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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331091/terminal-spreading-depolarization-and-electric-silence-in-death-of-human-cortex
#1
Jens P Dreier, Sebastian Major, Brandon Foreman, Maren K L Winkler, Eun-Jeung Kang, Denny Milakara, Coline L Lemale, Vince DiNapoli, Jason M Hinzman, Johannes Woitzik, Norberto Andaluz, Andrew Carlson, Jed A Hartings
OBJECTIVE: Restoring the circulation is the primary goal in emergency treatment of cerebral ischemia. However, better understanding of how the brain responds to energy depletion could inform the time available for resuscitation until irreversible damage and advance development of interventions that prolong this span. Experimentally, injury to central neurons begins only with anoxic depolarization. This potentially reversible, spreading wave typically starts 2-5 min after the onset of severe ischemia, marking the onset of a toxic intraneuronal change that eventually results in irreversible injury...
January 13, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299930/difluoromethylornithine-combined-with-a-polyamine-transport-inhibitor-is-effective-against-gemcitabine-resistant-pancreatic-cancer
#2
Sarah B Gitto, Veethika Pandey, Jeremiah L Oyer, Alicja J Copik, Frederick C Hogan, Otto Phanstiel, Deborah A Altomare
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is highly chemo-resistant and has an extremely poor patient prognosis, with a survival rate at five years of <8%. There remains an urgent need for innovative treatments. Targeting polyamine biosynthesis through inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase with difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) has had mixed clinical success due to tumor escape via an undefined transport system, which imports exogenous polyamines and sustains intracellular polyamine pools. Here, we tested DFMO in combination with a polyamine transport inhibitor (PTI), Trimer44NMe, against Gemcitabine-resistant PDAC cells...
January 4, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298327/gabaergic-mechanisms-involved-in-the-prepulse-inhibition-of-auditory-evoked-cortical-responses-in-humans
#3
Koji Inui, Nobuyuki Takeuchi, Shunsuke Sugiyama, Eishi Motomura, Makoto Nishihara
Despite their essential roles in signal processing in the brain, the functions of interneurons currently remain unclear in humans. We recently developed a method using the prepulse inhibition of sensory evoked cortical responses for functional measurements of interneurons. When a sensory feature is abruptly changed in a continuous sensory stimulus, change-related cortical responses are recorded using MEG. By inserting a weak change stimulus (prepulse) before the test change stimulus, it is possible to observe the inhibition of the test response...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281727/transcriptome-dynamic-of-arabidopsis-roots-infected-with-phytophthora-parasitica-identifies-vq29-a-gene-induced-during-the-penetration-and-involved-in-the-restriction-of-infection
#4
Jo-Yanne Le Berre, Mathieu Gourgues, Birgit Samans, Harald Keller, Franck Panabières, Agnes Attard
Little is known about the responses of plant roots to filamentous pathogens, particularly to oomycetes. To assess the molecular dialog established between the host and the pathogen during early stages of infection, we investigated the overall changes in gene expression in A. thaliana roots challenged with P. parasitica. We analyzed various infection stages, from penetration and establishment of the interaction to the switch from biotrophy to necrotrophy. We identified 3390 genes for which expression was modulated during the infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245830/distributed-gas-sensing-with-optical-fibre-photothermal-interferometry
#5
Yuechuan Lin, Fei Liu, Xiangge He, Wei Jin, Min Zhang, Fan Yang, Hoi Lut Ho, Yanzhen Tan, Lijuan Gu
We report the first distributed optical fibre trace-gas detection system based on photothermal interferometry (PTI) in a hollow-core photonic bandgap fibre (HC-PBF). Absorption of a modulated pump propagating in the gas-filled HC-PBF generates distributed phase modulation along the fibre, which is detected by a dual-pulse heterodyne phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry (OTDR) system. Quasi-distributed sensing experiment with two 28-meter-long HC-PBF sensing sections connected by single-mode transmission fibres demonstrated a limit of detection (LOD) of ∼10 ppb acetylene with a pump power level of 55 mW and an effective noise bandwidth (ENBW) of 0...
December 11, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242468/a-new-species-of-small-and-highly-abbreviated-caecilian-gymnophiona-%C3%A2-indotyphlidae-from-the-seychelles-island-of-praslin-and-a-recharacterization-of-i-hypogeophis-i-i-brevis-i-boulenger-1911
#6
Simon T Maddock, Mark Wilkinson, Ronald A Nussbaum, David J Gower
A new species of indotyphlid caecilian amphibian, Hypogeophis pti sp. nov., is described based on a series of specimens from the Seychelles island of Praslin. The type series was collected in 2013 and 2014, and a referred specimen previously identified as H. brevis Boulenger, 1911 was collected from an unspecified Seychelles locality in 1957. The new species most closely resembles the Seychelles endemic Hypogeophis brevis in being short (maximum known total length in life ca. 120 mm) and long snouted, but differs by having a less anteriorly positioned tentacular aperture and fewer primary annuli and vertebrae...
October 6, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226970/a-dominant-interfering-camta3-mutation-compromises-primary-transcriptional-outputs-mediated-by-both-cell-surface-and-intracellular-immune-receptors-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#7
Florence Jacob, Barbara Kracher, Akira Mine, Carolin Seyfferth, Servane Blanvillain-Baufumé, Jane E Parker, Kenichi Tsuda, Paul Schulze-Lefert, Takaki Maekawa
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing proteins (NLRs) initiate pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), respectively, each associated with the activation of an overlapping set of defence genes. The regulatory mechanism behind this convergence of PTI- and ETI-mediated defence gene induction remains elusive. We generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants that enable conditional NLR activation without pathogen infection to dissect NLR- and PRR-mediated transcriptional signals...
December 11, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224001/dental-caries-and-developmental-defects-of-enamel-in-the-primary-dentition-of-preterm-infants-case-control-observational-study
#8
Ina Manuela Schüler, Stefanie Haberstroh, Kristin Dawczynski, Thomas Lehmann, Roswitha Heinrich-Weltzien
AIM: Assessment of dental health in the primary dentition of preterm infants (PTI) including investigation of mother- and infant-related risk factors in a case-control study design. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred twenty-eight infants aged 3-4 years were included. Sixty-four PTI (27 males) were randomly selected from the preterm registry of the Jena University Hospital. As a control group served 64 full-term infants (FTI) recruited from the Department of Paediatric Dentistry, matched for age and sex...
December 9, 2017: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219476/giant-interatomic-energy-transport-amplification-with-nonreciprocal-photonic-topological-insulators
#9
Pierre Doyeux, S Ali Hassani Gangaraj, George W Hanson, Mauro Antezza
We show that the energy-transport efficiency in a chain of two-level emitters can be drastically enhanced by the presence of a photonic topological insulator (PTI). This is obtained by exploiting the peculiar properties of its nonreciprocal surface plasmon polariton (SPP), which is unidirectional, and immune to backscattering, and propagates in the bulk band gap. This amplification of transport efficiency can be as much as 2 orders of magnitude with respect to reciprocal SPPs. Moreover, we demonstrate that despite the presence of considerable imperfections at the interface of the PTI, the efficiency of the SPP-assisted energy transport is almost unaffected by discontinuities...
October 27, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218547/expression-of-class-i%C3%A2-histone-deacetylases-in-ipsilateral-and-contralateral-hemispheres-after-the-focal-photothrombotic-infarction-in-the-mouse-brain
#10
Svetlana Demyanenko, Maria Neginskaya, Elena Berezhnaya
Histone acetylation and deacetylation are among the most important epigenetic processes that regulate gene expression. Nonselective inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDAC) can protect brain cells during ischemia and stroke. However, which HDAC isoform is involved in this effect is unknown. Some isoforms of histone deacetylases (HDACs) protect brain cells after ischemia, whereas others can promote their death. Most studies consider early periods (1-24 h) after stroke, whereas little is known on the involvement of HDACs during recovery after stroke...
December 7, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215586/investigation-of-polyamine-metabolism-and-homeostasis-in-pancreatic-cancers
#11
Chelsea Massaro, Jenna Thomas, Otto Phanstiel Iv
Pancreatic cancers are currently the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death and new therapies are desperately needed. The most common pancreatic cancer is pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). This report describes the development of therapies, which effectively deplete PDAC cells of their required polyamine growth factors. Of all human tissues, the pancreas has the highest level of the native polyamine spermidine. To sustain their high growth rates, PDACs have altered polyamine metabolism, which is reflected in their high intracellular polyamine levels and their upregulated import of exogenous polyamines...
December 7, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199888/a-high-sensitivity-microtiter-based-plate-assay-for-plant-mamp-triggered-immunity
#12
G Adam Mott, Darrell Desveaux, David S Guttman
The first step in the plant immune response to pathogen challenge involves the perception of conserved epitopes, called microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), by cell surface pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Given the key roles that MAMPs and PRRs play in plant innate immunity, great effort has been expended to identify these molecules. Current methods for assaying these immune responses are often limited in their resolution and throughput, and consequently, there is a need for medium- to high-throughput methodologies...
December 4, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154460/elevated-co2-increases-r-gene-dependent-resistance-of-medicago-truncatula-against-the-pea-aphid-by-up-regulating-a-heat-shock-gene
#13
Yucheng Sun, Huijuan Guo, Erliang Yuan, Feng Ge
Resistance against pathogens and herbivorous insects in many plant results from the expression of resistance (R) genes. Few reports, however, have considered the effects of elevated CO2 on R gene-based resistance in plants. The current study determined the responses of two near isogenic Medicago truncatula genotypes (Jester has an R gene and A17 does not) to the pea aphid and elevated CO2 in open-top chambers in the field. Aphid abundance, mean relative growth rate and feeding efficiency were increased by elevated CO2 on A17 plants but were reduced on Jester plants...
November 20, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137411/a-novel-polyamine-blockade-therapy-activates-an-anti-tumor-immune-response
#14
Eric T Alexander, Allyson Minton, Molly C Peters, Otto Phanstiel, Susan K Gilmour
Most tumors maintain elevated levels of polyamines to support their growth and survival. This study explores the anti-tumor effect of polyamine starvation via both inhibiting polyamine biosynthesis and blocking the upregulated import of polyamines into the tumor. We demonstrate that polyamine blockade therapy (PBT) co-treatment with both DFMO and a novel polyamine transport inhibitor, Trimer PTI, significantly inhibits tumor growth more than treatment with DFMO or the Trimer PTI alone. The anti-tumor effect of PBT was lost in mice where CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were antibody depleted, implying that PBT stimulates an anti-tumor immune effect that is T-cell dependent...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135915/evaluation-of-polyamine-transport-inhibitors-in-a-drosophila-epithelial-model-suggests-the-existence-of-multiple-transport-systems
#15
Minpei Wang, Otto Phanstiel, Laurence von Kalm
Increased polyamine biosynthesis activity and an active polyamine transport system are characteristics of many cancer cell lines and polyamine depletion has been shown to be a viable anticancer strategy. Polyamine levels can be depleted by difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an inhibitor of the key polyamine biosynthesis enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). However, malignant cells frequently circumvent DFMO therapy by up-regulating polyamine import. Therefore, there is a need to develop compounds that inhibit polyamine transport...
November 14, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135338/convergent-and-divergent-signaling-in-pamp-triggered-immunity-and-effector-triggered-immunity
#16
Yujun Peng, Rowan van Wersch, Yuelin Zhang
Plants use diverse immune receptors to sense pathogen attacks. Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors localized on the plasma membrane leads to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Detection of pathogen effectors by intracellular or plasma membrane-localized immune receptors results in effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Despite the large variations in the magnitude and duration of immune responses triggered by different PAMPs or pathogen effectors during PTI and ETI, plasma membrane-localized immune receptors activate similar downstream molecular events such as MAP kinase activation, oxidative burst, ion influx and increased biosynthesis of plant defense hormones, indicating that defense signals initiated at the plasma membrane converge at later points...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127881/grapevine-immune-signaling-network-in-response-to-drought-stress-as-revealed-by-transcriptomic-analysis
#17
Muhammad S Haider, Mahantesh M Kurjogi, M Khalil-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad Fiaz, Tariq Pervaiz, Songtao Jiu, Jia Haifeng, Wang Chen, Jinggui Fang
Drought is a ubiquitous abiotic factor that severely impedes growth and development of horticulture crops. The challenge postured by global climate change is the evolution of drought-tolerant cultivars that could cope with concurrent stress. Hence, in this study, biochemical, physiological and transcriptome analysis were investigated in drought-treated grapevine leaves. The results revealed that photosynthetic activity and reducing sugars were significantly diminished which were positively correlated with low stomatal conductance and CO2 exchange in drought-stressed leaves...
December 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126041/the-effect-of-eliminating-leg-length-difference-on-plantar-foot-pressure-distribution-in-patients-wearing-forefoot-offloading-shoe
#18
Ezequiel Palmanovich, Moshe Ayalon, David Ben Sira, Meir Nyska, Iftach Hetsroni
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Elevated heel construction offloads the forefoot after surgery. However, side-to-side height difference alters limb kinetics, whereas leg-length equalizing-sole at non-operated side may have beneficial effects on foot loading. The purpose of this study was to characterize leg-length equalizing sole effect on bilateral plantar pressures when using heel-lift forefoot-offloading shoe. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty men were tested walking. Plantar peak pressures (PP) and pressure-time integrals (PTI) in the forefoot-offloading shoe and in contralateral running shoe were compared between two conditions: one with- and the other without leg-length equalizing sole elevation at the running shoe...
October 24, 2017: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107936/a-harpin-elicitor-induces-the-expression-of-a-coiled-coil-nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich-repeat-cc-nb-lrr-defense-signaling-gene-and-others-functioning-during-defense-to-parasitic-nematodes
#19
Weasam A R Aljaafri, Brant T McNeece, Bisho R Lawaju, Keshav Sharma, Prakash M Niruala, Shankar R Pant, David H Long, Kathy S Lawrence, Gary W Lawrence, Vincent P Klink
The bacterial effector harpin induces the transcription of the Arabidopsis thaliana NON-RACE SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE 1/HARPIN INDUCED1 (NDR1/HIN1) coiled-coil nucleotide binding leucine rich repeat (CC-NB-LRR) defense signaling gene. In Glycine max, Gm-NDR1-1 transcripts have been detected within root cells undergoing a natural resistant reaction to parasitism by the syncytium-forming nematode Heterodera glycines, functioning in the defense response. Expressing Gm-NDR1-1 in Gossypium hirsutum leads to resistance to Meloidogyne incognita parasitism...
October 13, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106332/conserved-rxlr-effectors-from-oomycetes-hyaloperonospora-arabidopsidis-and-phytophthora-sojae-suppress-pamp-and-effector-triggered-immunity-in-diverse-plants
#20
Devdutta Deb, Ryan Anderson, Theresa How Yew Kin, Brett M Tyler, John M McDowell
Effector proteins are exported to the interior of host cells by diverse plant pathogens. Many oomycete pathogens maintain large families of candidate effector genes, encoding proteins with a secretory leader followed by an RxLR motif. Although most of these genes are very divergent between oomycete species, several genes are conserved between Phytophthora species and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa), suggesting that they play important roles in pathogenicity. We describe a pair of conserved effector candidates, HaRxL23 and PsAvh73, from Hpa and P...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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