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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909045/a-subset-of-ubiquitin-conjugating-enzymes-are-essential-for-plant-immunity
#1
Bangjun Zhou, Ravi V Mural, Xuanyang Chen, Matt E Oates, Richard A Connor, Gregory B Martin, Julian Gough, Lirong Zeng
Of the three classes of enzymes involved in ubiquitination, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2) have been often incorrectly considered to play merely an auxiliary role in the process and few E2 enzymes have been investigated in plants. To reveal the role of E2 in plant innate immunity we identified and cloned forty tomato genes encoding E2 proteins. Thioester assays indicated the majority of the genes encode enzymatically active E2. Phylogenetic analysis classified the forty tomato E2 into thirteen groups, of which members of group III were found to interact and act specifically with AvrPtoB, a Pseudomonas syringae pv...
December 1, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900506/arabidopsis-thaliana-methionine-sulfoxide-reductase-b8-influences-stress-induced-cell-death-and-effector-triggered-immunity
#2
Shweta Roy, Ashis Kumar Nandi
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) oxidize methionine to methionine sulfoxide (MetSO) and thereby inactivate proteins. Methionine sulfoxide reductase (MSR) enzyme converts MetSO back to the reduced form and thereby detoxifies the effect of ROS. Our results show that Arabidopsis thaliana MSR enzyme coding gene MSRB8 is required for effector-triggered immunity and containment of stress-induced cell death in Arabidopsis. Plants activate pattern-triggered immunity (PTI), a basal defense, upon recognition of evolutionary conserved molecular patterns present in the pathogens...
November 29, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898782/prediction-of-pesticide-toxicity-in-midwest-streams
#3
Megan E Shoda, Wesley W Stone, Lisa H Nowell
The occurrence of pesticide mixtures is common in stream waters of the United States, and the impact of multiple compounds on aquatic organisms is not well understood. Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models were developed to predict Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) values in unmonitored streams in the Midwest and are referred to as WARP-PTI models. The PTI is a tool for assessing the relative toxicity of pesticide mixtures to fish, benthic invertebrates, and cladocera in stream water. One hundred stream sites in the Midwest were sampled weekly in May through August 2013, and the highest calculated PTI for each site was used as the WARP-PTI model response variable...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871149/pstha5a23-a-candidate-effector-from-the-obligate-biotrophic-pathogen-puccinia-striiformis-f-sp-tritici-is-involved-in-plant-defense-suppression-and-rust-pathogenicity
#4
Yulin Cheng, Kuan Wu, Juanni Yao, Shumin Li, Xiaojie Wang, Lili Huang, Zhensheng Kang
During the infection of host plants, pathogens can deliver virulence-associated "effector" proteins to promote plant susceptibility. However, little is known about effector function in the obligate biotrophic pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) that is an important fungal pathogen in wheat production worldwide. Here, we report our findings on an in planta highly induced candidate effector from Pst, PSTha5a23. The PSTha5a23 gene is unique to Pst and shows a low level of intra-species polymorphism...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868427/influence-of-shoe-midsole-hardness-on-plantar-pressure-distribution-in-four-basketball-related-movements
#5
Wing-Kai Lam, Wei Xuan Ng, Pui Wah Kong
This study examined how shoe midsole hardness influenced plantar pressure in basketball-related movements. Twenty male university basketball players wore customized shoes with hard and soft midsoles (60 and 50 Shore C) to perform four movements: running, maximal forward sprinting, maximal 45° cutting and lay-up. Plantar loading was recorded using an in-shoe pressure measuring system, with peak pressure (PP) and pressure time integral (PTI) extracted from 10 plantar regions. Compared with hard shoes, subjects exhibited lower PP in one or more plantar regions when wearing the soft shoes across all tested movements (Ps < 0...
November 21, 2016: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848193/from-prevention-of-pin-tract-infection-to-treatment-of-osteomyelitis-during-paediatric-external-fixation
#6
REVIEW
Dimitri Ceroni, Catherine Grumetz, Odile Desvachez, Sophie Pusateri, Pierre Dunand, Eleftheria Samara
Pin-tract infection (PTI) is the most commonly expected problem, or even an almost inevitable complication, when using external fixation. Left unteated, PTI will progress unavoidably, lead to mechanical pin loosening, and ultimately cause instability of the external fixator pin-bone construct. Thus, PTI remains a clinical challenge, specifically in cases of limb lengthening or deformity correction. Standardised pin site protocols which encompass an understanding of external fixator biomechanics and meticulous surgical technique during pin and wire insertion, postoperative pin site care and pin removal could limit the incidence of major infections and treatment failures...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833033/establishment-and-development-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-of-preterm-infants-in-a-lebanese-tertiary-hospital
#7
Tarek Itani, Carole Ayoub Moubareck, Imad Melki, Clotilde Rousseau, Irène Mangin, Marie-José Butel, Dolla Karam Sarkis
The establishment and development of the intestinal microbiota is known to be associated with profound short- and long-term effects on the health of full-term infants (FTI), but studies are just starting for preterm infants (PTI). The data also mostly come from western countries and little information is available for the Middle East. Here, we determined the composition and dynamics of the intestinal microbiota during the first month of life for PTI (n = 66) and FTI (n = 17) in Lebanon. Fecal samples were collected weekly and analyzed by quantitative PCR (q-PCR) and temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE)...
November 8, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825479/xopn-t3ss-effector-of-xanthomonas-axonopodis-pv-punicae-localizes-to-the-plasma-membrane-and-modulates-ros-accumulation-events-during-blight-pathogenesis-in-pomegranate
#8
Rishikesh Kumar, Madhvi Soni, Kalyan K Mondal
Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae (Xap) is a major disease of pomegranate. Xap secretes effector proteins via type III secretion system (T3SS) to suppress pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered plant immunity (PTI). Previously we reported that XopN, a conserved effector of Xap, modulate in planta bacterial growth, and blight disease. In continuation to that here we report the deletion of XopN from Xap caused higher accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including H2O2 and O2(-)...
December 2016: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816363/patterns-of-primary-tumor-invasion-and-regional-lymph-node-spread-based-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-early-stage-nasal-nk-t-cell-lymphoma-implications-for-clinical-target-volume-definition-and-prognostic-significance
#9
Run-Ye Wu, Kang Liu, Wei-Hu Wang, Jing Jin, Yong-Wen Song, Shu-Lian Wang, Yue-Ping Liu, Hua Ren, Hui Fang, Qing-Feng Liu, Yong Yang, Bo Chen, Shu-Nan Qi, Ning-Ning Lu, Yu Tang, Yuan Tang, Ning Li, Han Ouyang, Ye-Xiong Li
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the pathways of primary tumor invasion (PTI) and regional lymph node (LN) spread based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in early-stage nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL), to improve clinical target volume (CTV) delineation and evaluate the prognostic value of locoregional extension patterns. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 105 patients with newly diagnosed early-stage nasal NKTCL who underwent pretreatment MRI were retrospectively reviewed...
September 17, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792257/scanning-plane-comparison-of-ultrasound-derived-morphological-characteristics-of-the-vastus-lateralis
#10
Alyssa N Varanoske, David H Fukuda, Carleigh H Boone, Kyle S Beyer, Jeffrey R Stout, Jay R Hoffman
Muscle morphological characteristics obtained via ultrasonography have been used to quantify the size, architecture, and quality of skeletal muscle. Previous research has utilized varying ultrasonographic techniques, however there is little information comparing these different techniques. Muscle morphological characteristics, including cross-sectional area (CSA), muscle thickness (MT), echo intensity (EI), and subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness (SubQ) were assessed in 24 males (20.2 ± 1.6 y) via three panoramic-images captured in the transverse plane (PTI) and three still-images captured in the longitudinal plane (SLI)...
October 28, 2016: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788122/incorporating-simvastatin-poloxamer-407-hydrogel-into-3d-printed-porous-ti6al4v-scaffolds-for-the-promotion-of-angiogenesis-osseointegration-and-bone-ingrowth
#11
Hao Liu, Wei Li, Can Liu, Jie Tan, Hong Wang, Bao Hai, Hong Cai, Hui-Jie Leng, Zhong-Jun Liu, Chun-Li Song
Three-dimensional porous titanium alloys printed via electron beam melting have low stiffness similar to that of cortical bone and are promising scaffolds for orthopedic applications. However, the bio-inert nature of titanium alloy is poorly compatible with bone ingrowth. We previously observed that simvastatin/poloxamer 407 thermosensitive hydrogel induces endogenous angiogenic/osteogenic growth factors and promotes angiogenesis and osteogenesis, but the mechanical properties of this hydrogel are poor. The purpose of this study was to construct 3D-printed porous titanium scaffolds (pTi scaffolds) filled with simvastatin/hydrogel and evaluate the effects of this composite on osseointegration, bone ingrowth and neovascularization using a tibial defect rabbit model...
October 27, 2016: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776945/-current-situation-of-primary-prophylaxis-with-isoniazid-inh-in-children-who-are-contacts-of-patients-with-bacillary-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-abidjan-cote-d-ivoire
#12
Z Koné, G Coulibaly, A T J Daix, A S Bakayoko, K Samaké, D P Kouassi, K M S Domoua
INTRODUCTION: The National tuberculosis program (NTP) in Ivory Coast recommends that children under 5 years living in a family environment with contagious tuberculosis patients, should receive Prophylactic treatment with INH (PTI), whatever the result of the tuberculin skin test (positive or negative) and their BCG status (vaccinated or not), at a dose of 5mg/kg/day for 6 months. We conducted this study to check the implementation of this recommendation in three support services of tuberculosis in Abidjan, the economic capital...
October 21, 2016: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776779/receptor-like-kinases-and-regulation-of-plant-innate-immunity
#13
K He, Y Wu
Plants are sessile organisms exposed constantly to potential virulent microbes seeking for full pathogenesis in hosts. Different from animals employing both adaptive and innate immune systems, plants only rely on innate immunity to detect and fight against pathogen invasions. Plant innate immunity is proposed to be a two-tiered immune system including pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity. In PTI, PAMPs, the elicitors derived from microbial pathogens, are perceived by cell surface-localized proteins, known as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs)...
2016: Enzymes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762318/polarization-of-an-electroactive-functional-film-on-titanium-for-inducing-osteogenic-differentiation
#14
Zhengnan Zhou, Weiping Li, Tianrui He, Lei Qian, Guoxin Tan, Chengyun Ning
To enhance the surface bioactivity of titanium (Ti) prostheses, an electroactive polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film was prepared on a Ti substrate to provide a mimetic of the electrical microenvironment, which facilitated the performance of cell functions. The results of cell proliferation and differentiation assays indicated that polarization of the PVDF-Ti (PTi) altered its surface charge, thus inducing adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of cells. The polarized PVDF-Ti (PPTi) may therefore find applications in bone regeneration...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748491/a-facile-one-step-synthesis-of-zno-quantum-dots-modified-poly-triazine-imide-nanosheets-for-enhanced-hydrogen-evolution-under-visible-light
#15
Hui Zhang, Feng Liu, Zhigang Mou, Xiaofeng Liu, Jianhua Sun, Weiwei Lei
A heterojunction of crystalline poly(triazine imide) (PTI) nanosheets and ZnO quantum dots (QDs) (∼3 nm) was synthesized by a one-step ionothermal condensation of cyanamide. The resulting PTI/ZnO-QDs heterostructure exhibits a significantly enhanced H2 evolution to 63 times that of pure PTI and 3.4 times that of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) under visible light.
October 17, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737923/phosphate-availability-regulates-ethylene-biosynthesis-gene-expression-and-protein-accumulation-in-white-clover-trifolium-repens-l-roots
#16
Marissa Bacay Roldan, Afsana Islam, Phuong T Y Dinh, Susanna Leung, Michael T McManus
The expression and accumulation of members of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO) gene families was examined in white clover roots grown in either Pi (phosphate) sufficient or Pi-deprived defined media. The accumulation of one ACO isoform, TR-ACO1, was positively influenced after only 1 h of exposure to low Pi, and this was maintained over a 7 d time-course. Up-regulation of TR-ACS1, TR-ACS2 and TR-ACS3 transcript abundance was also observed within 1 h of exposure to low Pi in different tissue regions of the roots, followed by a second increase in abundance of TR-ACS2 after 5 - 7 days of exposure...
October 13, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735086/solving-the-hydrogen-and-lithium-substructure-of-poly-triazine-imide-licl-using-nmr-crystallography
#17
Maria B Mesch, Kilian Bärwinkel, Yaşar Krysiak, Charlotte Martineau, Francis Taulelle, Reinhard B Neder, Ute Kolb, Jürgen Senker
Poly(triazine imide) with incorporated lithium chloride has recently attracted substantial attention due to its photocatalytic activity for water splitting. However, an apparent H/Li disorder prevents the delineation of structure-property relationships, for example, with respect to band-gap tuning. Herein, we show that through a combination of one- and two-dimensional, multinuclear solid-state NMR spectroscopy, chemical modelling, automated electron diffraction tomography, and an analysis based on X-ray pair distribution functions, it is finally possible to resolve the H/Li substructure...
November 14, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661285/-influence-of-the-intra-abdominal-hypertension-on-the-blood-coagulation-system-experimental-study
#18
Y Turgunov, D Matyushko, A Nurbekov, D Kaliyeva, A Alibekov
The analysis of the influence of the intra-abdominal hypertension on the blood coagulation system by carrying out an experimental research with laboratory animals is presented in article. After simulating intra-abdominal hypertension with different degree and exposition we made the laboratory research of blood coagulation system (fibrinogen, PTI, SFMC, APTT) and ELISA research on the concentration of the modern marker of thrombozis - D-dimer. The results in article clearly demonstrate that there is a direct linear dependence of level of fibrinogen and SFMC on degree of intra-abdominal hypertension, and the multidirectional changes of indicators with increase of intra-abdominal hypertension duration - towards hypercoagulation for 3-12 hours, and then by 24 o'clock - in the opposite direction towards hypocoagulation...
July 2016: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630864/dating-of-acute-and-subacute-subdural-haemorrhage-a-histo-pathological-study
#19
Murali G Rao, Dalbir Singh, Rakesh Kumar Vashista, Suresh Kumar Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Microscopic study of the organization of the Subdural Haemorrhage (SDH) verified against the time period can help us in the determination of its age which has serious medico-legal implications. Very few studies concerning the dating of SDH are present in the literature. AIM: This study was conducted for dating the early subdural haemorrhage by routine histopathological stains. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective analytical study was conducted during July 2009 to December 2010...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613851/the-proteasome-acts-as-a-hub-for-plant-immunity-and-is-targeted-by-pseudomonas-type-iii-effectors
#20
Suayib Üstün, Arsheed Sheikh, Selena Gimenez-Ibanez, Alexandra M E Jones, Vardis Ntoukakis, Frederik Börnke
Recent evidence suggests that the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is involved in several aspects of plant immunity and a range of plant pathogens subvert the UPS to enhance their virulence. Here we show that proteasome activity is strongly induced during basal defense in Arabidopsis. Mutant lines of the proteasome subunits RPT2a and RPN12a support increased bacterial growth of virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola ES4326. Both proteasome subunits are required for Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) responses...
September 9, 2016: Plant Physiology
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