Read by QxMD icon Read


Svetlana Demyanenko, Anatoly Uzdensky
In ischemic stroke, cell damage propagates from infarct core to surrounding tissue. To reveal proteins involved in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection, we explored the protein profile in penumbra surrounding the photothrombotic infarct core induced in rat cerebral cortex by local laser irradiation after Bengal Rose administration. Using antibody microarrays, we studied changes in expression of 224 signaling proteins 1, 4, or 24 h after photothrombotic infarct compared with untreated contralateral cortex...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Seiji Takeuchi, Shintaro Iwama, Hiroshi Takagi, Atsushi Kiyota, Kohtaro Nakashima, Hisakazu Izumida, Haruki Fujisawa, Naoko Iwata, Hidetaka Suga, Takashi Watanabe, Kozo Kaibuchi, Yutaka Oiso, Hiroshi Arima, Yoshihisa Sugimura
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is secreted via exocytosis; however, the precise molecular mechanism underlying the exocytosis of AVP remains to be elucidated. To better understand the mechanisms of AVP secretion, in our study we have identified proteins that bind with a 25 kDa synaptosomal-associated protein (SNAP25). SNAP25 plays a crucial role in exocytosis, in the posterior pituitary. Embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived AVP neurons were established to investigate the functions of the identified proteins. Using glutathione S-transferase (GST)-pulldown assays and proteomic analyses, we identified tomosyn-1 (syntaxin-binding protein 5) as a SNAP25-binding protein in the posterior pituitary...
2016: PloS One
Neetu Gupta, Romain Noël, Amélie Goudet, Karen Hinsinger, Aurélien Michau, Valérie Pons, Hajer Abdelkafi, Thomas Secher, Ayaka Shima, Olena Shtanko, Yasuteru Sakurai, Sandrine Cojean, Sébastien Pomel, Vanessa Liévin-Le Moal, Véronique Leignel, Jo-Ana Herweg, Annette Fischer, Ludger Johannes, Kate Harrison, Philippa M Beard, Pascal Clayette, Roger Le Grand, Jonathan O Rayner, Thomas Rudel, Joël Vacus, Philippe M Loiseau, Robert A Davey, Eric Oswald, Jean-Christophe Cintrat, Julien Barbier, Daniel Gillet
Medical countermeasures to treat biothreat agent infections require broad-spectrum therapeutics that do not induce agent resistance. A cell-based high-throughput screen (HTS) against ricin toxin combined with hit optimization allowed selection of a family of compounds that meet these requirements. The hit compound Retro-2 and its derivatives have been demonstrated to be safe in vivo in mice even at high doses. Moreover, Retro-2 is an inhibitor of retrograde transport that affects syntaxin-5-dependent toxins and pathogens...
October 3, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Priyanka Majumder, Oishee Chakrabarti
Endolysosomal and autophagosomal degradation pathways are highly connected at various levels, sharing multiple molecular effectors that modulate them individually or simultaneously. These two lysosomal degradative pathways are primarily involved in the disposal of cargo internalized from the cell surface or long-lived proteins or aggregates and aged organelles present in the cytosol. Both of these pathways involve a number of carefully regulated vesicular fusion events that are dependent on ESCRT proteins. The ESCRT proteins especially ESCRT-I and III participate in the regulation of fusion events between autophagosome/amphisome and lysosome...
July 22, 2016: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Mariana Oksdath, Alvaro F Nieto Guil, Diego Grassi, Lucas J Sosa, Santiago Quiroga
Three early signals of asymmetry have been described to occur in a single neurite of neurons at stage 2 of differentiation (before polarization) and shown to be essential for neuronal polarization: (i) accumulation of stable microtubules, (ii) enrichment of the plasma membrane with activatable IGF-1r, and (iii) polarized transport of the microtubular motor KIF5C. Here, we studied the possible relationship between these three phenomena. Our results show that the activatable (membrane-inserted) IGF-1r and stable microtubules accumulate in the same neurite of cells at stage 2...
October 3, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Jatinder Singh, Ramanpreet Shah, Dhandeep Singh
The mast cells are integral part of immune system and they have pleiotropic physiological functions in our body. Any type of abnormal stimuli causes the mast cells receptors to spur the otherwise innocuous mast cells to degranulate and release inflammatory mediators like histamine, cytokines, chemokines and prostaglandins. These mediators are involved in various diseases like allergy, asthma, mastocytosis, cardiovascular disorders, etc. Herein, we describe the receptors involved in degranulation of mast cells and are broadly divided into four categories: G-protein coupled receptors, ligand gated ion channels, immunoreceptors and pattern recognition receptors...
September 29, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Linda Soo Hoo, Chris D Banna, Carolyn M Radeke, Nikunj Sharma, Mary E Albertolle, Seng Hui Low, Thomas Weimbs, Carol A Vandenberg
Cell polarity and precise subcellular protein localization are pivotal to neuronal function. The SNARE machinery underlies intracellular membrane fusion events, but its role in neuronal polarity and selective protein targeting remain unclear. Here we report that syntaxin 3 is involved in orchestrating polarized trafficking in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. We show that syntaxin 3 localizes to the axonal plasma membrane, particularly to axonal tips, whereas syntaxin 4 localizes to the somatodendritic plasma membrane...
2016: PloS One
Andrew G Engel, Duygu Selcen, Xin-Ming Shen, Margherita Milone, C Michel Harper
OBJECTIVE: To identify the molecular basis of a fatal syndrome of microcephaly, cortical hyperexcitability, and myasthenia. METHODS: We performed clinical and in vitro microelectrode studies of neuromuscular transmission, examined neuromuscular junctions cytochemically and by electron microscopy (EM), and searched for mutations by Sanger and exome sequencing. RESULTS: Neuromuscular transmission was severely compromised by marked depletion of the readily releasable pool of quanta, but the probability of quantal release was normal...
October 2016: Neurology. Genetics
Ravikiran Kasula, Ye Jin Chai, Adekunle T Bademosi, Callista B Harper, Rachel S Gormal, Isabel C Morrow, Eric Hosy, Brett M Collins, Daniel Choquet, Andreas Papadopulos, Frédéric A Meunier
Munc18-1 and syntaxin-1A control SNARE-dependent neuroexocytosis and are organized in nanodomains on the plasma membrane of neurons and neurosecretory cells. Deciphering the intra- and intermolecular steps via which they prepare secretory vesicles (SVs) for fusion is key to understanding neuronal and hormonal communication. Here, we demonstrate that expression of a priming-deficient mutant lacking 17 residues of the domain 3a hinge-loop (Munc18-1(Δ317-333)) in PC12 cells engineered to knockdown Munc18-1/2 markedly prolonged SV docking...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
Virginie Hubert, Andrea Peschel, Brigitte Langer, Marion Gröger, Andrew Rees, Renate Kain
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process used for removing surplus and damaged proteins and organelles from the cytoplasm. The unwanted material is incorporated into autophagosomes that eventually fuse with lysosomes, leading to the degradation of their cargo. The fusion event is mediated by the interaction between the Qa-SNARE syntaxin-17 (STX17) on autophagosomes and the R-SNARE VAMP8 on lysosomes. Cells deficient in lysosome membrane-associated protein-2 (LAMP-2) have increased numbers of autophagosomes but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood...
October 15, 2016: Biology Open
Trine Lisberg Toft-Bertelsen, Iwona Ziomkiewicz, Sébastien Houy, Paulo S Pinheiro, Jakob B Sørensen
SNAP-25 regulates Ca(2+)-channels, with potentially important consequences for diseases involving an aberrant SNAP-25 expression level. How this regulation is executed mechanistically remains unknown. We have investigated this question in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells. We find that SNAP-25 inhibits Ca(2+)-currents, with the B-isoform being more potent than the A-isoform, but not when syntaxin-1 is cleaved by Botulinum Neurotoxin C. In contrast, syntaxin-1 inhibits Ca(2+)-currents independently of SNAP-25. Further experiments using immunostaining showed that endogenous or exogenous SNAP-25 expression recruits syntaxin-1 from clusters on the plasma membrane, thereby increasing the immunoavailability of syntaxin-1 and leading indirectly to Ca(2+)-current inhibition...
September 7, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Rugang Yu, Jing Wang, Liang Xu, Yan Wang, Ronghua Wang, Xianwen Zhu, Xiaochuan Sun, Xiaobo Luo, Yang Xie, Muleke Everlyne, Liwang Liu
Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops worldwide. Taproot thickening represents a critical developmental period that determines yield and quality in radish life cycle. To isolate differentially expressed genes (DGEs) involved in radish taproot thickening process and explore the molecular mechanism underlying taproot development, three cDNA libraries from radish taproot collected at pre-cortex splitting stage (L1), cortex splitting stage (L2), and expanding stage (L3) were constructed and sequenced by RNA-Seq technology...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Takunori Satoh, Yuri Nakamura, Akiko K Satoh
SNAREs (SNAP receptors) are the key components of protein complexes that drive membrane fusion. Here, we report the function of a SNARE, Syntaxin 5 (Syx5), in the development of photoreceptors in Drosophila In wild-type photoreceptors, Syx5 localizes to cis-Golgi, along with cis-Golgi markers: Rab1 and GM130. We observed that Syx5-deficient photoreceptors show notable accumulation of these cis-Golgi markers accompanying drastic accumulation of vesicles between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi cisternae...
October 15, 2016: Biology Open
Rocío Tejero, Mario Lopez-Manzaneda, Saravanan Arumugam, Lucía Tabares
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most frequent genetic cause of infant mortality. The disease is characterized by progressive muscle weakness and paralysis of axial and proximal limb muscles. It is caused by homozygous loss or mutation of the SMN1 gene, which codes for the Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein. In mouse models of the disease, neurotransmitter release is greatly impaired, but the molecular mechanisms of the synaptic dysfunction and the basis of the selective muscle vulnerability are unknown...
August 29, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Tristan D McClure-Begley, Irina Esterlis, Kathryn L Stone, TuKiet T Lam, Sharon R Grady, Christopher M Colangelo, Jon M Lindstrom, Michael J Marks, Marina R Picciotto
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) support the initiation and maintenance of smoking, but the long-term changes occurring in the protein complex as a result of smoking and the nicotine in tobacco are not known. Human studies and animal models have also demonstrated that increasing cholinergic tone increases behaviors related to depression, suggesting that the nAChR-associated proteome could be altered in individuals with mood disorders. We therefore immunopurified nAChRs and associated proteins for quantitative proteomic assessment of changes in protein-protein interactions of high-affinity nAChRs containing the β2 subunit (β2*-nAChRs) from either cortex of mice treated with saline or nicotine, or postmortem human temporal cortex tissue from tobacco-exposed and nonexposed individuals, with a further comparison of diagnosed mood disorder to control subjects...
July 2016: ENeuro
Hongen Wei, Yuehong Ma, Caiyun Ding, Guorong Jin, Jianrong Liu, Qiaoqiao Chang, Fengyun Hu, Li Yu
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder characterized by impairments in social and communication abilities, as well as by restricted and repetitive behaviors. The BTBR T (+) Itpr3 (tf) (BTBR) mice have emerged as a well characterized and widely used mouse model of a range of ASD-like phenotype, showing deficiencies in social behaviors and unusual ultrasonic vocalizations as well as increased repetitive self-grooming. However, the inherited neurobiological changes that lead to ASD-like behaviors in these mice are incompletely known and still under active investigation...
August 19, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Ji-Yoon Choi, Nam-Hee Won, Jung-Duck Park, Sinae Jang, Chi-Yong Eom, Yongseok Choi, Young In Park, Mi-Sook Dong
Ethylmercury (EtHg) is derived from the degradation of thimerosal, the most widely used organomercury compound. In this study, EtHg-induced toxicity and autophagy in the mouse kidney was observed and then the mechanism of toxicity was explored in vitro in HK-2 cells. Low doses of EtHg induced autophagy without causing any histopathological changes in mouse kidneys. However, mice treated with high doses of EtHg exhibited severe focal tubular cell necrosis of the proximal tubules with autophagy. EtHg dose-dependently increased the production of reactive oxygen species, reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential, activated the unfolded protein response, and increased cytosolic Ca(2+) levels in HK-2 cells...
August 10, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Cecilia Rodriguez-Furlán, Hernán Salinas-Grenet, Omar Sandoval, Camilo Recabarren, Paulina Arraño-Salinas, Sylvana Soto-Alvear, Ariel Orellana, Francisca Blanco-Herrera
Root hairs are important for nutrient and water uptake and are also critically involved the interaction with soil inhabiting microbiota. Root hairs are tubular-shaped outgrowths that emerge from trichoblasts. This polarized elongation is maintained and regulated by a robust mechanism involving the endomembrane secretory and endocytic system. Members of the syntaxin family of SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) in plants (SYP), have been implicated in regulation of the fusion of vesicles with the target membranes in both exocytic and endocytic pathways...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Rahul Gajbhiye, Trupti Bendigeri, Arun Ghuge, Kashmira Bhusane, Shahina Begum, Neeta Warty, Raj Sawant, Kedar Padte, Anil Humane, Pramathes Dasmahapatra, Anahita Chauhan, Shagufta Khan
Endometriosis, characterized by the presence of endometrial-like tissue at extrauterine sites, is a common, chronic, estrogen-dependent, inflammatory condition associated with pelvic pain, subfertility, dysmenorrhea, and dyspareunia, affecting about 10% of reproductive-age women in any population. The diagnosis of endometriosis is usually delayed on an average by 8 to 11 years leading to significant consequences in terms of disease progression. The current study was aimed to validate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the epitopes of stomatin-like protein 2, tropomodulin 3 (TMOD3), and tropomyosin 3 (TPM3) for diagnosis of minimal-mild endometriosis (revised American Fertility Society Classification (rAFS) stage I-II) and to compare the performance with the reported markers: cancer antigen (CA) 125, CA19-9, α-enolase, Serine/threonine-protein kinase (PDIK1L), and syntaxin 5...
July 8, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Makoto Shirakawa, Haruko Ueda, Tomoo Shimada, Ikuko Hara-Nishimura
Plants use sophisticated defense strategies against herbivores, including the myrosinase-glucosinolate system in Brassicales plants. This system sequesters myrosinase in myrosin cells, which are idioblasts in inner leaf tissues, and produces a toxic compound when cells are damaged by herbivores. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying myrosin cell development are largely unknown, recent studies have revealed that two key components, a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor (FAMA) and vesicle trafficking factors (such as SYNTAXIN OF PLANTS 22), regulate the differentiation and fate determination of myrosin cells...
October 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"