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Sandra Stefanovic-Barrett, Anna S Dickson, Stephen P Burr, James C Williamson, Ian T Lobb, Dick Jh van den Boomen, Paul J Lehner, James A Nathan
Misfolded or damaged proteins are typically targeted for destruction by proteasome-mediated degradation, but the mammalian ubiquitin machinery involved is incompletely understood. Here, using forward genetic screens in human cells, we find that the proteasome-mediated degradation of the soluble misfolded reporter, mCherry-CL1, involves two ER-resident E3 ligases, MARCH6 and TRC8. mCherry-CL1 degradation is routed via the ER membrane and dependent on the hydrophobicity of the substrate, with complete stabilisation only observed in double knockout MARCH6/TRC8 cells...
May 2018: EMBO Reports
Michael L van de Weijer, Anouk B C Schuren, Dick J H van den Boomen, Arend Mulder, Frans H J Claas, Paul J Lehner, Robert Jan Lebbink, Emmanuel J H J Wiertz
Misfolded endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins are dislocated towards the cytosol and degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in a process called ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). During infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), the viral US2 protein targets HLA class I molecules (HLA-I) for degradation via ERAD to avoid elimination by the immune system. US2-mediated degradation of HLA-I serves as a paradigm of ERAD and has facilitated the identification of TRC8 (also known as RNF139) as an E3 ubiquitin ligase...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
Emma C L Cook, Jessica K Nelson, Vincenzo Sorrentino, Duco Koenis, Martina Moeton, Saskia Scheij, Roelof Ottenhoff, Boris Bleijlevens, Anke Loregger, Noam Zelcer
Cellular cholesterol metabolism is subject to tight regulation to maintain adequate levels of this central lipid molecule. Herein, the sterol-responsive Liver X Receptors (LXRs) play an important role owing to their ability to reduce cellular cholesterol load. In this context, identifying the full set of LXR-regulated genes will contribute to our understanding of their role in cholesterol metabolism. Using global transcriptional analysis we report here the identification of RNF145 as an LXR-regulated target gene...
2017: PloS One
Christine Hantouche, Brittany Williamson, William C Valinsky, Joshua Solomon, Alvin Shrier, Jason C Young
Cardiac long QT syndrome type 2 is caused by mutations in the human ether a go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channel, many of which cause misfolding and degradation at the endoplasmic reticulum instead of normal trafficking to the cell surface. The Hsc70/Hsp70 chaperones assist the folding of the hERG cytosolic domains. Here, we demonstrate that the Hsp70 nucleotide exchange factor Bag1 promotes hERG degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system at the endoplasmic reticulum to regulate hERG levels and channel activity...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Eun Ji Jo, Seong Ji Park, Byung-Chul Kim
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) significantly contributes to survival of cancer cells and is being considered as one of therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. Propyl gallate (PG) is a synthetic phenolic compound that possess a potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we investigated whether PG exhibit an anti-cancer effect through modulating HO-1 activation. In human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, treatment with PG dose-dependently diminished HO-1 protein levels without changing its mRNA levels and consequently decreased HO-1 activity...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Sayaka Aizawa, Toru Okamoto, Yukari Sugiyama, Takahisa Kouwaki, Ayano Ito, Tatsuya Suzuki, Chikako Ono, Takasuke Fukuhara, Masahiro Yamamoto, Masayasu Okochi, Nobuhiko Hiraga, Michio Imamura, Kazuaki Chayama, Ryosuke Suzuki, Ikuo Shoji, Kohji Moriishi, Kyoji Moriya, Kazuhiko Koike, Yoshiharu Matsuura
Signal-peptide peptidase (SPP) is an intramembrane protease that participates in the production of the mature core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Here we show that SPP inhibition reduces the production of infectious HCV particles and pathogenesis. The immature core protein produced in SPP-knockout cells or by treatment with an SPP inhibitor is quickly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Oral administration of the SPP inhibitor to transgenic mice expressing HCV core protein (CoreTg) reduces the expression of core protein and ameliorates insulin resistance and liver steatosis...
May 4, 2016: Nature Communications
Po-Chiao Chang, Hung-Wen Tsai, Ming-Tsai Chiang, Pei-Ling Huang, Song-Kun Shyue, Lee-Young Chau
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). TRC8 is an ER-resident E3 ligase with roles in modulating lipid and protein biosynthesis. In this study we showed that TRC8 expression was downregulated in steatotic livers of patients and mice fed with a high fat diet (HFD) or a methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet. To investigate the impact of TRC8 downregulation on steatosis and the progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), we placed TRC8 knockout (KO) mice and wild type (WT) controls on a HFD or MCD diet and the severities of steatosis and NASH developed were compared...
November 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
D J H van den Boomen, P J Lehner
The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) US2 and US11 gene products hijack mammalian ER-associated degradation (ERAD) to induce rapid degradation of major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I) molecules. The rate-limiting step in this pathway is thought to be the polyubiquitination of MHC-I by distinct host ERAD E3 ubiquitin ligases. TRC8 was identified as the ligase responsible for US2-mediated MHC-I degradation and shown to be required for the cleavage-dependent degradation of some tail-anchored proteins. In addition to MHC-I, plasma membrane profiling identified further immune receptors, which are also substrates for the US2/TRC8 complex...
December 2015: Molecular Immunology
Jye-Lin Hsu, Dick J H van den Boomen, Peter Tomasec, Michael P Weekes, Robin Antrobus, Richard J Stanton, Eva Ruckova, Daniel Sugrue, Gavin S Wilkie, Andrew J Davison, Gavin W G Wilkinson, Paul J Lehner
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) US2, US3, US6 and US11 act in concert to prevent immune recognition of virally infected cells by CD8+ T-lymphocytes through downregulation of MHC class I molecules (MHC-I). Here we show that US2 function goes far beyond MHC-I degradation. A systematic proteomic study using Plasma Membrane Profiling revealed US2 was unique in downregulating additional cellular targets, including: five distinct integrin α-chains, CD112, the interleukin-12 receptor, PTPRJ and thrombomodulin. US2 recruited the cellular E3 ligase TRC8 to direct the proteasomal degradation of all its targets, reminiscent of its degradation of MHC-I...
April 2015: PLoS Pathogens
Chia-yi Chen, Nicole S Malchus, Beate Hehn, Walter Stelzer, Dönem Avci, Dieter Langosch, Marius K Lemberg
Signal peptide peptidase (SPP) catalyzes intramembrane proteolysis of signal peptides at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but has also been suggested to play a role in ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Here, we show that SPP forms a complex with the ERAD factor Derlin1 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRC8 to cleave the unfolded protein response (UPR) regulator XBP1u. Cleavage occurs within a so far unrecognized type II transmembrane domain, which renders XBP1u as an SPP substrate through specific sequence features...
November 3, 2014: EMBO Journal
Wei Jiang, Bao-Liang Song
To maintain cholesterol homeostasis, the processes of cholesterol metabolism are regulated at multiple levels including transcription, translation, and enzymatic activity. Recently, the regulation of protein stability of some key players in cholesterol metabolism has been characterized. More and more ubiquitin ligases have been identified including gp78, Hrd1, TRC8, TEB4, Fbw7, and inducible degrader of low density lipoprotein receptor. Their working mechanisms and physiological functions are becoming revealed...
June 2014: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Takema Kato, Colleen P Franconi, Molly B Sheridan, April M Hacker, Hidehito Inagakai, Thomas W Glover, Martin F Arlt, Harry A Drabkin, Robert M Gemmill, Hiroki Kurahashi, Beverly S Emanuel
It has emerged that palindrome-mediated genomic instability generates DNA-based rearrangements. The presence of palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs) at the translocation breakpoints suggested a palindrome-mediated mechanism in the generation of several recurrent constitutional rearrangements: the t(11;22), t(17;22), and t(8;22). To date, all reported PATRR-mediated translocations include the PATRR on chromosome 22 (PATRR22) as a translocation partner. Here, the constitutional rearrangement, t(3;8)(p14.2;q24...
April 2014: Cancer Genetics
Giada Gelsomino, Paola A Corsetto, Ivana Campia, Gigliola Montorfano, Joanna Kopecka, Barbara Castella, Elena Gazzano, Dario Ghigo, Angela M Rizzo, Chiara Riganti
BACKGROUND: The activity of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance related protein 1 (MRP1), two membrane transporters involved in multidrug resistance of colon cancer, is increased by high amounts of cholesterol in plasma membrane and detergent resistant membranes (DRMs). It has never been investigated whether omega 3 polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFAs), which modulate cholesterol homeostasis in dyslipidemic syndromes and have chemopreventive effects in colon cancer, may affect the response to chemotherapy in multidrug resistant (MDR) tumors...
2013: Molecular Cancer
Rania Elsabrouty, Youngah Jo, Tammy T Dinh, Russell A DeBose-Boyd
The polytopic endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase catalyzes a rate-limiting step in the synthesis of cholesterol and nonsterol isoprenoids. Excess sterols cause the reductase to bind to ER membrane proteins called Insig-1 and Insig-2, which are carriers for the ubiquitin ligases gp78 and Trc8. The resulting gp78/Trc8-mediated ubiquitination of reductase marks it for recognition by VCP/p97, an ATPase that mediates subsequent dislocation of reductase from ER membranes into the cytosol for proteasomal degradation...
November 2013: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Youngah Jo, Isamu Z Hartman, Russell A DeBose-Boyd
Sterol-induced binding to Insigs in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes triggers ubiquitination of the cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase. This ubiquitination, which is mediated by Insig-associated ubiquitin ligases gp78 and Trc8, is obligatory for extraction of reductase from lipid droplet-associated ER membranes into the cytosol for proteasome-mediated, ER-associated degradation (ERAD). In this study, we identify lipid droplet-associated, ancient, ubiquitous protein-1 (Aup1) as one of several proteins that copurify with gp78...
February 2013: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Yien Che Tsai, Gil S Leichner, Margaret M P Pearce, Gaye Lynn Wilson, Richard J H Wojcikiewicz, Joseph Roitelman, Allan M Weissman
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase catalyzes the rate-limiting step in sterol production and is the therapeutic target of statins. Understanding HMG-CoA reductase regulation has tremendous implications for atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA reductase levels are regulated in response to sterols both transcriptionally, through a complex regulatory loop involving the ER Insig proteins, and posttranslationally, by Insig-dependent protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system...
December 2012: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Harry A Drabkin, Robert M Gemmill
The majority of kidney cancers are clear-cell carcinomas (ccRCC), characterized by the accumulation of cholesterol, cholesterol esters, other neutral lipids and glycogen. Rather than being a passive bystander, the clear-cell phenotype is suggested to be a biomarker of deregulated cholesterol and lipid biosynthesis, which plays an important role in development of the disease. One clue to this relationship has come from the elucidation of the hereditary kidney cancer gene, TRC8, which functions partly to degrade key regulators of endogenous cholesterol and lipid biosynthesis...
December 2012: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
P-H Lin, W-M Lan, L-Y Chau
The TRC8 gene, which was previously shown to be disrupted by a 3;8 chromosomal translocation in hereditary kidney cancer, encodes for an endoplasmic reticulum-resident E3 ligase. Studies have shown that TRC8 exhibits a tumor-suppressive effect through its E3-ligase activity. Therefore, the identification of its physiological substrates will provide important insights into the molecular mechanism underlying TRC8-mediated tumor suppression. Here we show that TRC8 targets heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an antioxidant enzyme highly expressed in various cancers, for ubiquitination and degradation...
May 2, 2013: Oncogene
Youngah Jo, Peter C W Lee, Peter V Sguigna, Russell A DeBose-Boyd
Accumulation of sterols in membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leads to the accelerated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme in synthesis of cholesterol and nonsterol isoprenoids. This degradation results from sterol-induced binding of reductase to the Insig-1 or Insig-2 proteins of ER membranes. We previously reported that in immortalized human fibroblasts (SV-589 cells) Insig-1, but not Insig-2, recruits gp78, a membrane-bound RING-finger ubiquitin ligase...
December 20, 2011: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Harry A Drabkin, Robert M Gemmill
Multiple epidemiologic studies have linked the development of renal cancer to obesity. In this chapter, we begin with a review of selected population studies, followed by recent mechanistic discoveries that further link lipid deregulation to the RCC development. The upregulation of leptin and downregulation of adiponectin pathways in obesity fit well with our molecular understanding of RCC pathogenesis. In addition, two forms of hereditary RCC involve proteins, Folliculin and TRC8, that are positioned to coordinately regulate lipid and protein biosynthesis...
2010: Advances in Cancer Research
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