shaffer, Jenny Nelson, Vasiliki Tileli, Paul F McMillan, Christopher A Howard
A primary method for the production of 2D nanosheets is liquid-phase delamination from their 3D layered bulk analogues. Most strategies currently achieve this objective by significant mechanical energy input or chemical modification but these processes are detrimental to the structure and properties of the resulting 2D nanomaterials. Bulk poly(triazine imide) (PTI)-based carbon nitrides are layered materials with a high degree of crystalline order. Here, we demonstrate that these semiconductors are spontaneously soluble in select polar aprotic solvents, that is, without any chemical or physical intervention...
July 5, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667952/simultaneous-measurement-of-thermal-conductivity-and-heat-capacity-by-flash-thermal-imaging-methods
#13
N Tao, X L Li, J G Sun
Thermal properties are important for material applications involved with temperature. Although many measurement methods are available, they may not be convenient to use or have not been demonstrated suitable for testing of a wide range of materials. To address this issue, we developed a new method for the nondestructive measurement of the thermal effusivity of bulk materials with uniform property. This method is based on the pulsed thermal imaging-multilayer analysis (PTI-MLA) method that has been commonly used for testing of coating materials...
June 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640974/resistance-to-powdery-mildew8-1-boosts-pattern-triggered-immunity-against-multiple-pathogens-in-arabidopsis-and-rice
#14
Yan Li, Yong Zhang, Qing-Xia Wang, Ting-Ting Wang, Xiao-Long Cao, Zhi-Xue Zhao, Sheng-Li Zhao, Yong-Ju Xu, Zhi-Yuan Xiao, Jin-Lu Li, Jing Fan, Hui Yang, Fu Huang, Shunyuan Xiao, Wen-Ming Wang
The Arabidopsis gene RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW8.1 (RPW8.1) confers resistance to virulent fungal and oomycete pathogens that cause powdery mildew and downy mildew, respectively. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that ectopic expression of RPW8.1 boosts pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) resulting in enhanced resistance against different pathogens in both Arabidopsis and rice. In Arabidopsis, transcriptome analysis revealed that ectopic expression of RPW8.1-YFP constitutively up-regulates expression of many pathogen-associated molecular pattern-(PAMP-) inducible genes...
June 22, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575986/co-culturing-epidermal-keratinocytes-and-dermal-fibroblasts-on-nano-structured-titanium-surfaces
#15
Jing Tan, Chanjuan Zhao, Jie Zhou, Ke Duan, Jianxin Wang, Xiong Lu, Jie Weng, Bo Feng
Long-term success of percutaneous implants depends mostly on the stable connection between the soft tissue and implant surface because bacterial invasion and infection can be prevented by a proper seal between the skin and implant. The percutaneous seal is affected by responses of keratinocytes and/or fibroblasts to the implant. Herein, the in vitro functionality of fibroblasts and keratinocytes on titania nanotubes (TNT) and polished titanium (pTi) surfaces was investigated by different culture methods. Adhesion, proliferation, morphology, and differentiation were evaluated by cell viability assay, fluorescence microscopy, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and indirect immunofluorescence...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554665/population-incidence-of-pedestrian-traffic-injury-in-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Kate E Charters, Belinda J Gabbe, Biswadev Mitra
BACKGROUND: Road traffic injuries are the fifth leading cause of years of life lost, with pedestrians comprising 39% of all road deaths. International recognition of this public health issue has led to a reduction in road traffic deaths in many high-income countries. However data on non-motorised road users such as pedestrians is incomplete. Additionally, non-fatal injuries are poorly documented. The aim of this study was to identify the incidence of pedestrian traffic injury reported from high-income countries...
May 18, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546091/comparative-secretome-analysis-of-colletotrichum-falcatum-identifies-a-cerato-platanin-protein-epl1-as-a-potential-pathogen-associated-molecular-pattern-pamp-inducing-systemic-resistance-in-sugarcane
#17
N M R Ashwin, Leonard Barnabas, Amalraj Ramesh Sundar, Palaniyandi Malathi, Rasappa Viswanathan, Antonio Masi, Ganesh Kumar Agrawal, Randeep Rakwal
Colletotrichum falcatum, an intriguing hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen causes red rot, a devastating disease of sugarcane. Repeated in vitro subculturing of C. falcatum under dark condition alters morphology and reduces virulence of the culture. Hitherto, no information is available on this phenomenon at molecular level. In this study, the in vitro secretome of C. falcatum cultured under light and dark conditions was analyzed using 2-DE coupled with MALDI TOF/TOF MS. Comparative analysis identified nine differentially abundant proteins...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535079/the-tomato-kinase-pti1-contributes-to-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-response-to-two-flagellin-derived-peptides-and-promotes-resistance-to-pseudomonas-syringae-infection
#18
Simon Schwizer, Christine M Kraus, Diane M Dunham, Yi Zheng, Noé Fernandez-Pozo, Marina A Pombo, Zhangjun Fei, Suma Chakravarthy, Gregory B Martin
The Pti1 kinase was identified from a reverse genetic screen as contributing to pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). The tomato genome has two Pti1 genes, referred to as Pti1a and Pti1b. A hairpin-Pti1 (hpPti1) construct was developed and was used to generate two independent stable transgenic tomato lines that had reduced transcript abundance of both genes. In response to P. syringae pv. tomato inoculation, these hpPti1 plants developed more severe disease symptoms, supported higher bacterial populations, and had reduced transcript accumulation of PTI-associated genes, as compared with wild-type plants...
September 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528359/anatomic-basis-of-le-fort-1-impaction-osteotomy-a-radiological-study
#19
Rivka Bendrihem, Christian Vacher, Audrey Fohlen, Jean-Pierre Pelage
PURPOSE: In Le Fort 1 osteotomy when a maxillary impaction is necessary, surgeons have to face different anatomical problems. (1) To determine the best bone resection route, they have to consider the situation of dental roots, infraorbital foramen and maxillary artery. (2) In case of Le Fort 1 osteotomy combined with a mandibular sagittal split osteotomy, the palate has to be replaced in horizontal position although there is no anatomical landmark. (3) In case of Gummy smiles, it can be due to either long face or short upper lip...
May 20, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525309/from-chaos-to-harmony-responses-and-signaling-upon-microbial-pattern-recognition
#20
Xiao Yu, Baomin Feng, Ping He, Libo Shan
Pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) are detected as nonself by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and activate pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Microbial invasions often trigger the production of host-derived endogenous signals referred to as danger- or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are also perceived by PRRs to modulate PTI responses. Collectively, PTI contributes to host defense against infections by a broad range of pathogens. Remarkable progress has been made toward demonstrating the cellular and physiological responses upon pattern recognition, elucidating the molecular, biochemical, and genetic mechanisms of PRR activation, and dissecting the complex signaling networks that orchestrate PTI responses...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
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