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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786864/testing-the-roles-of-vertical-transmission-and-drought-stress-in-the-prevalence-of-heritable-fungal-endophytes-in-annual-grass-populations
#1
Brittany R Cavazos, Teresa F Bohner, Marion L Donald, Michelle E Sneck, Alan Shadow, Marina Omacini, Jennifer A Rudgers, Tom E X Miller
Beneficial inherited symbionts are expected to reach high prevalence in host populations, yet many are observed at intermediate prevalence. Theory predicts that a balance of fitness benefits and efficiency of vertical transmission may interact to stabilize intermediate prevalence. We established populations of grass hosts (Lolium multiflorum) that varied in prevalence of a heritable fungal endophyte (Epichloё occultans), allowing us to infer long-term equilibria by tracking change in prevalence over one generation...
May 22, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786766/bacterial-dna-detected-on-pathologically-changed-heart-valves-using-16s-rrna-gene-amplification
#2
Miroslava Chalupova, Anna Skalova, Tomas Hajek, Lenka Geigerova, Dana Kralova, Pavel Liska, Hana Hecova, Jiri Molacek, Jaroslav Hrabak
Nowadays, dental diseases are one of the most common illnesses in the world. Some of them can lead to translocation of oral bacteria to the bloodstream causing intermittent bacteraemia. Therefore, a potential association between oral infection and cardiovascular diseases has been discussed in recent years as a result of adhesion of oral microbes to the heart valves. The aim of this study was to detect oral bacteria on pathologically changed heart valves not caused by infective endocarditis. In the study, patients with pathologically changed heart valves were involved...
May 22, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786168/variation-in-electrode-redox-potential-selects-for-different-microorganisms-under-cathodic-current-flow-from-electrodes-in-marine-sediments
#3
Bonita R Lam, Annette R Rowe, Kenneth H Nealson
Extracellular electron transport (EET) is a microbial process that allows microorganisms to transport electrons to and from insoluble substrates outside of the cell. Although progress has been made in understanding how microbes transfer electrons to insoluble substrates, the process of receiving electrons has largely remained unexplored. We investigated redox potentials favorable for donating electrons to dissolved and insoluble components in Catalina Harbor marine sediment by combining electrochemical techniques with geochemistry and molecular methods...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785930/shearing-in-flow-environment-promotes-evolution-of-social-behavior-in-microbial-populations
#4
Gurdip Uppal, Dervis Vural
How producers of public goods persist in microbial communities is a major question in evolutionary biology. Cooperation is evolutionarily unstable, since cheating strains can reproduce quicker and take over. Spatial structure has been shown to be a robust mechanism for the evolution of cooperation. Here we study how spatial assortment might emerge from native dynamics and show that fluid flow shear promotes cooperative behavior. Social structures arise naturally from our advection-diffusion-reaction model as self-reproducing Turing patterns...
May 22, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785628/gut-associated-bacteria-of-helicoverpa-zea-indirectly-trigger-plant-defenses-in-maize
#5
Jie Wang, Mingyu Yang, Yuanyuan Song, Flor E Acevedo, Kelli Hoover, Rensen Zeng, Gary W Felton
Insect-associated microbes can contribute to the physiological and ecological functions of insects. Despite a few examples in beetles and piercing-sucking insects, the varied mechanisms of how insect-associated bacteria mediate plant-insect interactions are still not fully understood. The polyphagous herbivore Helicoverpa zea is a major agricultural pest that harbors certain microbes in their digestive systems. Enterobacter ludwigii is one of the gut-associated bacteria identified from field-collected caterpillars, and it has been shown to indirectly induce defenses in the dicot plant tomato by triggering the biosynthesis of salivary elicitors, but there are no clear mechanisms to show how gut microbes alter these salivary cues and how a different host plant responds to these inducible elicitors...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785478/changing-trend-of-infectious-diseases-in-nepal
#6
Shiba Kumar Rai
Many infectious/communicable diseases (IDs) are endemic in Nepal. Until a decade and half ago, IDs were the major cause of both morbidity and mortality accounting 70% for both. However, as a result of various preventive measures implemented by both the state and non-state actors, the overall IDs have shown a changing (declining) trend. The most impressive decline has been seen in the intestinal helminth infection. Though the overall burden of IDs is decreasing, several newer infectious diseases (emerging infections) namely, dengue fever, scrub typhus, influenza (H5N1 and H1N1), and others are posing a great public health problem...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785352/diversity-and-community-structure-of-marine-microbes-around-the-benham-rise-underwater-plateau-northeastern-philippines
#7
Andrian P Gajigan, Aletta T Yñiguez, Cesar L Villanoy, Maria Lourdes San Diego-McGlone, Gil S Jacinto, Cecilia Conaco
Microbes are central to the structuring and functioning of marine ecosystems. Given the remarkable diversity of the ocean microbiome, uncovering marine microbial taxa remains a fundamental challenge in microbial ecology. However, there has been little effort, thus far, to describe the diversity of marine microorganisms in the region of high marine biodiversity around the Philippines. Here, we present data on the taxonomic diversity of bacteria and archaea in Benham Rise, Philippines, Western Pacific Ocean, using 16S V4 rRNA gene sequencing...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784977/cryptococcus-neoformans-sexual-reproduction-is-controlled-by-a-quorum-sensing-peptide
#8
Xiuyun Tian, Guang-Jun He, Pengjie Hu, Lei Chen, Changyu Tao, Ying-Lu Cui, Lan Shen, Weixin Ke, Haijiao Xu, Youbao Zhao, Qijiang Xu, Fengyan Bai, Bian Wu, Ence Yang, Xiaorong Lin, Linqi Wang
Bacterial quorum sensing is a well-characterized communication system that governs a large variety of collective behaviours. By comparison, quorum sensing regulation in eukaryotic microbes remains poorly understood, especially its functional role in eukaryote-specific behaviours, such as sexual reproduction. Cryptococcus neoformans is a prevalent fungal pathogen that has two defined sexual cycles (bisexual and unisexual) and is a model organism for studying sexual reproduction in fungi. Here, we show that the quorum sensing peptide Qsp1 serves as an important signalling molecule for both forms of sexual reproduction...
May 21, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784062/multidrug-resistant-proteus-mirabilis-and-escherichia-coli-causing-fulminant-necrotising-fasciitis-a-case-report
#9
Eugene Vernyuy Yeika, Joyce Bei Foryoung, Derrick Tembi Efie, Eugene Adze Nkwetateba, Paul Nkemtendong Tolefac, Marcelin Ngowe Ngowe
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare soft tissue infection characterized by rapid progressive necrosis with relative sparing of underlying muscles. This case is reported to highlight the emergence of multidrug resistant microbes in recent days which limits the use of empiric antibiotic therapy and necessitates early cultures and sensitivity enabling targeted antibiotic therapy. Factors that lead to antimicrobial resistance especially in sub-Saharan Africa have also been discussed...
May 21, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783194/quantitative-investigation-of-hydraulic-mixing-energy-input-during-batch-mode-anaerobic-digestion-and-its-impact-on-performance
#10
James McLeod, Z Othman, Rajarathinam Parthasarathy
The relationship between mixing energy input and biogas production was investigated by anaerobically digesting sewage sludge in lab scale, hydraulically mixed, batch mode digesters at six different specific energy inputs. The goal was to identify how mixing energy influenced digestion performance at quantitative levels to help explain the varying results in other published works. The results showed that digester homogeneity was largely uninfluenced by energy input, whereas cumulative biogas production and solids destruction were...
May 18, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782463/gut-microbiota-probiotics-and-sport-from-clinical-evidence-to-agonistic-performance
#11
Marco Pane, Angela Amoruso, Francesca Deidda, Teresa Graziano, Serena Allesina, Luca Mogna
Human beings harbor clusters of bacteria in different parts of the body, such as the surface or the deep layers of the skin, the mouth, the lungs, the intestine, the vagina, and all the surfaces exposed to the outer world. The majority of microbes resides in the gut, have a weighty influence on human physiology and nutrition and are vital for human life. There is growing evidence showing that the gut microbiota plays important roles in the maturation of the immune system and the protection against some infectious agents...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781185/helper-t-cell-responses-and-pulmonary-fungal-infections
#12
REVIEW
Andrew J McDermott, Bruce S Klein
The mucosal surface of the respiratory tract encounters microbes, such as fungal particles, with every inhaled breath. When pathogenic fungi breach the physical barrier and innate immune system within the lung to establish an infection, adaptive immunity is engaged often in the form of helper CD4 T-cell responses. Type 1 responses, characterized by IFNγ production from CD4 cells, promote clearance of Histoplasma capsulatum and Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Likewise, IL-17A production from Th17 cells promotes immunity to Blastomyces dermatitidis and Coccidiodes species infection by recruiting neutrophils...
May 20, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780584/opening-the-black-box-of-spring-water-microbiology-from-alpine-karst-aquifers-to-support-proactive-drinking-water-resource-management
#13
REVIEW
Domenico Savio, Philipp Stadler, Georg H Reischer, Alexander K T Kirschner, Katalin Demeter, Rita Linke, Alfred P Blaschke, Regina Sommer, Ulrich Szewzyk, Inés C Wilhartitz, Robert L Mach, Hermann Stadler, Andreas H Farnleitner
Over the past 15 years, pioneering interdisciplinary research has been performed on the microbiology of hydrogeologically well-defined alpine karst springs located in the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) of Austria. This article gives an overview on these activities and links them to other relevant research. Results from the NCA springs and comparable sites revealed that spring water harbors abundant natural microbial communities even in aquifers with high water residence times and the absence of immediate surface influence...
May 2018: WIREs. Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780457/highly-efficient-base-editing-in-staphylococcus-aureus-using-an-engineered-crispr-rna-guided-cytidine-deaminase
#14
Tongnian Gu, Siqi Zhao, Yishuang Pi, Weizhong Chen, Chuanyuan Chen, Qian Liu, Min Li, Dali Han, Quanjiang Ji
Novel therapeutic means against Staphylococcus aureus infections are urgently needed due to the emergence of drug-resistant S. aureus . We report the development of a CRISPR RNA-guided cytidine deaminase (pnCasSA-BEC), enabling highly efficient gene inactivation and point mutations in S. aureus . We engineered a fusion of a Cas9 nickase (Cas9D10A) and a cytidine deaminase (APOBEC1) that can be guided to a target genomic locus for gene inactivation via generating a premature stop codon. The pnCasSA-BEC system nicks the non-edited strand of the genomic DNA, directly catalyzes the conversion of cytidine (C) to uridine (U), and relies on DNA replication to achieve C → T (G → A) conversion without using donor repair templates...
March 28, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780372/highly-promiscuous-oxidases-discovered-in-the-bovine-rumen-microbiome
#15
Lisa Ufarté, Gabrielle Potocki-Veronese, Davide Cecchini, Alexandra S Tauzin, Angeline Rizzo, Diego P Morgavi, Bernard Cathala, Céline Moreau, Megane Cleret, Patrick Robe, Christophe Klopp, Elisabeth Laville
The bovine rumen hosts a diverse microbiota, which is highly specialized in the degradation of lignocellulose. Ruminal bacteria, in particular, are well equipped to deconstruct plant cell wall polysaccharides. Nevertheless, their potential role in the breakdown of the lignin network has never been investigated. In this study, we used functional metagenomics to identify bacterial redox enzymes acting on polyaromatic compounds. A new methodology was developed to explore the potential of uncultured microbes to degrade lignin derivatives, namely kraft lignin and lignosulfonate...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780371/comparative-metatranscriptomics-of-wheat-rhizosphere-microbiomes-in-disease-suppressive-and-non-suppressive-soils-for-rhizoctonia-solani-ag8
#16
Helen L Hayden, Keith W Savin, Jenny Wadeson, Vadakattu V S R Gupta, Pauline M Mele
The soilborne fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG) 8 is a major pathogen of grain crops resulting in substantial production losses. In the absence of resistant cultivars of wheat or barley, a sustainable and enduring method for disease control may lie in the enhancement of biological disease suppression. Evidence of effective biological control of R. solani AG8 through disease suppression has been well documented at our study site in Avon, South Australia. A comparative metatranscriptomic approach was applied to assess the taxonomic and functional characteristics of the rhizosphere microbiome of wheat plants grown in adjacent fields which are suppressive and non-suppressive to the plant pathogen R...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780370/rhizosphere-protists-change-metabolite-profiles-in-zea-mays
#17
Anke Kuppardt, Thomas Fester, Claus Härtig, Antonis Chatzinotas
Plant growth and productivity depend on the interactions of the plant with the associated rhizosphere microbes. Rhizosphere protists play a significant role in this respect: considerable efforts have been made in the past to reveal the impact of protist-bacteria interactions on the remobilization of essential nutrients for plant uptake, or the grazing induced changes on plant-growth promoting bacteria and the root-architecture. However, the metabolic responses of plants to the presence of protists or to protist-bacteria interactions in the rhizosphere have not yet been analyzed...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779872/the-maternal-effect-gene-wds-controls-wolbachia-titer-in-nasonia
#18
Lisa J Funkhouser-Jones, Edward J van Opstal, Ananya Sharma, Seth R Bordenstein
Maternal transmission of intracellular microbes is pivotal in establishing long-term, intimate symbioses. For germline microbes that exert negative reproductive effects on their hosts, selection can theoretically favor the spread of host genes that counteract the microbe's harmful effects. Here, we leverage a major difference in bacterial (Wolbachia pipientis) titers between closely related wasp species with forward genetic, transcriptomic, and cytological approaches to map two quantitative trait loci that suppress bacterial titers via a maternal effect...
May 4, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779667/terminal-alkyne-biosynthesis-in-marine-microbes
#19
Xuejun Zhu, Wenjun Zhang
The terminal alkyne is a readily derivatized functionality valued for its diverse applications in material synthesis, pharmaceutical science, and chemical biology. The synthetic biology routes to terminal alkynes are highly desired and yet underexplored. Some marine natural products contain a terminal alkyne functionality, and the discovery of the biosynthetic gene clusters for jamaicamide B and carmabin A marked the beginning of a new era in the understanding and engineering of terminal alkyne biosynthesis...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779664/pks-nrps-enzymology-and-structural-biology-considerations-in-protein-production
#20
Meredith A Skiba, Finn P Maloney, Qingyun Dan, Amy E Fraley, Courtney C Aldrich, Janet L Smith, W Clay Brown
The structural diversity and complexity of marine natural products have made them a rich and productive source of new bioactive molecules for drug development. The identification of these new compounds has led to extensive study of the protein constituents of the biosynthetic pathways from the producing microbes. Essential processes in the dissection of biosynthesis have been the elucidation of catalytic functions and the determination of 3D structures for enzymes of the polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases that carry out individual reactions...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
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