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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911402/utilizing-the-ethylene-releasing-compound-2-chloroethylphosphonic-acid-as-a-tool-to-study-ethylene-response-in-bacteria
#1
Richard V Augimeri, Andrew J Varley, Janice L Strap
Ethylene (C2H4) is a gaseous phytohormone that is involved in numerous aspects of plant development, playing a dominant role in senescence and fruit ripening. Exogenous ethylene applied during early plant development triggers the triple response phenotype; a shorter and thicker hypocotyl with an exaggerated apical hook. Despite the intimate relationship between plants and bacteria, the effect of exogenous ethylene on bacteria has been greatly overlooked. This is partly due to the difficulty of controlling gaseous ethylene within the laboratory without specialized equipment...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910749/role-of-toll-like-receptors-in-hepatitis-c-virus-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#2
Usman Ali Ashfaq, Muhammad Sarfaraz Iqbal, Saba Khaliq
Viral infections are rising every day, and viruses appear to be the most dangerous pathogens in the world. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is accepted as one of the major destructive factors of promoting severe hepatic disorders by infecting more than 180 million individuals throughout the world. Chronic infection caused by HCV poses a serious global health emergency and appears to be a powerful threat to humanity. Almost 20 years have passed since the disclosure of HCV, but even now, treatment preferences remain limited...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909429/temperature-sensitivity-as-a-microbial-trait-using-parameters-from-macromolecular-rate-theory
#3
Charlotte J Alster, Peter Baas, Matthew D Wallenstein, Nels G Johnson, Joseph C von Fischer
The activity of soil microbial extracellular enzymes is strongly controlled by temperature, yet the degree to which temperature sensitivity varies by microbe and enzyme type is unclear. Such information would allow soil microbial enzymes to be incorporated in a traits-based framework to improve prediction of ecosystem response to global change. If temperature sensitivity varies for specific soil enzymes, then determining the underlying causes of variation in temperature sensitivity of these enzymes will provide fundamental insights for predicting nutrient dynamics belowground...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909046/capping-protein-modulates-actin-remodeling-in-response-to-ros-during-plant-innate-immunity
#4
Jiejie Li, Lingyan Cao, Christopher J Staiger
Plants perceive microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) to activate innate immune signaling events, such as bursts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The actin cytoskeleton remodels during the first five minutes of innate immune signaling in Arabidopsis epidermal cells; however, the immune signals that impinge on actin cytoskeleton and its response regulators remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that rapid actin remodeling upon elicitation with diverse MAMPs and DAMPs represents a conserved plant immune response...
December 1, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907181/the-role-of-ocean-currents-in-the-temperature-selection-of-plankton-insights-from-an-individual-based-model
#5
Ferdi L Hellweger, Erik van Sebille, Benjamin C Calfee, Jeremy W Chandler, Erik R Zinser, Brandon K Swan, Neil D Fredrick
Biogeography studies that correlate the observed distribution of organisms to environmental variables are typically based on local conditions. However, in cases with substantial translocation, like planktonic organisms carried by ocean currents, selection may happen upstream and local environmental factors may not be representative of those that shaped the local population. Here we use an individual-based model of microbes in the global surface ocean to explore this effect for temperature. We simulate up to 25 million individual cells belonging to up to 50 species with different temperature optima...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907093/mangrove-crab-ucides-cordatus-removal-does-not-affect-sediment-parameters-and-stipule-production-in-a-one-year-experiment-in-northern-brazil
#6
Nathalie Pülmanns, Ulf Mehlig, Inga Nordhaus, Ulrich Saint-Paul, Karen Diele
Mangrove crabs influence ecosystem processes through bioturbation and/or litter feeding. In Brazilian mangroves, the abundant and commercially important crab Ucides cordatus is the main faunal modifier of microtopography establishing up to 2 m deep burrows. They process more than 70% of the leaf litter and propagule production, thus promoting microbial degradation of detritus and benefiting microbe-feeding fiddler crabs. The accelerated nutrient turn-over and increased sediment oxygenation mediated by U. cordatus may enhance mangrove tree growth...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907092/unconjugated-bile-acids-influence-expression-of-circadian-genes-a-potential-mechanism-for-microbe-host-crosstalk
#7
Kalaimathi Govindarajan, John MacSharry, Patrick G Casey, Fergus Shanahan, Susan A Joyce, Cormac G M Gahan
Disruptions to circadian rhythm in mice and humans have been associated with an increased risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome. The gut microbiota is known to be essential for the maintenance of circadian rhythm in the host suggesting a role for microbe-host interactions in the regulation of the peripheral circadian clock. Previous work suggested a role for gut bacterial bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity in the regulation of host circadian gene expression. Here we demonstrate that unconjugated bile acids, known to be generated through the BSH activity of the gut microbiota, are potentially chronobiological regulators of host circadian gene expression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907077/transcriptome-and-multivariable-data-analysis-of-corynebacterium-glutamicum-under-different-dissolved-oxygen-conditions-in-bioreactors
#8
Yang Sun, Wenwen Guo, Fen Wang, Feng Peng, Yankun Yang, Xiaofeng Dai, Xiuxia Liu, Zhonghu Bai
Dissolved oxygen (DO) is an important factor in the fermentation process of Corynebacterium glutamicum, which is a widely used aerobic microbe in bio-industry. Herein, we described RNA-seq for C. glutamicum under different DO levels (50%, 30% and 0%) in 5 L bioreactors. Multivariate data analysis (MVDA) models were used to analyze the RNA-seq and metabolism data to investigate the global effect of DO on the transcriptional distinction of the substance and energy metabolism of C. glutamicum. The results showed that there were 39 and 236 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under the 50% and 0% DO conditions, respectively, compared to the 30% DO condition...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907023/field-trials-reveal-ecotype-specific-responses-to-mycorrhizal-inoculation-in-rice
#9
Abdala Gamby Diedhiou, Fatou Kine Mbaye, Daouda Mbodj, Mathieu Ndigue Faye, Sarah Pignoly, Ibrahima Ndoye, Koffi Djaman, Souleymane Gaye, Aboubacry Kane, Laurent Laplaze, Baboucarr Manneh, Antony Champion
The overuse of agricultural chemicals such as fertilizer and pesticides aimed at increasing crop yield results in environmental damage, particularly in the Sahelian zone where soils are fragile. Crop inoculation with beneficial soil microbes appears as a good alternative for reducing agricultural chemical needs, especially for small farmers. This, however, requires selecting optimal combinations of crop varieties and beneficial microbes tested in field conditions. In this study, we investigated the response of rice plants to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) under screenhouse and field conditions in two consecutive seasons in Senegal...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906143/microemulsion-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-biosurfactant-extracted-from-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-mkvit3-strain-and-comparison-of-their-antimicrobial-and-cytotoxic-activities
#10
Moonjit Das, Kaustuvmani Patowary, Radhakrishnan Vidya, Himaja Malipeddi
In the present study, an efficient biosurfactant producing bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa MKVIT3 was isolated from an oil logging area in Vellore district of Tamil Nadu, India. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis was performed for the identification of different congeners present in the extracted biosurfactant. The column purified biosurfactant was used to stabilise the formation of silver nanoparticles (NP) using borohydrate reduction in reverse micelles. The silver NP were characterised using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Powder-XRD TEM analysis and zeta potential...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906073/gut-barrier-structure-mucosal-immunity-and-intestinal-microbiota-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-hiv-infection
#11
REVIEW
Camilla Tincati, Daniel C Douek, Giulia Marchetti
Over the past 10 years, extensive work has been carried out in the field of microbial translocation in HIV infection, ranging from studies on its clinical significance to investigations on its pathogenic features. In the present work, we review the most recent findings on this phenomenon, focusing on the predictive role of microbial translocation in HIV-related morbidity and mortality, the mechanisms by which it arises and potential therapeutic approaches. From a clinical perspective, current work has shown that markers of microbial translocation may be useful in predicting clinical events in untreated HIV infection, while conflicting data exist on their role in cART-experienced subjects, possibly due to the inclusion of extremely varied patient populations in cohort studies...
April 11, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906039/peering-below-the-diffraction-limit-robust-and-specific-sorting-of-viruses-with-flow-cytometry
#12
Shea T Lance, David J Sukovich, Kenneth M Stedman, Adam R Abate
BACKGROUND: Viruses are incredibly diverse organisms and impact all forms of life on Earth; however, individual virions are challenging to study due to their small size and mass, precluding almost all direct imaging or molecular analysis. Moreover, like microbes, the overwhelming majority of viruses cannot be cultured, impeding isolation, replication, and study of interesting new species. Here, we introduce PCR-activated virus sorting, a method to isolate specific viruses from a heterogeneous population...
December 1, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905438/epigenetics-gut-microbes-shape-dna
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904880/microbial-community-patterns-associated-with-automated-teller-machine-keypads-in-new-york-city
#14
Holly M Bik, Julia M Maritz, Albert Luong, Hakdong Shin, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Jane M Carlton
In densely populated urban environments, the distribution of microbes and the drivers of microbial community assemblages are not well understood. In sprawling metropolitan habitats, the "urban microbiome" may represent a mix of human-associated and environmental taxa. Here we carried out a baseline study of automated teller machine (ATM) keypads in New York City (NYC). Our goal was to describe the biodiversity and biogeography of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes in an urban setting while assessing the potential source of microbial assemblages on ATM keypads...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903896/img-abc-new-features-for-bacterial-secondary-metabolism-analysis-and-targeted-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-discovery-in-thousands-of-microbial-genomes
#15
Michalis Hadjithomas, I-Min A Chen, Ken Chu, Jinghua Huang, Anna Ratner, Krishna Palaniappan, Evan Andersen, Victor Markowitz, Nikos C Kyrpides, Natalia N Ivanova
Secondary metabolites produced by microbes have diverse biological functions, which makes them a great potential source of biotechnologically relevant compounds with antimicrobial, anti-cancer and other activities. The proteins needed to synthesize these natural products are often encoded by clusters of co-located genes called biosynthetic gene clusters (BCs). In order to advance the exploration of microbial secondary metabolism, we developed the largest publically available database of experimentally verified and predicted BCs, the Integrated Microbial Genomes Atlas of Biosynthetic gene Clusters (IMG-ABC) (https://img...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903594/chronic-rhinosinusitis-and-the-evolving-understanding-of-microbial-ecology-in-chronic-inflammatory-mucosal-disease
#16
REVIEW
Michael Hoggard, Brett Wagner Mackenzie, Ravi Jain, Michael W Taylor, Kristi Biswas, Richard G Douglas
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) encompasses a heterogeneous group of debilitating chronic inflammatory sinonasal diseases. Despite considerable research, the etiology of CRS remains poorly understood, and debate on potential roles of microbial communities is unresolved. Modern culture-independent (molecular) techniques have vastly improved our understanding of the microbiology of the human body. Recent studies that better capture the full complexity of the microbial communities associated with CRS reintroduce the possible importance of the microbiota either as a direct driver of disease or as being potentially involved in its exacerbation...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902886/lateral-gene-transfer-of-p-cresol-and-indole-producing-enzymes-from-environmental-bacteria-to-mastigamoeba-balamuthi
#17
Eva Nývltová, Robert Šuťák, Vojtěch Žárský, Karel Harant, Ivan Hrdý, Jan Tachezy
p-Cresol and indole are volatile biologically active products of the bacterial degradation of tyrosine and tryptophan, respectively. They are typically produced by bacteria in animal intestines, soil and various sediments. Here, we demonstrate that the free-living eukaryote Mastigamoeba balamuthi and its pathogenic relative Entamoeba histolytica produce significant amounts of indole via tryptophanase activity. Unexpectedly, M. balamuthi also produces p-cresol in concentrations that are bacteriostatic to non-p-cresol-producing bacteria...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902434/interaction-and-signalling-networks-a-report-from-the-fourth-young-microbiologists-symposium-on-microbe-signalling-organisation-and-pathogenesis
#18
Clare L Kirkpatrick, Oliver Lesouhaitier, Jacob G Malone, Shi-Qi An, Delphine L Caly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902329/abundance-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-environmental-bacteriophages
#19
Taruna Anand, Bidhan Ch Bera, Rajesh K Vaid, Sanjay Barua, Thachamvally Riyesh, Nitin Virmani, Mubarik Hussain, Raj K Singh, Bhupendra N Tripathi
The ecosystem is continuously exposed to a wide variety of antimicrobials through waste effluents, agricultural runoffs, animal related and anthropogenic activities, which contribute to spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The contamination of ecosystems with ARGs may create increased opportunities for their transfer to naive microbes and eventually lead to entry into the human food chain. Transduction is a significant mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in natural environments, which has traditionally been underestimated as compared to transformation...
October 21, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901343/colonization-of-snow-by-microorganisms-as-revealed-using-miniature-raman-spectrometers-possibilities-for-detecting-carotenoids-of-psychrophiles-on-mars
#20
Jan Jehlička, Adam Culka, Linda Nedbalová
We tested the potential of a miniaturized Raman spectrometer for use in field detection of snow algae pigments. A miniature Raman spectrometer, equipped with an excitation laser at 532 nm, allowed for the detection of carotenoids in cells of Chloromonas nivalis and Chlamydomonas nivalis at different stages of their life cycle. Astaxanthin, the major photoprotective pigment, was detected in algal blooms originating in snows at two alpine European sites that differed in altitude (Krkonoše Mts., Czech Republic, 1502 m a...
November 30, 2016: Astrobiology
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