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Dina El-Metwally, Krista Chain, Matthew P Stefanak, Udeni Alwis, Benjamin C Blount, Judy S LaKind, Cynthia F Bearer
BackgroundPreterm infants (PTI) in the NICU are often placed in incubators that may increase their exposure to volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). To determine whether PTI in incubators have higher urinary concentrations of VOC metabolites compared with infants in cribs.MethodsUrine from 40 PTI in incubators and 40 infants in cribs was collected and analyzed for 28 urinary VOC biomarkers. Differences in metabolite concentrations between the two groups were compared.ResultsTwenty two of the VOC metabolites were detected in at least one urine sample...
May 16, 2018: Pediatric Research
Fang Pu, Weiyan Ren, Hongyuan Fu, Xuan Zheng, Min Yang, Yih-Kuen Jan, Yubo Fan
The aim of this study was to investigate the plantar blood flow response to the same accumulated pressure stimulus in diabetic patients with different peak plantar pressure (PPP), which is important for assessing the risk of diabetic foot ulcer. Eleven diabetic subjects with high PPP (PPP ≥ 207 kPa) and 8 diabetic subjects with low PPP (PPP < 207 kPa) were asked to walk naturally on a treadmill so as to induce an accumulated stimulus of 73,000 kPa·s on their first metatarsal head, which was monitored with a sensorized insole...
May 11, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Maiki Moriguchi, Noriaki Maeshige, Mizuki Ueno, Yoshiyuki Yoshikawa, Hiroto Terashi, Hidemi Fujino
High plantar flexor moment during the stance phase is known to cause high plantar pressure under the forefoot; however, the effects on plantar pressure due to a change of gastrocnemius medialis (GM) activity during gait, have not been investigated to date. Reciprocal inhibition is one of the effects of electrical stimulation (ES), and is the automatic antagonist alpha motor neuron inhibition which is evoked by excitation of the agonist muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of ES of the tibialis anterior (TA) on plantar pressure and the GM activity during gait in healthy adults...
2018: PloS One
Leonard Heymann, Björn Schiller, Heshmat Noei, Andreas Stierle, Christian Klinke
Poly(triazine imide) (PTI) is a material belonging to the group of carbon nitrides and has shown to have competitive properties compared to melon or g-C3 N4 , especially in photocatalysis. As most of the carbon nitrides, PTI is usually synthesized by thermal or hydrothermal approaches. We present and discuss an alternative synthesis for PTI which exhibits a pH-dependent solubility in aqueous solutions. This synthesis is based on the formation of radicals during electrolysis of an aqueous melamine solution, coupling of resulting melamine radicals and the final formation of PTI...
April 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Nasheeman Ashraf, Swaraj Basu, Kanika Narula, Sudip Ghosh, Rajul Tayal, Nagaraju Gangisetty, Sushmita Biswas, Pooja R Aggarwal, Niranjan Chakraborty, Subhra Chakraborty
Host specific resistance and non-host resistance are two plant immune responses to counter pathogen invasion. Gene network organizing principles leading to quantitative differences in resistant and susceptible host during host specific resistance are poorly understood. Vascular wilt caused by root pathogen Fusarium species is complex and governed by host specific resistance in crop plants, including chickpea. Here, we temporally profiled two contrasting chickpea genotypes in disease and immune state to better understand gene expression switches in host specific resistance...
April 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shaoli Liu, Chi Zhang, Nan Chao, Jiang Lu, Yali Zhang
Plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are essential for immune responses and establishing symbiosis. Plants detect invaders via the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by PRRs. This phenomenon is termed PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). We investigated disease resistance in Vitis amurensis to identify PRRs that are important for resistance against downy mildew, analyzed the PRRs that were upregulated by incompatible Plasmopara viticola infection, and cloned the full-length cDNA of the VaHAESA gene...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Carmen H Logie, Lisa V Dias, Jesse Jenkinson, Peter A Newman, Rachel K MacKenzie, Tampose Mothopeng, Veli Madau, Amelia Ranotsi, Winnie Nhlengethwa, Stefan D Baral
Stigma and discrimination affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people compromise health and human rights and exacerbate the HIV epidemic. Scant research has explored effective LGBT stigma reduction strategies in low- and middle-income countries. We developed and pilot-tested a participatory theatre intervention (PTI) to reduce LGBT stigma in Swaziland and Lesotho, countries with the world's highest HIV prevalence. We collected preliminary data from in-depth interviews with LGBT people in Lesotho and Swaziland to enhance understanding of LGBT stigma...
March 1, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Tao Liu, Mingkang Zhang, Wenlong Liu, Xuan Zeng, Xianlin Song, Xiaoquan Yang, Xianzheng Zhang, Jun Feng
This study reports a family of photothermal materials, metal ion/tannic acid assemblies (MITAs). MITAs from FeIII , VIII , and RuIII afford excellent photothermal efficiency (η ≈ 40%). Sharply differing from the currently existing photothermal agents, MITAs are highlighted by merits including green synthesis, facile incorporation of diagnostic metal ions, and particularly topology-independent adhesion. Owing to the adhesion nature of MITAs, various kinds of MITA-based nanoengineerings are readily available via the self-adhesion of MITAs onto diverse templates, enabling MITAs well suited as a photothermal platform for versatile combination with other therapy approaches and imaging techniques...
March 28, 2018: ACS Nano
Marilia Santos Silva, Fabrício Barbosa Monteiro Arraes, Magnólia de Araújo Campos, Maira Grossi-de-Sa, Diana Fernandez, Elizabete de Souza Cândido, Marlon Henrique Cardoso, Octávio Luiz Franco, Maria Fátima Grossi-de-Sa
This review emphasizes the biotechnological potential of molecules implicated in the different layers of plant immunity, including, pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI), effector-triggered susceptibility (ETS), and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) that can be applied in the development of disease-resistant genetically modified (GM) plants. These biomolecules are produced by pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes) or plants during their mutual interactions. Biomolecules involved in the first layers of plant immunity, PTI and ETS, include inhibitors of pathogen cell-wall-degrading enzymes (CWDEs), plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and susceptibility (S) proteins, while the ETI-related biomolecules include plant resistance (R) proteins...
May 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Cheng Zhong, Yajuan Ren, Yetong Qi, Xiaoling Yu, Xintong Wu, Zhendong Tian
Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification that plays a crucial role during the regulation of plant immune signalling. The plant ATL family consists of a large number of putative RING type ubiquitin ligases. We show that potato ATL family gene StRFP1 and its orthologue NbATL60 from N. benthamiana both respond to Phytophthora infestans culture filtrate (CF) and flg22 induction. StRFP1 positively regulates immunity against P. infestans in potato. Ectopic transient expression of StRFP1 or expression of NbATL60 in N...
May 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Jennifer Moodley, Lydia Cairncross, Thurandrie Naiker, Deborah Constant
BACKGROUND: Typically, women in South Africa (SA) are diagnosed with breast cancer when they self-present with symptoms to health facilities. The aim of this study was to determine the pathway that women follow to breast cancer care and factors associated with this journey. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in the Western Cape Province, SA, between May 2015 and May 2016. Newly diagnosed breast cancer patients were interviewed to determine their socio-demographic profile; knowledge of risk factors, signs and symptoms; appraisal of breast changes; clinical profile and; key time events in the journey to care...
March 21, 2018: BMC Cancer
Xuan-Rui Zhang, You-Ping Xu, Xin-Zhong Cai
Mechanisms underlying plant non-host resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola ( Xoc ), the pathogen causing rice leaf streak disease, are largely unknown. Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels (CNGCs) are calcium-permeable channels that are involved in various biological processes including plant resistance. In this study, functions of two tomato CNGC genes SlCNGC1 and SlCNGC14 in non-host resistance to Xoc were analyzed. Silencing of SlCNGC1 and SlCNGC14 in tomato significantly enhanced Xoc -induced hypersensitive response (HR) and non-host resistance, demonstrating that both SlCNGC1 and SlCNGC14 negatively regulate non-host resistance related HR and non-host resistance to Xoc in tomato...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sergio Barroso Rosa, Zaid Bahho, Kenji Doma, Kaushik Hazratwala, Peter McEwen, Varaguna Manoharan, Brent Matthews, Matthew Wilkinson
INTRODUCTION: Patella alta (PA) is one of the primary correctable risk factors for patellofemoral instability (PFI). Both an accurate diagnosis of PA and a clinically relevant target for correction are necessary for optimal treatment. An ideal test for PA should relate the position of the patella to the femur rather than tibia, should do so with the quadriceps contracted and the patellar tendon under tension and should have good sensitivity and specificity. None of the currently used radiographic tests PA meet these criteria, most of which are based on the position of the patella relative to the tibia with diagnostic cutoffs based on 2 standard deviations from the mean rather than optimal sensitivity and specificity...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
J Cai, W Li, T Sun, X Li, E Luo, D Jing
The effects of exogenous pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation on T1DM-associated osteopathy were investigated in alloxan-treated rabbits. We found that PEMF improved bone architecture, mechanical properties, and porous titanium (pTi) osseointegration by promoting bone anabolism through a canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling-associated mechanism, and revealed the clinical potential of PEMF stimulation for the treatment of T1DM-associated bone complications. INTRODUCTION: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with deteriorated bone architecture and impaired osseous healing potential; nonetheless, effective methods for resisting T1DM-associated osteopenia/osteoporosis and promoting bone defect/fracture healing are still lacking...
May 2018: Osteoporosis International
Mengnan Wang, Yanxun Zhu, Rui Han, Wuchen Yin, Chunlei Guo, Zhi Li, Xiping Wang
Ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factors play important roles in regulating immune responses in plants. In our study, we characterized a member of the ERF transcription factor family, VaERF20 , from the Chinese wild Vitis genotype, V. amurensis Rupr "Shuangyou". Phylogenetic analysis indicated that VaERF20 belongs to group IXc of the ERF family, in which many members are known to contribute to fighting pathogen infection. Consistent with this, expression of VaERF20 was induced by treatment with the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea (B...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Martin Shaw, Laura Moss, Chris Hawthorne, John Kinsella, Ian Piper
OBJECTIVES: Raised intracranial pressure (ICP) is well known to be indicative of a poor outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI). This phenomenon was quantified using a pressure time index (PTI) model of raised ICP burden in a paediatric population. Using the PTI methodology, this pilot study is aimed at investigating the relationship between raised ICP and length of stay (LOS) in adults admitted to a neurological intensive care unit (neuro-ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 10 patients admitted to the neuro-ICU following TBI, ICP was measured and data from the first 24 h were analysed...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Yura Loscalzo, Marco Giannini, Alessio Gori, Annamaria Di Fabio
Working as a peacekeeper is associated with the exposure to acute and/or catastrophic events and chronic stressors. Hence, the meager literature about peacekeepers' wellbeing has mainly analyzed Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This study aims to deep the analysis of the wellbeing of peacekeepers military. Based on the few studies on this population, we hypothesized that Italian peacekeeper military officers and enlisted men ( n = 167; 103 males, 6 females, 58 missing) exhibit lower levels of internalizing symptoms (i...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Abhisekh Mohapatra, Mikayla N Lowenkamp, Jon C Henry, Aureline Boitet, Efthimios D Avgerinos, Rabih A Chaer, Michel S Makaroun, Steven A Leers, Eric S Hager
BACKGROUND: Endovascular strategies are often preferred for revascularization of ischemic foot wounds secondary to infrapopliteal disease because of the less invasive technique and faster recovery. Bypass is typically reserved for failures or lesions not amenable to balloon angioplasty. However, the effects of an endovascular-first approach on subsequent bypass grafts are largely unknown. This study evaluates the effects of prior endovascular tibial interventions (PTIs) on successive bypasses to pedal targets...
February 23, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Akinori Kiba, Masahito Nakano, Kouhei Ohnishi, Yasufumi Hikichi
We previously revealed that the SEC14 phospholipid transfer protein from Nicotiana benthamiana (NbSEC14) has a role in plant immune responses against phytopathogenic bacteria in a hypersensitive response-independent manner. To characterize the role of NbSEC14 on plant immunity, we analyzed the relationship between NbSEC14 and pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). NbSEC14-silenced plants exhibited down-regulated expression of PTI marker genes (NbAcre31 and NbPti5) after being inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pv...
April 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Ning Yuan, Shuangrong Yuan, Zhigang Li, Man Zhou, Peipei Wu, Qian Hu, Venugopal Mendu, Liangjiang Wang, Hong Luo
Protein kinases play fundamental roles in plant development and environmental stress responses. Here, we identified the STRESS INDUCED FACTOR ( SIF ) gene family, which encodes four leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinases in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ). The four genes, SIF1 to SIF4 , are clustered in the genome and highly conserved, but they have temporally and spatially distinct expression patterns. We employed Arabidopsis SIF knockout mutants and overexpression transgenics to examine SIF involvement during plant pathogen defense...
April 2018: Plant Physiology
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