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extended synaptotagmin-1

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811083/arabidopsis-syt1-maintains-stability-of-cortical-endoplasmic-reticulum-networks-and-vap27-1-enriched-endoplasmic-reticulum-plasma-membrane-contact-sites
#1
Wei Siao, Pengwei Wang, Boris Voigt, Patrick J Hussey, Frantisek Baluska
Arabidopsis synaptotagmin 1 (SYT1) is localized on the endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane (ER-PM) contact sites in leaf and root cells. The ER-PM localization of Arabidopsis SYT1 resembles that of the extended synaptotagmins (E-SYTs) in animal cells. In mammals, E-SYTs have been shown to regulate calcium signaling, lipid transfer, and endocytosis. Arabidopsis SYT1 was reported to be essential for maintaining cell integrity and virus movement. This study provides detailed insight into the subcellular localization of SYT1 and VAP27-1, another ER-PM-tethering protein...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731902/c2-domain-containing-calcium-sensors-in-neuroendocrine-secretion
#2
REVIEW
Paulo S Pinheiro, Sébastien Houy, Jakob B Sørensen
The molecular mechanisms for calcium-triggered membrane fusion have long been sought for, and detailed models now exist that account for at least some of the functions of the many proteins involved in the process. Key players in the fusion reaction are a group of proteins that, upon binding to calcium, trigger the merger of cargo-filled vesicles with the plasma membrane. Low-affinity, fast-kinetics calcium sensors of the synaptotagmin family - especially synaptotagmin-1 and synaptotagmin-2 - are the main calcium sensors for fast exocytosis triggering in many cell types...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731796/advances-in-x-ray-free-electron-laser-xfel-diffraction-data-processing-applied-to-the-crystal-structure-of-the-synaptotagmin-1-snare-complex
#3
Artem Y Lyubimov, Monarin Uervirojnangkoorn, Oliver B Zeldin, Qiangjun Zhou, Minglei Zhao, Aaron S Brewster, Tara Michels-Clark, James M Holton, Nicholas K Sauter, William I Weis, Axel T Brunger
X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) reduce the effects of radiation damage on macromolecular diffraction data and thereby extend the limiting resolution. Previously, we adapted classical post-refinement techniques to XFEL diffraction data to produce accurate diffraction data sets from a limited number of diffraction images (Uervirojnangkoorn et al., 2015), and went on to use these techniques to obtain a complete data set from crystals of the synaptotagmin-1 / SNARE complex and to determine the structure at 3...
October 12, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434670/ring-like-oligomers-of-synaptotagmins-and-related-c2-domain-proteins
#4
Maria N Zanetti, Oscar D Bello, Jing Wang, Jeff Coleman, Yiying Cai, Charles V Sindelar, James E Rothman, Shyam S Krishnakumar
We recently reported that the C2AB portion of Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) could self-assemble into Ca(2+)-sensitive ring-like oligomers on membranes, which could potentially regulate neurotransmitter release. Here we report that analogous ring-like oligomers assemble from the C2AB domains of other Syt isoforms (Syt2, Syt7, Syt9) as well as related C2 domain containing protein, Doc2B and extended Synaptotagmins (E-Syts). Evidently, circular oligomerization is a general and conserved structural aspect of many C2 domain proteins, including Synaptotagmins...
2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27044075/extended-synaptotagmins-are-ca2-dependent-lipid-transfer-proteins-at-membrane-contact-sites
#5
Haijia Yu, Yinghui Liu, Daniel R Gulbranson, Alex Paine, Shailendra S Rathore, Jingshi Shen
Organelles are in constant communication with each other through exchange of proteins (mediated by trafficking vesicles) and lipids [mediated by both trafficking vesicles and lipid transfer proteins (LTPs)]. It has long been known that vesicle trafficking can be tightly regulated by the second messenger Ca(2+), allowing membrane protein transport to be adjusted according to physiological demands. However, it remains unclear whether LTP-mediated lipid transport can also be regulated by Ca(2+) In this work, we show that extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts), poorly understood membrane proteins at endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane contact sites, are Ca(2+)-dependent LTPs...
April 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26924250/homeostatic-regulation-of-the-pi-4-5-p2-ca-2-signaling-system-at-er-pm-junctions
#6
REVIEW
Chi-Lun Chang, Jen Liou
The phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2)-Ca(2+) signaling system is important for cell activation in response to various extracellular stimuli. This signaling system is initiated by receptor-induced hydrolysis of PI(4,5)P2 in the plasma membrane (PM) to generate the soluble second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). IP3 subsequently triggers the release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) store to the cytosol to activate Ca(2+)-mediated responses, such as secretion and proliferation...
August 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26245964/synaptotagmin-7-is-essential-for-ca2-triggered-delayed-asynchronous-release-but-not-for-ca2-dependent-vesicle-priming-in-retinal-ribbon-synapses
#7
Fujun Luo, Taulant Bacaj, Thomas C Südhof
UNLABELLED: Most synapses release neurotransmitters in two phases: (1) a fast synchronous phase lasting a few milliseconds; and (2) a delayed "asynchronous" phase lasting hundreds of milliseconds. Ca(2+) triggers fast synchronous neurotransmitter release by binding to synaptotagmin-1, synaptotagmin-2, or synaptotagmin-9, but how Ca(2+) triggers delayed asynchronous release has long remained enigmatic. Recent results suggested that consistent with the Ca(2+)-sensor function of synaptotagmin-7 in neuroendocrine exocytosis, synaptotagmin-7 also functions as a Ca(2+) sensor for synaptic vesicle exocytosis but operates during delayed asynchronous release...
August 5, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26202220/triggered-ca2-influx-is-required-for-extended-synaptotagmin-1-induced-er-plasma-membrane-tethering
#8
Olof Idevall-Hagren, Alice Lü, Beichen Xie, Pietro De Camilli
The extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts) are ER proteins that act as Ca(2+)-regulated tethers between the ER and the plasma membrane (PM) and have a putative role in lipid transport between the two membranes. Ca(2+) regulation of their tethering function, as well as the interplay of their different domains in such function, remains poorly understood. By exposing semi-intact cells to buffers of variable Ca(2+) concentrations, we found that binding of E-Syt1 to the PI(4,5)P2-rich PM critically requires its C2C and C2E domains and that the EC50 of such binding is in the low micromolar Ca(2+) range...
September 2, 2015: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26166780/synaptotagmin-syta-forms-er-plasma-membrane-junctions-that-are-recruited-to-plasmodesmata-for-plant-virus-movement
#9
Amit Levy, Judy Y Zheng, Sondra G Lazarowitz
Metazoan synaptotagmins are Ca(2+) sensors that regulate exocytosis and endocytosis in various cell types, notably in nerve and neuroendocrine cells [1, 2]. Recently, the structurally related extended synaptotagmins were shown to tether the cortical ER to the plasma membrane in human and yeast cells to maintain ER morphology and stabilize ER-plasma membrane (ER-PM) contact sites for intracellular lipid and Ca(2+) signaling [3, 4]. The Arabidopsis synaptotagmin SYTA regulates endocytosis and the ability of plant virus movement proteins (MPs) to alter plasmodesmata to promote virus cell-to-cell transport [5, 6]...
August 3, 2015: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25922075/extended-synaptotagmin-interaction-with-the-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-depends-on-receptor-conformation-not-catalytic-activity
#10
Michel G Tremblay, Chelsea Herdman, François Guillou, Prakash K Mishra, Joëlle Baril, Sabrina Bellenfant, Tom Moss
We previously demonstrated that ESyt2 interacts specifically with the activated FGF receptor and is required for a rapid phase of receptor internalization and for functional signaling via the ERK pathway in early Xenopus embryos. ESyt2 is one of the three-member family of Extended Synaptotagmins that were recently shown to be implicated in the formation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-plasma membrane (PM) junctions and in the Ca(2+) dependent regulation of these junctions. Here we show that ESyt2 is directed to the ER by its putative transmembrane domain, that the ESyts hetero- and homodimerize, and that ESyt2 homodimerization in vivo requires a TM adjacent sequence but not the SMP domain...
June 26, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25792253/the-arabidopsis-synaptotagmin1-is-enriched-in-endoplasmic-reticulum-plasma-membrane-contact-sites-and-confers-cellular-resistance-to-mechanical-stresses
#11
Jessica Pérez-Sancho, Steffen Vanneste, Eunkyoung Lee, Heather E McFarlane, Alicia Esteban Del Valle, Victoriano Valpuesta, Jiří Friml, Miguel A Botella, Abel Rosado
Eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-plasma membrane (PM) contact sites are evolutionarily conserved microdomains that have important roles in specialized metabolic functions such as ER-PM communication, lipid homeostasis, and Ca(2+) influx. Despite recent advances in knowledge about ER-PM contact site components and functions in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and mammals, relatively little is known about the functional significance of these structures in plants. In this report, we characterize the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) phospholipid binding Synaptotagmin1 (SYT1) as a plant ortholog of the mammal extended synaptotagmins and yeast tricalbins families of ER-PM anchors...
May 2015: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25787254/three-dimensional-architecture-of-extended-synaptotagmin-mediated-endoplasmic-reticulum-plasma-membrane-contact-sites
#12
Rubén Fernández-Busnadiego, Yasunori Saheki, Pietro De Camilli
The close apposition between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the plasma membrane (PM) plays important roles in Ca(2+) homeostasis, signaling, and lipid metabolism. The extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts; tricalbins in yeast) are ER-anchored proteins that mediate the tethering of the ER to the PM and are thought to mediate lipid transfer between the two membranes. E-Syt cytoplasmic domains comprise a synaptotagmin-like mitochondrial-lipid-binding protein (SMP) domain followed by five C2 domains in E-Syt1 and three C2 domains in E-Syt2/3...
April 21, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25437447/apical-localization-of-inositol-1-4-5-trisphosphate-receptors-is-independent-of-extended-synaptotagmins-in-hepatocytes
#13
Maria Jimena Amaya, André G Oliveira, Lena K Schroeder, Edward S Allgeyer, Joerg Bewersdorf, Michael H Nathanson
Extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts) are a recently identified family of proteins that tether the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the plasma membrane (PM) in part by conferring regulation of cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) at these contact sites (Cell, 2013). However, the mechanism by which E-Syts link this tethering to Ca2+ signaling is unknown. Ca2+ waves in polarized epithelia are initiated by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs), and these waves begin in the apical region because InsP3Rs are targeted to the ER adjacent to the apical membrane...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25414709/the-arabidopsis-synaptotagmin-syta-regulates-the-cell-to-cell-movement-of-diverse-plant-viruses
#14
Asako Uchiyama, Harumi Shimada-Beltran, Amit Levy, Judy Y Zheng, Parth A Javia, Sondra G Lazarowitz
Synaptotagmins are a large gene family in animals that have been extensively characterized due to their role as calcium sensors to regulate synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis in neurons, and dense core vesicle exocytosis for hormone secretion from neuroendocrine cells. Thought to be exclusive to animals, synaptotagmins have recently been characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana, in which they comprise a five gene family. Using infectivity and leaf-based functional assays, we have shown that Arabidopsis SYTA regulates endocytosis and marks an endosomal vesicle recycling pathway to regulate movement protein-mediated trafficking of the Begomovirus Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV) and the Tobamovirus Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) through plasmodesmata (Lewis and Lazarowitz, 2010)...
2014: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25316497/ttyh1-protein-is-expressed-in-glia-in-vitro-and-shows-elevated-expression-in-activated-astrocytes-following-status-epilepticus
#15
Elzbieta Wiernasz, Aleksandra Kaliszewska, Wojciech Brutkowski, Joanna Bednarczyk, Malgorzata Gorniak, Beata Kaza, Katarzyna Lukasiuk
In a previous study, we showed that Ttyh1 protein is expressed in neurons in vitro and in vivo in the form of punctuate structures, which are localized to neuropil and neuronal somata. Herein, we provide the first description of Ttyh1 protein expression in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia in vitro. Moreover, using double immunofluorescence, we show Ttyh1 protein expression in activated astrocytes in the hippocampus following amygdala stimulation-induced status epilepticus. We demonstrate that in migrating astrocytes in in vitro wound model Ttyh1 concentrates at the edges of extending processes...
December 2014: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24987504/identification-of-17-highly-expressed-genes-within-mouse-lumbar-spinal-cord-anterior-horn-region-from-an-in-situ-hybridization-atlas-of-3430-genes-implications-for-motor-neuron-disease
#16
Michael A Meyer
In an effort to find possible new gene candidates involved in the causation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a prior version of the on-line brain gene expression atlas GENSAT was extensively searched for selectively intense expression within spinal motor neurons. Using autoradiographic data of in-situ hybridization from 3430 genes, a search for selectively intense activity was made for the anterior horn region of murine lumbar spinal cord sectioned in the axial plane. Of 3430 genes, a group of 17 genes was found to be highly expressed within the anterior horn suggesting localization to its primary cellular constituent, the alpha spinal motor neuron...
April 22, 2014: Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24267651/synaptotagmin-1-and-synaptotagmin-7-trigger-synchronous-and-asynchronous-phases-of-neurotransmitter-release
#17
Taulant Bacaj, Dick Wu, Xiaofei Yang, Wade Morishita, Peng Zhou, Wei Xu, Robert C Malenka, Thomas C Südhof
In forebrain neurons, knockout of synaptotagmin-1 blocks fast Ca(2+)-triggered synchronous neurotransmitter release but enables manifestation of slow Ca(2+)-triggered asynchronous release. Here, we show using single-cell PCR that individual hippocampal neurons abundantly coexpress two Ca(2+)-binding synaptotagmin isoforms, synaptotagmin-1 and synaptotagmin-7. In synaptotagmin-1-deficient synapses of excitatory and inhibitory neurons, loss of function of synaptotagmin-7 suppressed asynchronous release. This phenotype was rescued by wild-type but not mutant synaptotagmin-7 lacking functional Ca(2+)-binding sites...
November 20, 2013: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24091420/mutations-in-palmitoyl-protein-thioesterase-1-alter-exocytosis-and-endocytosis-at-synapses-in-drosophila-larvae
#18
Elizabeth Aby, Katherine Gumps, Amalia Roth, Stacey Sigmon, Sarah E Jenkins, Joyce J Kim, Nicholas J Kramer, Karen D Parfitt, Christopher A Korey
Infantile-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL) is a severe pediatric neurodegenerative disorder produced by mutations in the gene encoding palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (Ppt1). This enzyme is responsible for the removal of a palmitate group from its substrate proteins, which may include presynaptic proteins like SNAP-25, cysteine string protein (CSP), dynamin, and synaptotagmin. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been a powerful model system for studying the functions of these proteins and the molecular basis of neurological disorders like the NCLs...
October 2013: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24001110/the-synaptotagmin-1-linker-may-function-as-an-electrostatic-zipper-that-opens-for-docking-but-closes-for-fusion-pore-opening
#19
Ying Lai, Xiaochu Lou, Yongseok Jho, Tae-Young Yoon, Yeon-Kyun Shin
Syt1 (synaptotagmin 1), a major Ca2+ sensor for fast neurotransmitter release, contains tandem Ca2+-binding C2 domains (C2AB), a single transmembrane α-helix and a highly charged 60-residue-long linker in between. Using single-vesicle-docking and content-mixing assays we found that the linker region of Syt1 is essential for its two signature functions: Ca2+-independent vesicle docking and Ca2+-dependent fusion pore opening. The linker contains the basic-amino-acid-rich N-terminal region and the acidic-amino-acid-rich C-terminal region...
November 15, 2013: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22928559/chromatin-structure-epigenetic-mechanisms-and-long-range-interactions-in-the-human-insulin-locus
#20
REVIEW
Z Xu, G M Lefevre, G Felsenfeld
Regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes is largely dependent on variations in chromatin structure. More recently, it has become clear that this may involve not only local chromatin organization but also distant regulatory elements that participate in large-scale chromatin architecture within the nucleus. We describe recent methods that make possible the detection of such structures and apply them to analysis of the human insulin (INS) locus in pancreatic islets. We show that the INS gene is part of an extended 'open' chromatin domain that includes adjacent genes as well...
October 2012: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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