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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154460/elevated-co2-increases-r-gene-dependent-resistance-of-medicago-truncatula-against-the-pea-aphid-by-up-regulating-a-heat-shock-gene
#1
Yucheng Sun, Huijuan Guo, Erliang Yuan, Feng Ge
Resistance against pathogens and herbivorous insects in many plant results from the expression of resistance (R) genes. Few reports, however, have considered the effects of elevated CO2 on R gene-based resistance in plants. The current study determined the responses of two near isogenic Medicago truncatula genotypes (Jester has an R gene and A17 does not) to the pea aphid and elevated CO2 in open-top chambers in the field. Aphid abundance, mean relative growth rate and feeding efficiency were increased by elevated CO2 on A17 plants but were reduced on Jester plants...
November 20, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137411/a-novel-polyamine-blockade-therapy-activates-an-anti-tumor-immune-response
#2
Eric T Alexander, Allyson Minton, Molly C Peters, Otto Phanstiel, Susan K Gilmour
Most tumors maintain elevated levels of polyamines to support their growth and survival. This study explores the anti-tumor effect of polyamine starvation via both inhibiting polyamine biosynthesis and blocking the upregulated import of polyamines into the tumor. We demonstrate that polyamine blockade therapy (PBT) co-treatment with both DFMO and a novel polyamine transport inhibitor, Trimer PTI, significantly inhibits tumor growth more than treatment with DFMO or the Trimer PTI alone. The anti-tumor effect of PBT was lost in mice where CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were antibody depleted, implying that PBT stimulates an anti-tumor immune effect that is T-cell dependent...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135915/evaluation-of-polyamine-transport-inhibitors-in-a-drosophila-epithelial-model-suggests-the-existence-of-multiple-transport-systems
#3
Minpei Wang, Otto Phanstiel, Laurence von Kalm
Increased polyamine biosynthesis activity and an active polyamine transport system are characteristics of many cancer cell lines and polyamine depletion has been shown to be a viable anticancer strategy. Polyamine levels can be depleted by difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an inhibitor of the key polyamine biosynthesis enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). However, malignant cells frequently circumvent DFMO therapy by up-regulating polyamine import. Therefore, there is a need to develop compounds that inhibit polyamine transport...
November 14, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135338/convergent-and-divergent-signaling-in-pamp-triggered-immunity-and-effector-triggered-immunity
#4
Yujun Peng, Rowan van Wersch, Yuelin Zhang
Plants use diverse immune receptors to sense pathogen attacks. Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors localized on the plasma membrane leads to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Detection of pathogen effectors by intracellular or plasma membrane-localized immune receptors results in effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Despite the large variations in the magnitude and duration of immune responses triggered by different PAMPs or pathogen effectors during PTI and ETI, plasma membrane-localized immune receptors activate similar downstream molecular events such as MAP kinase activation, oxidative burst, ion influx and increased biosynthesis of plant defense hormones, indicating that defense signals initiated at the plasma membrane converge at later points...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127881/grapevine-immune-signaling-network-in-response-to-drought-stress-as-revealed-by-transcriptomic-analysis
#5
Muhammad S Haider, Mahantesh M Kurjogi, M Khalil-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad Fiaz, Tariq Pervaiz, Songtao Jiu, Jia Haifeng, Wang Chen, Jinggui Fang
Drought is a ubiquitous abiotic factor that severely impedes growth and development of horticulture crops. The challenge postured by global climate change is the evolution of drought-tolerant cultivars that could cope with concurrent stress. Hence, in this study, biochemical, physiological and transcriptome analysis were investigated in drought-treated grapevine leaves. The results revealed that photosynthetic activity and reducing sugars were significantly diminished which were positively correlated with low stomatal conductance and CO2 exchange in drought-stressed leaves...
October 31, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126041/the-effect-of-eliminating-leg-length-difference-on-plantar-foot-pressure-distribution-in-patients-wearing-forefoot-offloading-shoe
#6
Ezequiel Palmanovich, Moshe Ayalon, David Ben Sira, Meir Nyska, Iftach Hetsroni
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Elevated heel construction offloads the forefoot after surgery. However, side-to-side height difference alters limb kinetics, whereas leg-length equalizing-sole at non-operated side may have beneficial effects on foot loading. The purpose of this study was to characterize leg-length equalizing sole effect on bilateral plantar pressures when using heel-lift forefoot-offloading shoe. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty men were tested walking. Plantar peak pressures (PP) and pressure-time integrals (PTI) in the forefoot-offloading shoe and in contralateral running shoe were compared between two conditions: one with- and the other without leg-length equalizing sole elevation at the running shoe...
October 24, 2017: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107936/a-harpin-elicitor-induces-the-expression-of-a-coiled-coil-nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich-repeat-cc-nb-lrr-defense-signaling-gene-and-others-functioning-during-defense-to-parasitic-nematodes
#7
Weasam A R Aljaafri, Brant T McNeece, Bisho R Lawaju, Keshav Sharma, Prakash M Niruala, Shankar R Pant, David H Long, Kathy S Lawrence, Gary W Lawrence, Vincent P Klink
The bacterial effector harpin induces the transcription of the Arabidopsis thaliana NON-RACE SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE 1/HARPIN INDUCED1 (NDR1/HIN1) coiled-coil nucleotide binding leucine rich repeat (CC-NB-LRR) defense signaling gene. In Glycine max, Gm-NDR1-1 transcripts have been detected within root cells undergoing a natural resistant reaction to parasitism by the syncytium-forming nematode Heterodera glycines, functioning in the defense response. Expressing Gm-NDR1-1 in Gossypium hirsutum leads to resistance to Meloidogyne incognita parasitism...
October 13, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106332/conserved-rxlr-effectors-from-oomycetes-hyaloperonospora-arabidopsidis-and-phytophthora-sojae-suppress-pamp-and-effector-triggered-immunity-in-diverse-plants
#8
Devdutta Deb, Ryan Anderson, Theresa How Yew Kin, Brett M Tyler, John M McDowell
Effector proteins are exported to the interior of host cells by diverse plant pathogens. Many oomycete pathogens maintain large families of candidate effector genes, encoding proteins with a secretory leader followed by an RxLR motif. Although most of these genes are very divergent between oomycete species, several genes are conserved between Phytophthora species and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa), suggesting that they play important roles in pathogenicity. We describe a pair of conserved effector candidates, HaRxL23 and PsAvh73, from Hpa and P...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096397/porous-composite-scaffold-incorporating-osteogenic-phytomolecule-icariin-for-promoting-skeletal-regeneration-in-challenging-osteonecrotic-bone-in-rabbits
#9
Yuxiao Lai, Huijuan Cao, Xinluan Wang, Shukui Chen, Ming Zhang, Nan Wang, Zhihong Yao, Yi Dai, Xinhui Xie, Peng Zhang, Xinsheng Yao, Ling Qin
Steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON) often requires surgical core decompression (CD) in the early stage for removal of necrotic bone to facilitate repair where bone grafts are needed for filling bone defect and avoiding subsequent joint collapse. In this study, we developed a bioactive composite scaffold incorporated with icariin, a unique phytomolecule that can provide structural and mechanical support and facilitate bone regeneration to fill into bone defects after surgical CD in established SAON rabbit model...
October 23, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090631/bacillus-cereus-ar156-activates-defense-responses-to-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-similarly-to-flg22
#10
Shune Wang, Ying Zheng, Chun Gu, Chan He, Mengying Yang, Xin Zhang, Jianhua Guo, Hongwei Zhao, Dongdong Niu
Bacillus cereus AR156 (AR156) is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium capable of inducing systemic resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). Here we show that when applied to Arabidopsis leaves, AR156 acted similarly to flg22, a typical pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), in initiating PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). AR156-elicited PTI responses included phosphorylation of MPK3 and MPK6, induction of the expression of defense-related genes PR1, FRK1, WRKY22, and WRKY29; production of reactive oxygen species; and callose deposition...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080081/cost-effectiveness-evaluation-of-pre-counseling-telephone-interviews-before-face-to-face-genetic-counseling-in-cancer-genetics
#11
Gaëlle Collet, Nathalie Parodi, Kevin Cassinari, Zoe Neviere, Fanny Cohen, Céline Gasnier, Afane Brahimi, François Lecoquierre, Jean-Christophe Thery, Isabelle Tennevet, Elodie Lacaze, Pascaline Berthet, Thierry Frebourg
One of the main challenges in cancer genetics is responding to the exponential demand for genetic counseling, especially in patients with breast and/or ovarian cancer. To address this demand, we have set up a new procedure, based on pre-genetic counseling telephone interviews (PTI) followed by routing of patients: D1, a PTI is scheduled within 14 days; D7-D14, genetic counselors perform a 20 min PTI in order to establish a pre-genetic counseling file, by collecting personal and family medical history via a structured questionnaire and; D10-17, routing: pre-genetic counseling appointment files are analyzed by a cancer geneticist with 3 possible conclusions: (a) priority face-to-face genetic counseling (FTFGC) appointment with a cancer geneticist, if the genetic test results have an immediate therapeutic impact; (b) non-priority FTFGC with a genetic counselor, or (c) no FTFGC required or substitution by a more appropriate index case...
October 27, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061483/current-understanding-of-pattern-triggered-immunity-and-hormone-mediated-defense-in-rice-oryza-sativa-in-response-to-magnaporthe-oryzae-infection
#12
REVIEW
Fahad Nasir, Lei Tian, Chunling Chang, Xiujun Li, Yingzhi Gao, Lam-Son Phan Tran, Chunjie Tian
Plant pathogens represent a huge threat to world food security, affecting both crop production and quality. Although significant progress has been made in improving plant immunity by expressing key, defense-related genes and proteins from different species in transgenic crops, a challenge remains for molecular breeders and biotechnologists to successfully engineer elite, transgenic crop varieties with improved resistance against critical plant pathogens. Upon pathogen attack, including infection of rice (Oryza sativa) by Magnaporthe oryzae, host plants initiate a complex defense response at molecular, biochemical and physiological levels...
November 2, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033963/convergent-evolution-of-pathogen-effectors-toward-reactive-oxygen-species-signaling-networks-in-plants
#13
REVIEW
Nam-Soo Jwa, Byung Kook Hwang
Microbial pathogens have evolved protein effectors to promote virulence and cause disease in host plants. Pathogen effectors delivered into plant cells suppress plant immune responses and modulate host metabolism to support the infection processes of pathogens. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as cellular signaling molecules to trigger plant immune responses, such as pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity. In this review, we discuss recent insights into the molecular functions of pathogen effectors that target multiple steps in the ROS signaling pathway in plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028013/plasmonic-topological-insulators-for-topological-nanophotonics
#14
Weifeng Zhang, Xianfeng Chen, Fangwei Ye
Photonic topological insulators are optical structures supporting robust propagation of light at their edges that are topologically protected from scattering. Here we propose the concept of plasmonic topological insulators (PTI) that not only topologically protect light at the lattice edges but also enable their confinement and guidance at the deep-subwavelength scale. The suggested PTI are composed of an evanescently coupled array of metallic nanowires that are modulated periodically along the light propagation direction...
October 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990488/the-microrna-mir773-is-involved-in-the-arabidopsis-immune-response-to-fungal-pathogens
#15
Raquel Salvador-Guirao, Patricia Baldrich, Detlef Weigel, Ignacio Rubio-Somoza, Blanca San Segundo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 21-24 nucleotide short non-coding RNAs that trigger gene silencing in eukaryotes. In plants, miRNAs play a crucial role in a wide range of developmental processes and adaptive responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this work, we investigated the role of miR773 in modulating resistance to infection by fungal pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana. Interference with miR773 activity by target mimics (in MIM773 plants) and concomitant up-regulation of the miR773 target gene METHYLTRANSFERASE 2 (MET2) increased resistance to infection by necrotrophic (Plectosphaerrella cucumerina) and hemibiotrophic (Fusarium oxysporum, Colletototrichum higginianum) fungal pathogens...
October 9, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983488/neurovascular-function-recovery-after-focal-ischemic-stroke-by-enhancing-cerebral-collateral-circulation-via-peripheral-stimulation-mediated-interarterial-anastomosis
#16
Han-Chi Pan, Lun-De Liao, Yu-Chun Lo, Jia-Wei Chen, Han-Lin Wang, Li Yang, Yao-Wen Liang, Po-Yu Huang, Ming-Hsun Yang, You-Yin Chen
Current treatments for ischemic stroke have focused on the administration of a tissue plasminogen activator, although the associated side effects and subsequent reperfusion injury remain challenging. Peripheral electrical stimulation has shed light on therapeutic interventions for ischemia by increasing cerebral blood flow (CBF) to the target region through collateral circulation, although the mechanism remains elusive. Here, a focal photothrombotic ischemic (PTI) stroke was induced in the right hemispheric primary somatosensory forelimb cortex (S1FL) of rat brains, and the therapeutic effects of forelimb and hindlimb stimulation were characterized at the contralesional S1FL...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982588/low-1-level-mechanical-vibration-improves-bone-microstructure-tissue-mechanical-properties-and-porous-titanium-implant-osseointegration-by-promoting-anabolic-response-in-type-1-diabetic-rabbits
#17
Da Jing, Zedong Yan, Jing Cai, Shichao Tong, Xiaokang Li, Zheng Guo, Erping Luo
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with reduced bone mass, increased fracture risk, and impaired bone defect regeneration potential. These skeletal complications are becoming important clinical challenges due to the rapidly increasing T1DM population, which necessitates developing effective treatment for T1DM-associated osteopenia/osteoporosis and bone trauma. This study aims to investigate the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV), an easy and non-invasive biophysical method, on bone microstructure, tissue-level mechanical properties and porous titanium (pTi) osseointegration in alloxan-diabetic rabbits...
October 2, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970930/photocatalytic-overall-water-splitting-by-conjugated-semiconductors-with-crystalline-poly-triazine-imide-frameworks
#18
Lihua Lin, Chong Wang, Wei Ren, Honghui Ou, Yongfan Zhang, Xinchen Wang
Photocatalytic water splitting is an ideal pathway to produce hydrogen for the future energy supply due to the sustainability of solar energy and the mild reaction conditions. In the past four decades, many inorganic semiconductor photocatalysts have been studied for this purpose. In recent years, conjugated polymers, in particular covalent carbon nitride frameworks, have rapidly emerged as a new family of photocatalysts. However, the use of conjugated photocatalysts in overall water splitting in the absence of sacrificial agents has been much less reported...
August 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939006/determination-of-protein-thiolation-index-pti-as-a-biomarker-of-oxidative-stress-in-human-serum
#19
Daniela Giustarini, Federico Galvagni, Graziano Colombo, Isabella Dalle-Donne, Aldo Milzani, Anna Maria Aloisi, Ranieri Rossi
We have introduced protein thiolation index (PTI), i.e. the molar ratio of the sum of all low molecular mass thiols bound to plasma proteins to protein free cysteinyl residues, as a sensitive biomarker of oxidative stress. According to the original procedure its determination requires a rapid separation of plasma and a specific treatment of samples to stabilize thiols. Here we demonstrate that samples can be collected without use of any anticoagulant to prevent blood clotting and without any stabilization of thiols too...
September 20, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914941/mid-infrared-fiber-optic-photothermal-interferometry
#20
Zhili Li, Zhen Wang, Fan Yang, Wei Jin, Wei Ren
We demonstrate mid-infrared photothermal interferometry (PTI) in a hollow-core fiber (HCF) for trace gas detection. Compared with free-space PTI, the optical intensity could be increased by orders of magnitude by confining the pump and probe lights in the hollow core. We coupled the pump light at 4.46 μm from a quantum cascade laser and the 1555.14 nm probe light into the HCF with a bore size of 200 μm. The HCF was filled with nitrous oxide (N2O) which has strong absorption at the pump wavelength. The probe light detects the N2O absorption-induced phase change in the HCF via a fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer...
September 15, 2017: Optics Letters
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