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Robin Patel, Ferric C Fang
Recent advances in microbial diagnostics are providing clinicians with information about microbes causing infections and their resistance to antimicrobial agents more rapidly than ever before. Diagnostic stewardship refers to the appropriate use of laboratory testing to guide patient management, including treatment, in order to optimize clinical outcomes and limit the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Fulfilling the promise of diagnostic stewardship requires a seamless partnership between clinical laboratories, pharmacists, and infectious diseases clinicians, so that appropriate tests are ordered and diagnostic information is translated into appropriate management in real time...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Nadia Lombardi, Stefania Vitale, David Turrà, Massimo Reverberi, Corrado Fanelli, Francesco Vinale, Roberta Marra, Michelina Ruocco, Alberto Pascale, Giada d'Errico, Sheridan Lois Woo, Matteo Lorito
Plant roots release complex mixtures of bioactive molecules including compounds that affect the activity and modify the composition of the rhizosphere microbiome. In this work, we investigated the initial phase of the interaction between tomato and an effective biocontrol strain of Trichoderma harzianum (T22). We found that root exudates (RE), obtained from plants grown in a split root system and exposed to a choice of biotic and abiotic stress factors (wounding, salt, pathogen attack), stimulate the growth and act as chemoattractants of the biocontrol fungus...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Rajeev Ranjan, Arra Abhinay, Monalisa Mishra
Neurodegenerative diseases, e.g., Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, etc., are serious life-threatening diseases, which involve degeneration of the neurons with time. Numerous studies have discussed the role of microbes in neurodegeneration. Oral cavity being the primary site of infection acts as a gateway for gigantic population of microbes to the human body. Oral infection is known to be associated with neurodegeneration. The current review summarizes various mechanisms due to which the oral microbiome can cause neurodegeneration...
March 2018: Neurology India
James Butcher, Sharon Unger, Jennifer Li, Nicole Bando, Guillaume Romain, Jane Francis, Walid Mottawea, David Mack, Alain Stintzi, Deborah L O'Connor
Background: Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; born weighing <1500 g) infant feeding with mother's own milk (mother's milk) is associated with numerous beneficial health outcomes. Several interventions, including the prophylactic use of probiotics, are being adopted to promote a gastrointestinal microbiota favorable to the gut health of VLBW infants. An improved understanding of the microbiota that results from mother's milk feeding would therefore facilitate progress in this field. Objective: A preplanned primary objective of this research was to characterize the development of the gut microbiota in exclusively mother's milk-fed VLBW infants and describe the reference taxonomic profile that results from mother's milk feeding...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Jianming Luo, Yuetong Li, Jinli Xie, Lijuan Gao, Liu Liu, Shiyi Ou, Long Chen, Xichun Peng
Bacterial interactions in the biological network affect the growth of Bifidobacterium. In the present study, five habitats were constructed by changing animals, their health statuses and their diets. In each of these habitats, different networks of Bifidobacterium were outlined through correlation analysis of the 50 most dominant microbes. Thirty-eight bacterial genera directly correlated with the growth of Bifidobacterium, including 23 genera with a positive correlation and 15 genera with a negative correlation...
March 13, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
B B Cael, Michael C G Carlson, Christopher L Follett, Michael J Follows
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Bo Zhang, Quanwei Yu, Guoqi Yan, Hubo Zhu, Xiang Yang Xu, Liang Zhu
To understand the seasonal variation of the activated sludge (AS) bacterial community and identify core microbes in different wastewater processing systems, seasonal AS samples were taken from every biological treatment unit within 4 full-scale wastewater treatment plants. These plants adopted A2/O, A/O and oxidation ditch processes and were active in the treatment of different types and sources of wastewater, some domestic and others industrial. The bacterial community composition was analyzed using high-throughput sequencing technology...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jialiang Xu, Huijun Wu, Zhiwei Wang, Fuping Zheng, Xin Lu, Zhenpeng Li, Qing Ren
Chinese rice wine (CRW) is the oldest kind of wine in China and is mainly fermented by wheat Qu and yeast with rice, millet, etc. This gives CRW a unique quality, but the flavor components are complex. Its formation is related to microorganisms, but the link between CRW and microorganisms is poorly understood. Here, we used two kinds of sorghum (JZ22 and JB3, of which JZ22 has a higher tannin content) as the raw materials to brew and determined the structural and functional dynamics of the microbiota by metagenomics and flavor analyses...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Heejung Kim, Dugin Kaown, Bernhard Mayer, Jin-Yong Lee, Kang-Kun Lee
Hyporheic zones are considered hot spots for numerically vast and phylogenetically diverse microbial communities. However, biogeochemical effects of hyporheic zones have rarely been investigated in detail because of the difficulty in accurately measuring denitrification in these zones. To date, little is known about the hydroecology of hyporheic zones. The effect of changes in hydraulic conditions on the community variations of indigenous microorganisms and water quality was examined based on the depth of the hyporheic zone...
March 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Saurabh Sudha Dhiman, Namita Shrestha, Aditi David, Neha Basotra, Glenn R Johnson, Bhupinder S Chadha, Venkataramana Gadhamshetty, Rajesh K Sani
Residual solid and liquid streams from the one-pot CRUDE (Conversion of Raw and Untreated Disposal into Ethanol) process were treated with two separate biochemical routes for renewable energy transformation. The solid residual stream was subjected to thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD), which produced 95 ± 7 L methane kg-1 volatile solid with an overall energy efficiency of 12.9 ± 1.7%. A methanotroph, Methyloferula sp., was deployed for oxidation of mixed TAD biogas into methanol. The residual liquid stream from CRUDE process was used in a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) to produce electricity...
March 12, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Elizabeth A Winzeler
Phenotypic screening methods have had a profound impact on antimalarial drug development, but assays that predict which compounds might provide a radical cure have remained elusive. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Gural et al. (2018) report hypnozoite culturing and systems to study these elusive, yet deadly, parasites.
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Yanhong Han, Qingfa Wu, Shou-Wei Ding
Virus-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are a central component of antiviral responses in insects. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Poirier et al. (2018) demonstrate that virus-infected flies and mosquitoes produce virus-derived extrachromosomal circular DNAs that serve as a template for the biogenesis of antiviral siRNAs.
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Ambra Masuzzo, Julien Royet
Immune responses and metabolic regulation are tightly coupled in animals, but the underlying mechanistic connections are not fully understood. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Lee et al. (2018) reveal how sustained ROS production in the gut depends on an upstream metabolic switch.
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Vitor Cabral, Karina B Xavier
Bacterial sensing is important for perceiving environmental cues and activating responses. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Hertzog et al. (2018) show that group A Streptococcus can couple the ability to respond to host cues with autoinduction of a quorum sensing system, leading to killing of bacterial competitors.
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Rudi Beyaert, Claude Libert
In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Wilmore et al. (2018) co-housed isogenic mouse populations, uncovering commensal bacteria-induced serum IgA and IgA-producing bone marrow plasma cells as critical components of resistance against sepsis. They further identified gut microbial taxa that may account for the induction of this protective system.
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Saisi Xue, A Daniel Jones, Leonardo Sousa, Jeff Piotrowski, Mingjie Jin, Cory Sarks, Bruce E Dale, Venkatesh Balan
Biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels requires pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of the biomass to produce fermentable sugars. Degradation products produced during thermochemical pretreatment, however, inhibit the microbes with regard to both ethanol yield and cell growth. In this work, we used synthetic hydrolysates (SynH) to study the inhibition of yeast fermentation by water-soluble components (WSC) isolated from lignin streams obtained after extractive ammonia pretreatment (EA)...
2018: PloS One
Pengfei Guo, Yuejin Zhang, Yongjun Zhao
Abstract : Co-cultivation of microalgae and microbes for pollutant removal from sewage is considered as an effective wastewater treatment method. The aim of this study is to screen the optimal photoperiod, light intensity and microalgae co-cultivation method for simultaneously removing nutrients in biogas slurry and capturing CO₂ in biogas. The microalgae-fungi pellets are deemed to be a viable option because of their high specific growth rate and nutrient and CO2 removal efficiency under the photoperiod of 14 h light:10 h dark...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Valerie F L Yong, Min Min Soh, Tavleen Kaur Jaggi, Micheál Mac Aogáin, Sanjay H Chotirmall
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major pathogen responsible for both acute and chronic infection. Known as a colonising pathogen of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, it is implicated in other settings such as bronchiectasis. It has the ability to cause acute disseminated or localised infection particularly in the immunocompromised. Human hormones have been highlighted as potential regulators of bacterial virulence through crosstalk between analogous "quorum sensing" (QS) systems present in the bacteria that respond to mammalian hormones...
March 14, 2018: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
Alberto Canarini, Pierre Mariotte, Lachlan Ingram, Andrew Merchant, Feike A Dijkstra
Drought is predicted to increase in many areas of the world with consequences for soil carbon (C) dynamics. Plant litter, root exudates and microbial biomass can be used as C substrates to form organo-mineral complexes. Drought effects on plants and microbes could potentially compromise these relative stable soil C pools, by reducing plant C inputs and/or microbial activity. We conducted a 2-year drought experiment using rainout shelters in a semi-natural grassland. We measured aboveground biomass and C and nitrogen (N) in particulate organic matter (Pom), the organo-mineral fraction (Omin), and microbial biomass within the first 15 cm of soil...
2018: Ecosystems
Rosalie C F Burdon, Robert R Junker, Douglas G Scofield, Amy L Parachnowitsch
Bacteria on floral tissue can have negative effects by consuming resources and affecting nectar quality, which subsequently could reduce pollinator visitation and plant fitness. Plants however can employ chemical defences to reduce bacteria density. In North American, bee-pollinated Penstemon digitalis , the nectar volatile S -(+)-linalool can influence plant fitness, and terpenes such as linalool are known for their antimicrobial properties suggesting that it may also play a role in plant-microbe interactions...
2018: Chemoecology
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