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HMG-CoA reductase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533986/atorvastatin-alters-the-expression-of-genes-related-to-bile-acid-metabolism-and-circadian-clock-in-livers-of-mice
#1
Wen-Kai Li, Huan Li, Yuan-Fu Lu, Ying-Ying Li, Zidong Donna Fu, Jie Liu
AIM: Atorvastatin is a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor used for hyperlipidemia. Atorvastatin is generally safe but may induce cholestasis. The present study aimed to examine the effects of atorvastatin on hepatic gene expression related to bile acid metabolism and homeostasis, as well as the expression of circadian clock genes in livers of mice. METHODS: Adult male mice were given atorvastatin (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, po) daily for 30 days, and blood biochemistry, histopathology, and gene expression were examined...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529486/the-role-of-statins-in-prevention-of-preeclampsia-a-promise-for-the-future
#2
REVIEW
Vasiliki Katsi, Georgios Georgountzos, Manolis S Kallistratos, Ioannis Zerdes, Thomas Makris, Athanasios J Manolis, Petros Nihoyannopoulos, Dimitris Tousoulis
Preeclampsia has been linked to high morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. However, no efficient pharmacological options for the prevention of this condition are currently available. Preeclampsia is thought to share several pathophysiologic mechanisms with cardiovascular disease, which has led to investigations for the potential role of statins (HMG CoA reductase inhibitors) in its prevention and early management. Pravastatin seems to have a safer pharmacokinetic profile compared to other statins, however, the existing preclinical evidence for its effectiveness in preeclampsia treatment has been mostly restricted to animal models...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527898/triterpenes-and-meroterpenes-from-ganoderma-lucidum-with-inhibitory-activity-against-hmgs-reductase-aldose-reductase-and-%C3%AE-glucosidase
#3
Baosong Chen, Jin Tian, Jinjin Zhang, Kai Wang, Li Liu, Bo Yang, Li Bao, Hongwei Liu
Seven new compounds including four lanostane triterpenoids, lucidenic acids Q-S (1-3) and methyl ganoderate P (4), and three triterpene-farnesyl hydroquinone conjugates, ganolucinins A-C (5-7), one new natural product ganomycin J (8), and 73 known compounds (9-81) were isolated from fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum. The structures of the compounds 1-8 were determined by spectroscopic methods. Bioactivities of compounds isolated were assayed against HMG-CoA reductase, aldose reductase, α-glucosidase, and PTP1B...
May 17, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511341/in-vivo-and-molecular-docking-studies-using-whole-extract-and-phytocompounds-of-aegle-marmelos-fruit-protective-effects-against-isoproterenol-induced-myocardial-infarction-in-rats
#4
Gadamsetty Saayi Krushna, Vutharadhi Leela Shivaranjani, Jolapuram Umamaheswari, Cheemanapalli Srinivasulu, Shaik Althaf Hussain, Mohammed Abdul Kareem, Vaddi Damodara Reddy, Daoud Ali, Kiran Bharat Lokhande, K Venkateswara Swamy, Lakshmi Devi Kodidhela
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading major health problem with increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. The present study investigates isoproterenol (ISO) induced MI and the beneficial role of Aegle marmelos fruit extract (AMFE) in rats. Our results indicated the significant augmentation of plasma nitric oxide (NOx) levels, C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine, apolipoprotein B (apo-B), cardiac tissue lipid peroxidation and liver 3-hydroxy-3 methyl glutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activity in ISO treated rats (85mg/kg b...
May 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500274/combined-hmg-coa-reductase-and-prenylation-inhibition-in-treatment-of-ccm
#5
Sayoko Nishimura, Ketu Mishra-Gorur, JinSeok Park, Yulia V Surovtseva, Said M Sebti, Andre Levchenko, Angeliki Louvi, Murat Gunel
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are common vascular anomalies that develop in the central nervous system and, more rarely, the retina. The lesions can cause headache, seizures, focal neurological deficits, and hemorrhagic stroke. Symptomatic lesions are treated according to their presentation; however, targeted pharmacological therapies that improve the outcome of CCM disease are currently lacking. We performed a high-throughput screen to identify Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs or other bioactive compounds that could effectively suppress hyperproliferation of mouse brain primary astrocytes deficient for CCM3...
May 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489008/-do-opioids-sedatives-and-proton-pump-inhibitors-increase-the-risk-of-fractures
#6
Gudlaug Thorsdottir, Elisabet Benedikz, Sigridur A Thorgeirsdottir, Magnus Johannsson
INTRODUCTION: A pharmacoepidemiological study was conducted to analyse the relationship between bone fracture and the use of certain drugs. MATERIAL/METHODS: The study includes patients 40 years and older, diagnosed with bone fractures in the Emergency Department of Landspitali University Hospital in Reykjavik, Iceland, during a 10-year period (2002-2011). Also were included those who picked up from a pharmacy 90 DDD or more per year of the drugs included in the study in the capital region of Iceland during same period...
May 2017: Læknablađiđ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484475/de-novo-sequencing-and-transcriptome-analysis-reveal-key-genes-regulating-steroid-metabolism-in-leaves-roots-adventitious-roots-and-calli-of-periploca-sepium-bunge
#7
Jian Zhang, Xinglin Li, Fuping Lu, Shanying Wang, Yunhe An, Xiaoxing Su, Xiankuan Li, Lin Ma, Guangjian Han
Periploca sepium Bunge is a traditional medicinal plant, whose root bark is important for Chinese herbal medicine. Its major bioactive compounds are C21 steroids and periplocin, a kind of cardiac glycoside, which are derived from the steroid synthesis pathway. However, research on P. sepium genome or transcriptomes and their related genes has been lacking for a long time. In this study we estimated this species nuclear genome size at 170 Mb (using flow cytometry). Then, RNA sequencing of four different tissue samples of P...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481295/inhibiting-hdac1-enhances-the-anti-cancer-effects-of-statins-through-downregulation-of-ggtase-i%C3%AE-expression
#8
Ran Li, Ye-Hua Gan
Hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, namely statins, are potential anti-tumor agents. Previously, we showed that a pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor enhances the anti-tumor effects of the HMG-CoA inhibitor. However, the underlying mechanisms were not fully understood. Cancer cell lines (CAL-27 and SACC-83) were exposed to pan-HDAC inhibitor, or HDAC1 inhibitor, or geranylgeranyl transferase type I (GGTase-I) inhibitor alone or in combination with statin. Cell viability, apoptosis, migration, and invasion were assessed by Cell Count Kit-8, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and transwell assay, respectively...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476969/preparation-and-characterisation-of-atorvastatin-and-curcumin-loaded-chitosan-nanoformulations-for-oral-delivery-in-atherosclerosis
#9
Varuna Kumara J B, Sistla Ramakrishna, Basavaraj Madhusudhan
Atorvastatin known to be a potential inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase involved in the synthesis of cholesterol. It is touted as miracle drug due to its profound effect in decreasing the low-density lipoproteins in blood. Unfortunately, the high dosage used poses side-effects relatively in comparison to other statins. On the other hand, curcumin has a diverse therapeutic potential in health and disease. However, the poor aqueous solubility and low bioavailability hinders the therapeutic potential of it when administrated orally...
February 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462132/spirogyra-neglecta-inhibits-the-absorption-and-synthesis-of-cholesterol-in-vitro
#10
Acharaporn Duangjai, Nanteetip Limpeanchob, Kanittaporn Trisat, Doungporn Amornlerdpison
BACKGROUND: Spirogyra neglecta (SN) has many nutritional benefits and it is commonly used to ameliorate different human conditions including inflammation, gastric ulcer, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia. However, the mechanism of the hypocholesterolemic effect of SN still remains unclear. Therefore, the present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of SN extract particularly on cholesterol absorption and synthesis mechanisms. METHODS: For cholesterol absorption, the uptake of cholesterol was measured by using tritium radiolabeling of cholesterol in Caco-2 cells...
December 2016: Integr Med Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456771/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-simvastatin-in-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-induced-small-bowel-injury
#11
E K Kim, J H Cho, A R Jeong, E J Kim, D K Park, K A Kwon, J W Chung, K O Kim, J H Kim, J H Kim, Y J Kim
Small bowel injury can occur as the result of a multifaceted process that includes increased acid secretion, generation of reactive oxygen species, and cyclooxygenase inhibition. However, no effective medication for small bowel ulceration is available. Simvastatin is an important lipid-lowering agent with anti-inflammatory activity. We aimed to validate the effects of simvastatin in vitro and in vivo. In presence or absence of simvastatin, IEC-6 small bowel cell line with 50 ng/ml of tumor nectosis factor α (TNF-α) was investigated by western blotting, qRT-PCR, and DCF-DA assay...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455524/mechanisms-underlying-cognitive-deficits-in-a-mouse-model-for-costello-syndrome-are-distinct-from-other-rasopathy-mouse-models
#12
Jadwiga Schreiber, Laura-Anne Grimbergen, Iris Overwater, Thijs van der Vaart, Jeffrey Stedehouder, Alberto J Schuhmacher, Carmen Guerra, Steven A Kushner, Dick Jaarsma, Ype Elgersma
RASopathies, characterized by germline mutations in genes encoding proteins of the RAS-ERK signaling pathway, show overlapping phenotypes, which manifest themselves with a varying severity of intellectual disability. However, it is unclear to what extent they share the same downstream pathophysiology that underlies the cognitive deficits. Costello syndrome (CS) is a rare RASopathy caused by activating mutations in the HRAS gene. Here we investigated the mechanisms underlying the cognitive deficits of HRas (G12V/G12V) mice...
April 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454732/fluvastatin-prevents-lung-adenocarcinoma-bone-metastasis-by-triggering-autophagy
#13
Zuozhang Yang, Zhenyi Su, Judy Park DeWitt, Lin Xie, Yongbin Chen, Xiaojuan Li, Lei Han, Dongqi Li, Junfeng Xia, Ya Zhang, Yihao Yang, Congguo Jin, Jing Zhang, Su Li, Kun Li, Zhiping Zhang, Xin Qu, Zewei He, Yanjin Chen, Yan Shen, Mingyan Ren, Zhongqin Yuan
Bone is one of the most preferred sites of metastasis in lung cancer. Currently, bisphosphonates and denosumab are major agents for controlling tumor-associated skeletal-related events (SREs). However, both bisphosphonates and denosumab significantly increase the risk for jaw osteonecrosis. Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors and the most frequently prescribed cholesterol-lowering agents, have been reported to inhibit tumor progression and induce autophagy in cancer cells...
April 11, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445900/central-and-peripheral-glucagon-reduces-hyperlipidemia-in-rats-and-hamsters
#14
Vishal Patel, Amit Joharapurkar, Samadhan Kshirsagar, Hiren M Patel, Dheerendra Pandey, Dipam Patel, Kiran Shah, Rajesh Bahekar, Gaurang B Shah, Mukul R Jain
Increased lipid levels in blood contribute to increasing the risk of diabetic complications. Glucagon exerts lipid lowering effects in diabetic state. However, the mechanism behind the lipid reduction by glucagon independent of glucose homeostasis is not well understood. We assessed the actions of glucagon on lipid modulation in blood and markers in liver in hyperlipidemic hamsters and rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats and Golden Syrian hamsters on a hyperlipidemic diet for 2 weeks were administered a single dose of glucagon by subcutaneous (SC, 150 and 300 µg/kg) or intracerebroventricular (ICV, 15 and 30 µg/animal) route...
April 26, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442378/antihyperlipidemic-and-antiapoptotic-potential-of-zingerone-on-alcohol-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-experimental-rats
#15
Vijay Mani, Sivaranjani Arivalagan, Aktarul Islam Siddique, Nalini Namasivayam
The ultimate aim of this present study was to investigate the antihyperlipidemic and antiapoptotic potential of zingerone (ZO) on alcohol induced hepatotoxicity in experimental rats. Male albino wistar rats were divided in four groups. Groups 1 and 2 rats received isocaloric glucose and dimethyl sulphoxide (2% DMSO), liver toxicity was induced in groups 3 and 4 by supplementing 30% ethanol post orally for 60 days. In addition, groups 2 and 4 received zingerone (20 mg/kg body weight in 2% DMSO) daily during the final 30 days of the experimental period...
April 22, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429814/sulfated-polysaccharides-from-enteromorpha-prolifera-suppress-srebp-2-and-hmg-coa-reductase-expression-and-attenuate-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet
#16
Rendong Ren, Junjie Gong, Yanyan Zhao, Xinyun Zhuang, Yin Ye, Wenting Lin
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is caused by fat accumulation and is associated with abnormal cholesterol metabolism. Previous work indicates that polysaccharides from alga Enteromorpha prolifera improve glucose metabolism and lower cholesterol in diabetic rats. Thus, we studied the possible protective effects of E. prolifera polysaccharides (EP) in the development of NAFLD and underlying mechanisms. EP (200 mg kg(-1)) significantly reduced the liver weight and significantly lowered hepatic HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) mRNA protein expression...
May 24, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428350/targeted-inactivation-of-copper-transporter-atp7b-in-hepatocytes-causes-liver-steatosis-and-obesity-in-mice
#17
Abigael Muchenditsi, Haojun Yang, James P Hamilton, Lahari Koganti, Franck Housseau, Lisa Aronov, Hongni Fan, Hannah Pierson, Ashima Bhattacharjee, Robert C Murphy, Cynthia L Sears, James J Potter, Clavia Ruth Wooton-Kee, Svetlana Lutsenko
The copper transporter ATP7B is essential for mammalian copper homeostasis. Mutations in ATP7B result in copper accumulation, especially in the liver, and cause Wilson disease (WD). The major role of hepatocytes in WD pathology is firmly established. It is less certain whether the excess Cu in hepatocytes is solely responsible for development of WD. To address this issue, we generated a mouse strain for Cre-mediated deletion of Atp7b and inactivated Atp7b selectively in hepatocytes. Atp7bΔ(Hep) mice accumulate copper in the liver, have elevated urinary copper, lack holo-ceruloplasmin, but show no liver disease for up to 30 weeks...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427397/hvc1-ameliorates-hyperlipidemia-and-inflammation-in-ldlr-mice
#18
Se-Yun Cheon, Kyung-Sook Chung, Kyung-Jin Lee, Ho-Young Choi, In-Hye Ham, Dong-Hoon Jung, Yun-Yeop Cha, Hyo-Jin An
BACKGROUND: HVC1 consists of Coptidis Rhizoma (dried rhizome of Coptischinensis), Scutellariae Radix (root of Scutellariabaicalensis), Rhei Rhizoma (rhizome of Rheum officinale), and Pruni Cortex (cortex of Prunusyedoensis Matsum). Although the components are known to be effective in various conditions such as inflammation, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, there are no reports of the molecular mechanism of its hypolipidemic effects. METHODS: We investigated the hypolipidemic effect of HVC1 in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice fed a high-cholesterol diet for 13 weeks...
April 20, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424973/pcsk9-inhibitors-in-hyperlipidemia-current-status-and-clinical-outlook
#19
Belinda Di Bartolo, Daniel J Scherer, Alex Brown, Peter J Psaltis, Stephen J Nicholls
The clinical reality of residual risk despite statin (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor) therapy and emergence of statin intolerance support the need to develop additional lipid-lowering strategies. Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has received considerable attention by virtue of genetic and clinical studies that have revealed its pivotal role in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis. Monoclonal antibodies have been developed targeting PCSK9, which have been demonstrated to produce profound low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering when provided as monotherapy or in combination with statins...
April 19, 2017: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417263/rosuvastatin-attenuates-high-salt-and-cholesterol-diet-induced-neuroinflammation-and-cognitive-impairment-via-preventing-nuclear-factor-kappab-pathway
#20
Ibraheem Husain, Mohd Akhtar, Divya Vohora, Malik Zainul Abdin, Mohammad Islamuddin, Mohd Jawaid Akhtar, Abul Kalam Najmi
Recent attention is focused on the impact of diet on health and mental well-being. High-salt and cholesterol diet (HSCD) is known to be associated with neuroinflammation which is the predominant factor for neurodegenerative disease like Alzheimer disease (AD). In the present study, we examined the neuroprotective potential of rosuvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor against HSCD induced neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment. Our results demonstrated that HSCD-induced cognitive impairment as determined by Morris water maze (MWM) task...
April 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
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