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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830134/split-dose-bowel-preparation-for-colonoscopy-2-liters-polyethylene-glycol-with-ascorbic-acid-versus-sodium-picosulfate-versus-oral-sodium-phosphate-tablets
#1
Seok Won Lee, Chang Seok Bang, Tae Young Park, Ki Tae Suk, Gwang Ho Baik, Dong Joon Kim
Background/Aims: Adequate bowel preparation is an essential factor affecting the visibility of colonic mucosa and safety of related therapeutic interventions. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of three bowel preparation agents -2 L polyethylene glycol with ascorbic acid (PEGA), sodium picosulfate magnesium citrate (SPMC), and oral sodium phosphate tablet (NaP)- for morning colonoscopy. Methods: Here, we analyzed the medical records of patients who had taken bowel preparation agents using the split-dose method and undergone colonoscopy in a single hospital...
August 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830121/drugged-driving-in-wisconsin-oral-fluid-versus-blood
#2
Lorrine D Edwards, Katherine L Smith, Theodore Savage
A pilot project was conducted in Dane County, Wisconsin, to evaluate the frequency of individuals driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). Evidentiary blood specimens, collected from subjects arrested for Operating While Intoxicated (OWI), were compared to oral fluid (OF) results obtained with the Alere DDS2®, a handheld screening device. The project objectives were to evaluate (i) the Alere DDS2® for use by police officers in the field, (ii) the frequency of individuals DUID and drugs combined with alcohol among OWI cases, (iii) the differences between detecting drugs in OF and in blood, and (iv) the effect of the laboratory drug testing cancellation policy (LCP) when the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) exceeds 0...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830120/detection-of-carfentanil-by-lc-ms-ms-and-reports-of-associated-fatalities-in-the-usa
#3
Kevin G Shanks, George S Behonick
Carfentanil is a mu (μ) opioid receptor agonist and is estimated to be ~10,000 times more potent than morphine in animal (non-human) models. It is not approved for human use and is only used to immobilize large exotic animals in veterinary medicine. In mid-2016, carfentanil emerged as a contaminant in street heroin in the USA and was central to a large number of emergency department visits and deaths. We describe an analytical method for the detection and quantification of carfentanil in whole blood specimens via a protein precipitation extraction with acetonitrile and liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830118/two-fatal-intoxications-involving-3-methoxyphencyclidine
#4
Christie Mitchell-Mata, Brittany Thomas, Brianna Peterson, Fiona Couper
3- and 4-methoxyphencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP, 4-MeO-PCP), structural analogs of phencyclidine (PCP), were among the first legal PCP alternatives to show up on the novel psychoactive substances (NPS) market in Europe in the 2000s. Their structural similarities to PCP and ketamine likely contribute to their demonstrated dissociative anesthetic effects. Limited information exists in the literature about toxic and lethal concentrations of these drugs in biological samples. This case report presents the first two death cases in Washington State in which 3-MeO-PCP was identified...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830102/transcriptional-regulatory-network-of-wox11-is-involved-in-the-control-of-crown-root-development-cytokinin-signals-and-redox-in-rice
#5
Wei Jiang, Shaoli Zhou, Qian Zhang, Huazhi Song, Dao-Xiu Zhou, Yu Zhao
The rice root system is mainly composed of post-embryonic shoot-borne roots called crown roots. WOX11, encoding a WUSCHEL-related homeobox domain transcription factor, is a key regulator of crown root growth and development in rice (Oryza sativa. L). In addition to specifically activating crown root development, WOX11 is also involved in lateral root initiation, root hair formation, and abiotic stresses. However, the gene regulatory network downstream of WOX11 remains largely unknown. Here, we studied the transcriptome of wox11 root tips by RNA-Seq and determined direct WOX11-binding targets by bioinformatic and biochemical analysis...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830101/transparent-testa-16-and-15-act-through-different-mechanisms-to-control-proanthocyanidin-accumulation-in-arabidopsis-testa
#6
W Xu, S Bobet, J Le Gourrierec, D Grain, D De Vos, A Berger, F Salsac, Z Kelemen, J Boucherez, A Rolland, G Mouille, J M Routaboul, L Lepiniec, C Dubos
Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that fulfil a multitude of functions during the plant life cycle. In Arabidopsis proanthocyanidins (PAs) are flavonoids that specifically accumulate in the innermost integuments of the seed testa (i.e. endothelium), as well as in the chalaza and micropyle areas, and play a vital role in protecting the embryo against various biotic and abiotic stresses. PAs accumulation in the endothelium requires the activity of the MADS box transcription factor TRANSPARENT TESTA (TT) 16 (ARABIDOPSIS B-SISTER/AGAMOUS-LIKE 32) and the UDP-glycosyltransferase TT15 (UGT80B1)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830100/photosynthetic-limitations-in-two-antarctic-vascular-plants-importance-of-leaf-anatomical-traits-and-rubisco-kinetic-parameters
#7
Patricia L Sáez, León A Bravo, Lohengrin A Cavieres, Valentina Vallejos, Carolina Sanhueza, Marcel Font-Carrascosa, Eustaquio Gil-Pelegrín, José Javier Peguero-Pina, Jeroni Galmés
Particular physiological traits allow the vascular plants Deschampsia antarctica Desv. and Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. to inhabit Antarctica. The photosynthetic performance of these species was evaluated in situ, focusing on diffusive and biochemical constraints to CO2 assimilation. Leaf gas exchange, Chl a fluorescence, leaf ultrastructure, and Rubisco catalytic properties were examined in plants growing on King George and Lagotellerie islands. In spite of the species- and population-specific effects of the measurement temperature on the main photosynthetic parameters, CO2 assimilation was highly limited by CO2 diffusion...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830093/the-evolution-of-gene-regulation-research-in-lactococcus-lactis
#8
Jan Kok, Lieke A van Gijtenbeek, Anne de Jong, Sjoerd B van der Meulen, Ana Solopova, Oscar P Kuipers
Lactococcus lactis is a major microbe. This lactic acid bacterium (LAB) is used worldwide in the production of safe, healthy, tasteful and nutritious milk fermentation products. Its huge industrial importance has led to an explosion of research on the organism, particularly since the early 1970s. The upsurge in the research on L. lactis coincided not accidentally with the advent of recombinant DNA technology in these years. The development of methods to take out and re-introduce DNA in L. lactis, to clone genes and to mutate the chromosome in a targeted way, to control (over)expression of proteins and, ultimately, the availability of the nucleotide sequence of its genome and the use of that information in transcriptomics and proteomics research have enabled to peek deep into the functioning of the organism...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830089/unexpected-complexity-in-the-lactate-racemization-system-of-lactic-acid-bacteria
#9
Benoît Desguin, Patrice Soumillion, Robert P Hausinger, Pascal Hols
Analysis of lactate racemase (Lar) in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been a scientific challenge for many years, as indicated by the numerous contradictory reports on this activity. Recently, genetic and biochemical studies of the Lar system of Lactobacillus plantarum have unveiled the complexity of this particular enzymatic system. Lar activity is associated with LarA and its nickel-containing cofactor, synthesized from nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide by the three biosynthetic enzymes: LarB, LarC, and LarE...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830073/platelet-activating-factor-increases-reactive-oxygen-species-mediated-microbicidal-activity-of-human-macrophages-infected-with-leishmania-viannia-braziliensis
#10
Arissa Felipe Borges, Camila Imai Morato, Rodrigo Saar Gomes, Miriam Leandro Dorta, Milton Adriano Pelli de Oliveira, Fátima Ribeiro-Dias
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is produced by macrophages during inflammation and infections. We evaluated whether PAF is able to modulate the infection of human macrophages by Leishmania braziliensis, the main Leishmania sp. in Brazil. Monocyte-derived macrophages were incubated with promastigote forms in absence or presence of exogenous PAF. We observed that the treatment of macrophages with low concentrations of PAF prior to infection increased the phagocytosis of L. braziliensis. More importantly, exogenous PAF reduced the parasitism when it was added before, during or after infection...
September 29, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830070/spatial-autocorrelation-of-microbial-communities-atop-a-debris-covered-glacier-is-evidence-of-a-supraglacial-chronosequence
#11
John L Darcy, Andrew J King, Eli M S Gendron, Steven K Schmidt
Although microbial communities from many glacial environments have been analyzed, microbes living in the debris atop debris-covered glaciers represent an understudied frontier in the cryosphere. The few previous molecular studies of microbes in supraglacial debris have either had limited phylogenetic resolution, limited spatial resolution (e.g. only one sample site on the glacier) or both. Here, we present the microbiome of a debris-covered glacier across all three domains of life, using a spatially-explicit sampling scheme to characterize the Middle Fork Toklat Glacier's microbiome from its terminus to sites high on the glacier...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830068/cytokine-production-in-vitro-and-in-rat-model-of-colitis-in-response-to-lactobacillus-plantarum-ls-07
#12
Jana Štofilová, Tomaž Langerholc, Cristian Botta, Primož Treven, Lidija Gradišnik, Rastislav Salaj, Alena Šoltésová, Izabela Bertková, Zdenka Hertelyová, Alojz Bomba
Over the past decade, it has become clear that specific probiotic lactobacilli are valuable in the prevention and treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases of gastrointestinal tract but their successful application would benefit greatly from a better understanding of the mechanisms of individual strains. Hence, each probiotic strain should be characterized for their immune activity before being proposed for clinical applications. The aim of the study was to characterize the immunomodulatory activity of the strain Lactobacillus (L...
August 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830064/cometabolic-degradation-of-dichloroethenes-by-comamonas-testosteroni-rf2
#13
Michal Zalesak, Jan Ruzicka, Robert Vicha, Marie Dvorackova
An environmental isolate Comamonas testosteroni strain RF2, which has been found to cometabolize trichloroethene (TCE) in the presence of phenol and sodium lactate as growth substrates, was tested to investigate its capacity for degrading 1,2-cis-dichloroethene (cDCE), 1,2-trans-dichlorothene (tDCE), and 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1DCE). Degradation assays were performed for single DCEs, as well as for a mixture of DCEs with TCE, which resembled contaminated plume in groundwater. RF2 was capable of efficiently removing all three dichloroethenes (DCEs) at the initial aqueous concentrations of 6...
July 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830059/our-first-and-next-decades-at-acs-nano
#14
Warren C W Chan, Manish Chhowalla, Sharon Glotzer, Yury Gogotsi, Jason H Hafner, Paula T Hammond, Mark C Hersam, Ali Javey, Cherie R Kagan, Kazunori Kataoka, Ali Khademhosseini, Nicholas A Kotov, Shuit-Tong Lee, Yan Li, Helmuth Möhwald, Paul Mulvaney, Andre E Nel, Peter J Nordlander, Wolfgang J Parak, Reginald M Penner, Andrey L Rogach, Raymond E Schaak, Molly M Stevens, Andrew T S Wee, C Grant Willson, Laura E Fernandez, Paul S Weiss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830045/climate-warming-causes-declines-in-crop-yields-and-lowers-school-attendance-rates-in-central-africa
#15
Trevon L Fuller, Paul R Sesink Clee, Kevin Y Njabo, Anthony Tróchez, Katy Morgan, Demetrio Bocuma Meñe, Nicola M Anthony, Mary Katherine Gonder, Walter R Allen, Rachid Hanna, Thomas B Smith
Although a number of recent studies suggest that climate associated shifts in agriculture are affecting social and economic systems, there have been relatively few studies of these effects in Africa. Such studies would be particularly useful in Central Africa, where the impacts of climate warming are predicted to be high but coincide with an area with low adaptive capacity. Focusing on plantain (Musa paradisiaca), we assess whether recent climate change has led to reduced yields. Analysis of annual temperature between 1950 and 2013 indicated a 0...
August 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830029/persistent-uncrossed-corticospinal-connections-in-patients-with-intractable-focal-epilepsy
#16
Harper L Kaye, Roman Gersner, Aaron D Boes, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Alexander Rotenberg
Corticospinal connections may be bilateral at birth, but a predominantly unilateral and crossed pattern develops by the toddler years. Acquired injury can alter the normal development of laterality such that uncrossed corticospinal connections persist, particularly if the injury is early in life and involves the motor system. Whether other developmental insults, such as childhood epilepsy, affect the development of crossed laterality in the motor system is unknown, although this topic has relevance for understanding the broader impact of epilepsy on brain development...
August 19, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830024/cognitive-remediation-training-improves-performance-in-patients-with-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#17
Richard L McBride, Sarah Horsfield, Carolina X Sandler, Joanne Cassar, Sally Casson, Erin Cvejic, Uté Vollmer-Conna, Andrew R Lloyd
Neurocognitive disturbance with subjectively-impaired concentration and memory is a common, disabling symptom reported by patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). We recently reported preliminary evidence for benefits of cognitive remediation as part of an integrated cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)/ graded exercise therapy (GET) program. Here, we describe a contemporaneous, case-control trial evaluating the effectiveness of an online cognitive remediation training program (cognitive exercise therapy; CET) in addition to CBT/GET (n=36), compared to CBT/GET alone (n=36)...
August 18, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830010/contradictory-effects-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-activated-sludge-wastewater-treatment
#18
Zhiya Sheng, Joy D Van Nostrand, Jizhong Zhou, Yang Liu
Increased amount of nano-silver will be released into domestic and industrial waste streams due to its extensive application. However, great controversy still exists on the effects of silver nanoparticle (Ag-NP) on biological wastewater treatment processes and a toxicology model has not been built yet. Four sequencing batch reactors with activated sludge has been run for over three months with different silver species at a concentration of 1mg Ag/L in influent. Both freshly prepared Ag-NPs and aged Ag-NPs were tested with released silver ion as control...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830005/fostering-prosocial-behavior-and-empathy-in-young-children
#19
REVIEW
Tracy L Spinrad, Diana E Gal
There is increasing interest in understanding ways to foster young children's prosocial behavior (i.e. voluntary acts to benefit another). We begin this review by differentiating between types of prosocial behavior, empathy, and sympathy. We argue that sympathy and some types of prosocial behaviors are most likely intrinsically motivated, whereas other types of prosocial behaviors may be extrinsically motivated. Next, we highlight work focusing on the socialization practices that have been found to predict individual differences in young children's prosocial behavior and concern for others...
August 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829992/health-related-quality-of-life-results-from-the-prodige-5-accord-17-randomised-trial-of-folfox-versus-fluorouracil-cisplatin-regimen-in-oesophageal-cancer
#20
C Bascoul-Mollevi, S Gourgou, M-P Galais, J-L Raoul, O Bouché, J-Y Douillard, A Adenis, P-L Etienne, B Juzyna, L Bedenne, T Conroy
BACKGROUND: A recent prospective randomised trial did not reveal significant differences in median progression-free survival between two chemoradiotherapy (CRT) regimens for inoperable non-metastatic oesophageal cancer patients. This secondary analysis aimed to describe the impact of CRT on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), physical functioning, dysphagia, fatigue and pain and to evaluate whether baseline HRQOL domains can predict overall survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 267 patients were randomly assigned to receive with 50 Gy of radiotherapy in 25 fractions six cycles of FOLFOX or four cycles of fluorouracil and cisplatin on day 1...
August 19, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
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