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Yusuke Miyazaki, Yasufumi Katanasaka, Yoichi Sunagawa, Sae Hirano-Sunagawa, Masafumi Funamoto, Eriko Morimoto, Maki Komiyama, Akira Shimatsu, Noriko Satoh-Asahara, Hajime Yamakage, Hiromichi Wada, Koji Hasegawa, Tatsuya Morimoto
PURPOSE: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, also termed statins, are used to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease. Two oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) complexes, serum amyloid A-LDL (SAA-LDL) and α1-antitrypsin-LDL (AT-LDL), serve as atherosclerotic, inflammatory, and cardiovascular risk markers. In this study, we examined the effects of hydrophilic rosuvastatin (RSV) and lipophilic pitavastatin (PTV) on these markers in patients with hypercholesterolemia. METHODS: The present study was a sub-analysis of our previous STAT-LVDF study...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Young Youp Koh, Dong Yoon Lim
OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to investigate the characteristics of simvastatin, one of statins, on the catecholamine (CA) secretion from the perfused model of the isolated rat adrenal gland, and also to clarify its mechanism of action. DESIGN AND METHOD: The adrenal gland was isolated and perfused with Krebs-bicarbonate. CA was measured directly by using the fluorospectrophotometer. RESULTS: Simvastatin inhibited ACh-evoked CA secretory response in a dose- and time-dependent fashion...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Nora T Oliver, Christine M Hartman, Jennifer R Kramer, Elizabeth Y Chiao
INTRODUCTION: Chronic HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection carries increased risk of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. Due to anti-inflammatory properties, 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) inhibitors (statins) may be useful adjunctive therapy to reduce liver disease progression. METHODS: Clinical information was extracted from the Veterans Affairs HIV and HCV Clinical Case Registries (1999-2010). HIV-related variables included combination antiretroviral therapy era of diagnosis, CD4 cell count, and percentage time with undetectable HIV viral load...
October 23, 2016: AIDS
Meghan MacKenzie, Richard Hall
PURPOSE: Knowledge of how alterations in pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics may affect drug therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) has received little study. We review the clinically relevant application of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics to drugs and conditions encountered in the ICU. SOURCE: We selected relevant literature to illustrate the important concepts contained within. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two main approaches have been used to identify genetic abnormalities - the candidate gene approach and the genome-wide approach...
October 17, 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Yusuf Haydar Ertekin, Burkay Yakar, Hülya Ertekin, Ayşegül Uludağ, Murat Tekin
BACKGROUND: Drugs represent one of the etiologic causes of acute rhabdomyolysis (AR) with drug-induced rhabdomyolysis most commonly associated with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. AR etiology can also result from the use of diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor. Cases of AR triggered by pantoprazole have never before been reported, although it has been observed that its inclusion in multiple drug therapies can result in muscle events...
December 2015: Drug Saf Case Rep
Lingfang Li, Yifan Li, Ziyu Dai, Meitong Liu, Bing Wang, Shuiping Liu, Lili Wang, Liyu Chen, Yurong Tan, Guojun Wu
BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to observe the infection of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) to human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and the effect of viral infection on lipid metabolism in VSMCs. METHODS: The cytopathic effects were observed by inverted microscopy and viral infection were examined by electron microscopy and RT-PCR. The lipid metabolism related gene profiling of VSMCs after HCMV infection was assayed by cDNA assay and the abnormal expression of genes were validated by quantitative RT-PCR...
October 17, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Ignat Printsev, Daniel Curiel, Kermit L Carraway
The canonical function of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) system is to enforce quality control among membrane-associated proteins by targeting misfolded secreted, intra-organellar, and intramembrane proteins for degradation. However, increasing evidence suggests that ERAD additionally functions in maintaining appropriate levels of a subset of membrane-associated proteins. In this 'quantity control' capacity, ERAD responds to environmental cues to regulate the proteasomal degradation of specific ERAD substrates according to cellular need...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Membrane Biology
Shahram Ala, Mina Alvandipour, Majid Saeedi, Maliheh Hamidian, Afshin Shiva, Nasrin Rahmani, Fatemeh Faramarzi
BACKGROUND: Atorvastatin is a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitor widely used in treatment of hypercholesterolemia and prevention of coronary heart disease and has various pleiotropic effects. In this study, the efficacy of atorvastatin emulgel (2 %) in reducing postoperative pain at rest, pain during defecation and analgesic requirement after open hemorrhoidectomy was investigated. METHODS: A total of 66 patients with third- and fourth-degree hemorrhoids undergoing open hemorrhoidectomy were included in this prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial...
October 13, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
Xueyan Yang, Meihui Yin, Lan Yu, Meili Lu, Hongxin Wang, Futian Tang, Yingjie Zhang
We previously reported that simvastatin, an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, inhibits atherosclerosis in rats. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of simvastatin on mouse peritoneal macrophage foam cell formation, the early feature of atherosclerosis, and explore its mechanisms. The results showed that simvastatin decreased cholesterol content and DiI-oxLDL (1,1'-didodecyl 3,3,3',3'-indocarbocyanine perchlorate - oxidized low-density lipoprotein) uptake, reduced the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the medium, down-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of CD36 (a fatty acid receptor), and reduced the mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), TNF-α, and IL-6 in macrophages treated with oxLDL...
August 16, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
M Cuccioloni, L Bonfili, M Mozzicafreddo, V Cecarini, S Scuri, M Cocchioni, M Nabissi, G Santoni, A M Eleuteri, M Angeletti
Mangiferin is a natural xanthone glycoside with therapeutic potential. Herein, its cytotoxic properties were explored in a human cell model of breast adenocarcinoma. The results supported the multi-target nature of mangiferin action, as the inhibition of three enzymatic systems, namely HMG-CoA reductase, the proteasome and plasmin, respectively in charge of regulating cholesterol homeostasis, protein turnover and cell adhesion, was documented for the first time. Globally, mangiferin was able to selectively block breast cancer cell growth by inducing apoptosis and by arresting cell proliferation through a combined action on cholesterol and proteasome pathways, as well as to inhibit plasmin-mediated mechanisms of cell migration...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
Jae Hoon Cha, Sun Rim Kim, Hyun Joong Kang, Myung Hwan Kim, Ae Wha Ha, Woo Kyoung Kim
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Corn silk (CS) extract contains large amounts of maysin, which is a major flavonoid in CS. However, studies regarding the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets. MATERIALS/METHODS: Normal-fat group fed 7% fat diet, high-fat (HF) group fed 25% fat diet, and high-fat with corn silk (HFCS) group were orally administered CS extract (100 mg/kg body weight) daily...
October 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
Hongxi Sun, Yu Li, Bei Sun, Ningning Hou, Juhong Yang, Miaoyan Zheng, Jie Xu, Jingyu Wang, Yi Zhang, Xianwei Zeng, Chunyan Shan, Bai Chang, Liming Chen, Baocheng Chang
BACKROUND: Type 2 diabetes has become a global epidemic disease. Atorvastatin has become a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. However, increasing evidence showed that statins can dose-dependently increase the risk of diabetes mellitus. The mechanism is not clear. OBJECTIVE: The Ras complex pathway (Ras/Raf/extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK]/cAMP response element-binding protein [CREB]) is the major pathway that regulates the gene transcription...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Qiaoqiao Tao, Ke Ma, Yanlong Yang, Kai Wang, Baosong Chen, Ying Huang, Junjie Han, Li Bao, Xiao-Bin Liu, Zhuliang Yang, Wen-Bing Yin, Hongwei Liu
Twelve putative sesquiterpene synthases genes were found in clades along with enzymes with 1,6-, 1,10-, and 1,11-cyclase activities in the genome of Flammulina velutipes. Chemistry investigation of F. velutipes led to the identification of two seco-cuparane sesquiterpenes, flammufuranone A (1) and B (2); 13 new sesquiterpenes with nor-eudesmane, spiroaxane, cadinane, and cuparane skeletons (3-14, 16); as well as two new ergosterol derivatives (17 and 18). Sesquiterpenes (3-14) derived from 1,10-cyclizing enzyme were first reported from this mushroom...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Devi Lekshmi Sheela, Puthiyaveetil Abdulla Nazeem, Arunaksharan Narayanankutty, Jeksy Jos Manalil, Achuthan C Raghavamenon
The coconut oil (CO) contains 91 % of saturated fatty acids in which 72 % are medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) like lauric, capric and caprylic acids. In contrast to animal fat, coconut oil has no cholesterol. Despite this fact, CO is sidelined among other vegetable oils due to the health hazards attributed to the saturated fatty acids. Though various medicinal effects of CO have been reported including the hypolipidemic activity, people are still confused in the consumption of this natural oil. In silico analyses and wet lab experiments have been carried out to identify the hypolipidemic properties of MCFAs and phenolic acids in CO by using different protein targets involved in cholesterol synthesis...
September 27, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Andrew Lofts Gray, Yared Santa-Ana-Tellez, Veronika J Wirtz
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of mandatory offer of generic substitution, introduced in South Africa in May 2003, on private sector sales of generic and originator medicines for chronic diseases. METHODS: Private sector sales data (June 2001 to May 2005) were obtained from IMS Health for proton pump inhibitors (PPIs; ATC code A02BC), HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins; C10AA), dihydropyridine calcium antagonists (C08CA), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I; C09AA) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; N06AB)...
September 27, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Fei Wang, Hongfei Xiang, Gregory Fischer, Zhen Liu, Matthew J Dupont, Quinn H Hogan, Hongwei Yu
In dorsal root ganglia (DRG), satellite glial cells (SGCs) tightly ensheathe the somata of primary sensory neurons to form functional sensory units. SGCs are identified by their flattened and irregular morphology and expression of a variety of specific marker proteins. In this report, we present evidence that the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase isoenzymes 1 and 2 (HMGCS1 and HMGCS2) are abundantly expressed in SGCs. Immunolabeling with the validated antibodies revealed that both HMGCS1 and HMGCS2 are highly colabeled with a selection of SGC markers, including GS, GFAP, Kir4...
September 23, 2016: Brain Research
Iago Pinal-Fernandez, Maria Casal-Dominguez, John A Carrino, Arash H Lahouti, Pari Basharat, Jemima Albayda, Julie J Paik, Shivani Ahlawat, Sonye K Danoff, Thomas E Lloyd, Andrew L Mammen, Lisa Christopher-Stine
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to define the pattern of muscle involvement in patients with immune-mediated necrotising myopathy (IMNM) relative to those with other inflammatory myopathies and to compare patients with IMNM with different autoantibodies. METHODS: All Johns Hopkins Myositis Longitudinal Cohort subjects with a thigh MRI (tMRI) who fulfilled criteria for IMNM, dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), inclusion body myositis (IBM) or clinically amyopathic DM (CADM) were included in the study...
September 20, 2016: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Shyam Patel, Jennifer Andres, Kamran Qureshi
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects roughly 170 million people worldwide. Sofosbuvir/Ledipasvir (Sof/Led) is a new once daily direct acting antiviral combination pill that was approved in October 2014 for use in patients with HCV genotype 1 infection. Coadministration of Sof/Led is studied only with rosuvastatin which shows significantly increased level of drug and is associated with increased risk of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis. There is no mention of such HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor interaction as a class, as pravastatin did not have any clinically significant interaction with Sof/Led...
2016: Case Reports in Medicine
Guillaume Sarrabayrouse, Christine Pich, Iotefa Teiti, Anne Françoise Tilkin-Mariame
Melanoma is a highly lethal cutaneous tumor, killing affected patients through development of multiple poorly immunogenic metastases. Suboptimal activation of immune system by melanoma cells is often due to molecular modifications occurring during tumor progression that prevent efficient recognition of melanoma cells by immune effectors. Statins are HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, which block the mevalonate synthesis pathway, used by millions of people as hypocholesterolemic agents in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases...
September 12, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Shanmugavel Madasamy, Umadevi Shivasubramani, Jasmine Villanueva, Marty Bigos, Edward P Amento, Alan H B Wu
Statin drugs are leading medication prescribed for treatment of dyslipidemic patients aimed at preventing both primary and secondary incidences of atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular events. Statin drugs competitively inhibit HMG-CoA reductase enzyme activity, thereby inhibiting cell-mediated cholesterol synthesis and reducing the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration of plasma. Conversely, the mechanism by which statins increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration of plasma is not well understood...
October 15, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
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