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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914941/mid-infrared-fiber-optic-photothermal-interferometry
#1
Zhili Li, Zhen Wang, Fan Yang, Wei Jin, Wei Ren
We demonstrate mid-infrared photothermal interferometry (PTI) in a hollow-core fiber (HCF) for trace gas detection. Compared with free-space PTI, the optical intensity could be increased by orders of magnitude by confining the pump and probe lights in the hollow core. We coupled the pump light at 4.46 μm from a quantum cascade laser and the 1555.14 nm probe light into the HCF with a bore size of 200 μm. The HCF was filled with nitrous oxide (N2O) which has strong absorption at the pump wavelength. The probe light detects the N2O absorption-induced phase change in the HCF via a fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer...
September 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902164/slbir3-negatively-regulates-pamp-responses-and-cell-death-in-tomato
#2
Shuhua Huang, Shuming Nie, Shufen Wang, Jianwei Liu, Yanfeng Zhang, Xiaofeng Wang
Bri1-associated kinase 1 (BAK1)-interacting receptor-like kinase (BIR) proteins have been shown to play important roles in regulating growth and development, pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) responses, and cell death in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified four BIR family members in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), including SlBIR3, an ortholog of AtBIR3 from A. thaliana. SlBIR3 is predicted to encode a membrane localized non-arginine-aspartate (non-RD) kinase that, based on protein sequence, does not have autophosphorylation activity but that can be phosphorylated in vivo...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898585/use-of-a-high-throughput-phenotypic-screening-strategy-to-identify-amplifiers-a-novel-pharmacological-class-of-small-molecules-that-exhibit-functional-synergy-with-potentiators-and-correctors
#3
Kenneth A Giuliano, Shinichiro Wachi, Lawrence Drew, Danijela Dukovski, Olivia Green, Cecilia Bastos, Matthew D Cullen, Sheila Hauck, Bradley D Tait, Benito Munoz, Po-Shun Lee, John Preston Miller
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal genetic disorder caused by mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Despite recent groundbreaking approval of genotype-specific small-molecule drugs, a significant portion of CF patients still lack effective therapeutic options that address the underlying cause of the disease. Through a phenotypic high-throughput screen of approximately 54,000 small molecules, we identified a novel class of CFTR modulators called amplifiers. The identified compound, the characteristics of which are represented here by PTI-CH, selectively increases the expression of immature CFTR protein across different CFTR mutations, including F508del-CFTR, by targeting the inefficiencies of early CFTR biosynthesis...
September 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881083/transcriptome-analysis-using-rna-seq-%C3%A2-of-lomandra-longifolia-roots-infected-with-phytophthora-cinnamomi-reveals-the-complexity-of-the-resistance-response
#4
Md Tohidul Islam, Hashmath Inayath Hussain, James Edward Rookes, David Miles Cahill
The plant pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi is the causal agent of disease in numerous species, is a major threat to natural vegetation and has economic impacts in agriculture. The pathogen principally invades the root system which, in susceptible species, is rapidly colonised and functionally destroyed. Few species are resistant, however, where resistance is expressed the pathogen is restricted to small, localised lesions. The molecular mechanisms that underpin this response in resistant species are not well understood...
September 7, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840478/the-focal-focal-preconditioning-effect-of-photothrombotic-impact-on-the-signaling-protein-profile-in-the-penumbra-surrounding-the-ischemic-core-induced-by-another-photothrombotic-impact
#5
Svetlana V Demyanenko, Anatoly B Uzdensky
Ischemic tolerance is the establishment of brain resistance to severe ischemic damage by a mild preconditioning stimulus, insufficient to irreversible tissue damage, but capable of initiating a defense response. We developed the model of focal-focal ischemic tolerance, in which the first local photothrombotic infarct (PTI) in the rat brain cortex reduced the infarct caused by second PTI applied to the contralateral cortex of the same rat 7 days later. Using antibody microarrays, we compared protein profiles in the penumbra surrounding the PTI core after single and double PTI...
August 24, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837937/differences-in-responses-to-the-rorschach-test-between-patients-with-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-and-alzheimer-s-disease-from-the-perspective-of-visuoperceptual-impairment
#6
Ayako Kimoto, Eizo Iseki, Kazumi Ota, Norio Murayama, Kiyoshi Sato, Naoko Ogura, Heii Arai
Patients with Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) tend to perform worse in tasks on visuoperception than patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Rorschach inkblot test has its utility for assessing perceptual and visuospatial abilities. In this study, we examined the differences in responses to the Rorschach test between patients with DLB and those with AD in terms of visuoperception, and investigated the utility of the test for assessing visuoperceptual impairment in DLB. Using the comprehensive system of Rorschach test, six variables were significantly higher, and three variables were significantly lower in DLB patients compared to AD patients...
August 18, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832648/matrix-metalloproteinases-operate-redundantly-in-arabidopsis-immunity-against-necrotrophic-and-biotrophic-fungal-pathogens
#7
Puyan Zhao, Fei Zhang, Dilin Liu, Jafargholi Imani, Gregor Langen, Karl-Heinz Kogel
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are evolutionarily conserved and multifunctional effector molecules playing pivotal roles in development and homeostasis. In this study we explored the involvement of the five Arabidopsis thaliana At-MMPs in plant defence against microbial pathogens. Expression of At2-MMP was most responsive to inoculation with fungi and a bacterial pathogen followed by At3-MMP and At5-MMP, while At1-MMP and At4-MMP were non-responsive to these biotic stresses. Loss-of-function mutants for all tested At-MMPs displayed increased susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea and double mutant at2,3-mmp and triple mutant at2,3,5-mmp plants developed even stronger symptoms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811287/a-plant-effector-triggered-immunity-signaling-sector-is-inhibited-by-pattern-triggered-immunity
#8
Noriyuki Hatsugai, Daisuke Igarashi, Keisuke Mase, You Lu, Yayoi Tsuda, Suma Chakravarthy, Hai-Lei Wei, Joseph W Foley, Alan Collmer, Jane Glazebrook, Fumiaki Katagiri
Since signaling machineries for two modes of plant-induced immunity, pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), extensively overlap, PTI and ETI signaling likely interact. In an Arabidopsis quadruple mutant, in which four major sectors of the signaling network, jasmonate, ethylene, PAD4, and salicylate, are disabled, the hypersensitive response (HR) typical of ETI is abolished when the Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrRpt2 is bacterially delivered but is intact when AvrRpt2 is directly expressed in planta These observations led us to discovery of a network-buffered signaling mechanism that mediates HR signaling and is strongly inhibited by PTI signaling...
September 15, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802893/complex-mixtures-of-dissolved-pesticides-show-potential-aquatic-toxicity-in-a-synoptic-study-of-midwestern-u-s-streams
#9
Lisa H Nowell, Patrick W Moran, Travis S Schmidt, Julia E Norman, Naomi Nakagaki, Megan E Shoda, Barbara J Mahler, Peter C Van Metre, Wesley W Stone, Mark W Sandstrom, Michelle L Hladik
Aquatic organisms in streams are exposed to pesticide mixtures that vary in composition over time in response to changes in flow conditions, pesticide inputs to the stream, and pesticide fate and degradation within the stream. To characterize mixtures of dissolved-phase pesticides and degradates in Midwestern streams, a synoptic study was conducted at 100 streams during May-August 2013. In weekly water samples, 94 pesticides and 89 degradates were detected, with a median of 25 compounds detected per sample and 54 detected per site...
August 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792629/alteration-of-cell-wall-xylan-acetylation-trigger-defense-responses-that-counterbalance-the-immune-deficiencies-of-plants-impaired-in-the-%C3%AE-subunit-of-the-heterotrimeric-g-protein
#10
Viviana Escudero, Lucía Jordá, Sara Sopeña-Torres, Hugo Mélida, Eva Miedes, Antonio Muñoz-Barrios, Sanjay Swami, Danny Alexander, Lauren S McKee, Andrea Sánchez-Vallet, Vincent Bulone, Alan M Jones, Antonio Molina
Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G protein complex modulates Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and disease resistance responses to different type of pathogens. It also plays a role in plant cell wall integrity as mutants impaired in the Gβ (agb1-2) or Gγ subunits have an altered wall composition compared to wild-type plants. Here we performed a mutant screen to identify suppressors of agb1-2 (sgb) that restore susceptibility to pathogens to wild-type levels. Out of the four sgb mutants (sgb10-sgb13) identified, sgb11 is a new mutant allele of ESKIMO1 (ESK1), which encodes a plant-specific polysaccharide O-acetyltransferase involved in xylan acetylation...
August 9, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766105/the-development-of-a-novel-knowledge-based-weaning-algorithm-using-pulmonary-parameters-a-simulation-study
#11
Hasan Guler, Ugur Kilic
Weaning is important for patients and clinicians who have to determine correct weaning time so that patients do not become addicted to the ventilator. There are already some predictors developed, such as the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI), the pressure time index (PTI), and Jabour weaning index. Many important dimensions of weaning are sometimes ignored by these predictors. This is an attempt to develop a knowledge-based weaning process via fuzzy logic that eliminates the disadvantages of the present predictors...
August 2, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762076/the-accumulation-of-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-is-controlled-by-the-plant-s-immune-system
#12
Ivan Baccelli, Gaétan Glauser, Brigitte Mauch-Mani
Endogenous levels of β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) increase after the molecular recognition of pathogen presence. BABA is accumulated differently during resistance or susceptibility to disease. The priming molecule β-aminobutyric acid has been recently shown to be a natural product of plants, and this has provided significance to the previous discovery of a perception mechanism in Arabidopsis. BABA levels were found to increase after abiotic stress or infection with virulent pathogens, but the role of endogenous BABA in defence has remained to be established...
August 1, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725271/normal-foot-loading-parameters-and-repeatability-of-the-footscan%C3%A2-platform-system
#13
Chao Xu, Xin-Xin Wen, Lu-Yu Huang, Lei Shang, Xi-Xia Cheng, Ya-Bo Yan, Wei Lei
BACKGROUND: The Footscan® platform system is one of the most commonly used clinical tools for the measurement of the foot pressure. The present study was designed to assess the repeatability of the system and identify the range of loading parameters observed in the normal foot. METHODS: Measurements were collected from 32 healthy participants, 15 females and 17 males, twice at an interval of 1 week. Peak pressure (PP), contact time (CT), contact area (CA), pressure-time integral (PTI), and maximum force (MaF) were recorded; these parameters were investigated in 10 areas of the foot: medial heel, lateral heel, midfoot, first to fifth metatarsals, hallux, and toes 2-5...
2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708051/ralstonia-solanacearum-novel-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-nel-effectors-ripaw-and-ripar-suppress-pattern-triggered-immunity-in-plants
#14
Masahito Nakano, Kenji Oda, Takafumi Mukaihara
Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal agent of bacterial wilt in solanaceous crops. This pathogen injects more than 70 effector proteins into host plant cells via the Hrp type III secretion system to cause a successful infection. However, the function of these effectors in plant cells, especially in the suppression of plant immunity, remains largely unknown. In this study, we characterized two Ralstonia solanacearum effectors, RipAW and RipAR, which share homology with the IpaH family of effectors from animal and plant pathogenic bacteria, that have a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase (NEL) domain...
July 15, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699103/expansion-of-pathogen-recognition-specificity-in-plants-using-pattern-recognition-receptors-and-artificially-designed-decoys
#15
REVIEW
Lifan Sun, Jun Qin, Kailun Wang, Jie Zhang
Pathogen/microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) are recognized by plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) localized on the cell surface to activate immune responses. This PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) confers resistance to a broad range of pathogenic microbes and, therefore, has a great potential for genetically engineering broad-spectrum resistance by transferring PRRs across plant families. Pathogenic effectors secreted by phytopathogens often directly target and inhibit key components of PTI signaling pathways via diverse biochemical mechanisms...
July 10, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691210/e3-ligase-saul1-serves-as-a-positive-regulator-of-pamp-triggered-immunity-and-its-homeostasis-is-monitored-by-immune-receptor-soc3
#16
Meixuezi Tong, Tanja Kotur, Wanwan Liang, Katja Vogelmann, Tatjana Kleine, Dario Leister, Catharina Brieske, Shuhua Yang, Daniel Lüdke, Marcel Wiermer, Yuelin Zhang, Xin Li, Stefan Hoth
In both plants and animals, intracellular nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs; or Nod-like receptors) serve as immune receptors to recognize pathogen-derived molecules and mount effective immune responses against microbial infections. Plant NLRs often guard the presence or activity of other host proteins, which are the direct virulence targets of pathogen effectors. These guardees are sometimes immune-promoting components such as those in a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Plant E3 ligases serve many roles in immune regulation, but it is unclear whether they can also be guarded by NLRs...
September 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687784/whole-transcriptome-sequencing-of-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-actinidiae-infected-kiwifruit-plants-reveals-species-specific-interaction-between-long-non-coding-rna-and-coding-genes
#17
Zupeng Wang, Yifei Liu, Li Li, Dawei Li, Qiong Zhang, Yangtao Guo, Shuaibin Wang, Caihong Zhong, Hongwen Huang
An outbreak of kiwifruit bacterial canker disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) beginning in 2008 caused disaster to the kiwifruit industry. However the mechanisms of interaction between kiwifruit and Psa are unknown. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to regulate many biological processes, but comprehensive repertoires of kiwifruit lncRNAs and their effects on the interaction between kiwifruit and Psa are unknown. Here, based on in-depth transcriptomic analysis of four kiwifruit materials at three stages of infection with Psa, we identified 14,845 transcripts from 12,280 loci as putative lncRNAs...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685662/simultaneous-functional-photoacoustic-microscopy-and-electrocorticography-reveal-the-impact-of-rtpa-on-dynamic-neurovascular-functions-after-cerebral-ischemia
#18
Aishwarya Bandla, Lun-De Liao, Su Jing Chan, Ji Min Ling, Yu-Hang Liu, Yen-Yu Ian Shih, Han-Chi Pan, Peter Tsun-Hon Wong, Hsin-Yi Lai, Nicolas Kon Kam King, You-Yin Chen, Wai Hoe Ng, Nitish V Thakor
The advance of thrombolytic therapy has been hampered by the lack of optimization of the therapy during the hyperacute phase of focal ischemia. Here, we investigate neurovascular dynamics using a custom-designed hybrid electrocorticography (ECoG)-functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM) imaging system during the hyperacute phase (first 6 h) of photothrombotic ischemia (PTI) in male Wistar rats following recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA)-mediated thrombolysis. We reported, for the first time, the changes in neural activity and cerebral hemodynamic responses following rtPA infusion at different time points post PTI...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678518/single-crystal-luminescent-carbon-nitride-nanosheets-formed-by-spontaneous-dissolution
#19
Thomas S Miller, Theo M Suter, Andrew M Telford, Loren Picco, Oliver D Payton, Freddie Russell-Pavier, Patrick L Cullen, Andrea Sella, Milo S P Shaffer, Jenny Nelson, Vasiliki Tileli, Paul F McMillan, Christopher A Howard
A primary method for the production of 2D nanosheets is liquid-phase delamination from their 3D layered bulk analogues. Most strategies currently achieve this objective by significant mechanical energy input or chemical modification but these processes are detrimental to the structure and properties of the resulting 2D nanomaterials. Bulk poly(triazine imide) (PTI)-based carbon nitrides are layered materials with a high degree of crystalline order. Here, we demonstrate that these semiconductors are spontaneously soluble in select polar aprotic solvents, that is, without any chemical or physical intervention...
July 5, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667952/simultaneous-measurement-of-thermal-conductivity-and-heat-capacity-by-flash-thermal-imaging-methods
#20
N Tao, X L Li, J G Sun
Thermal properties are important for material applications involved with temperature. Although many measurement methods are available, they may not be convenient to use or have not been demonstrated suitable for testing of a wide range of materials. To address this issue, we developed a new method for the nondestructive measurement of the thermal effusivity of bulk materials with uniform property. This method is based on the pulsed thermal imaging-multilayer analysis (PTI-MLA) method that has been commonly used for testing of coating materials...
June 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
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