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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342597/bacteria-bacteriophage-coevolution-in-the-human-gut-implications-for-microbial-diversity-and-functionality
#1
REVIEW
Pauline D Scanlan
Antagonistic coevolution (AC) between bacteria and bacteriophages plays a key role in driving and maintaining microbial diversity. Consequently, AC is predicted to affect all levels of biological organisation, from the individual to ecosystem scales. Nonetheless, we know nothing about bacteria-bacteriophage AC in perhaps the most important and clinically relevant microbial ecosystem known to humankind - the human gut microbiome. In this opinion piece I review current research on bacteria-phage AC in in vitro and natural populations of microbes...
March 22, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341446/pkr-induces-the-expression-of-nlrp3-by-regulating-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-porphyromonas-gingivalis-infected-osteoblasts
#2
Kaya Yoshida, Hirohiko Okamura, Yuka Hiroshima, Kaori Abe, Jun-Ichi Kido, Yasuo Shinohara, Kazumi Ozaki
The double-stranded RNA-dependent kinase (PKR), which is activated by double stranded RNA, induces inflammation by regulating NF-κB signaling. The NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome also modulates inflammation in response to infection. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.gingivalis) is an oral bacterium which is implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. We previously reported that PKR is a key modulator of bone metabolism and inflammation in the periodontal tissue. PKR was also reported to induce inflammation in response to microbes by regulating the NLRP3 inflammasome, suggesting that PKR could affect inflammation along with NLRP3 in periodontal diseases...
March 21, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340440/bioaugmentation-with-hydrolytic-microbes-to-improve-the-anaerobic-biodegradability-of-lignocellulosic-agricultural-residues
#3
P Tsapekos, P G Kougias, S A Vasileiou, L Treu, S Campanaro, G Lyberatos, I Angelidaki
Bioaugmentation with hydrolytic microbes was applied to improve the methane yield of bioreactors fed with agricultural wastes. The efficiency of Clostridium thermocellum and Melioribacter roseus to degrade lignocellulosic matter was evaluated in batch and continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). Results from batch assays showed that C. thermocellum enhanced the methane yield by 34%. A similar increase was recorded in CSTR during the bioaugmentation period; however, at steady-state the effect was noticeably lower (7...
March 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339724/three-cis-regulatory-motifs-auxre-mycrs1-and-mycrs2-are-required-for-modulating-the-auxin-and-mycorrhiza-responsive-expression-of-a-tomato-gh3-gene
#4
Xiao Chen, Dehua Liao, Xiaofeng Yang, Minjie Ji, Shuangshuang Wang, Mian Gu, Aiqun Chen, Guohua Xu
Auxin is well known to be a key regulator that acts in almost all physiological processes during plant growth, and in interactions between plants and microbes. However, to date, the regulatory mechanisms underlying auxin-mediated plant-arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi symbiosis have not been well deciphered. Previously we identified a GH3 gene, SlGH3.4, strongly responsive to both auxin induction and mycorrhizal symbiosis. Here, we reported a refined dissection of the SlGH3.4 promoter activity using the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter...
February 21, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338677/integrated-metabolism-in-sponge-microbe-symbiosis-revealed-by-genome-centered-metatranscriptomics
#5
Lucas Moitinho-Silva, Cristina Díez-Vives, Giampiero Batani, Ana Is Esteves, Martin T Jahn, Torsten Thomas
Despite an increased understanding of functions in sponge microbiomes, the interactions among the symbionts and between symbionts and host are not well characterized. Here we reconstructed the metabolic interactions within the sponge Cymbastela concentrica microbiome in the context of functional features of symbiotic diatoms and the host. Three genome bins (CcPhy, CcNi and CcThau) were recovered from metagenomic data of C. concentrica, belonging to the proteobacterial family Phyllobacteriaceae, the Nitrospira genus and the thaumarchaeal order Nitrosopumilales...
March 24, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337499/organic-nanostructure-based-probes-for-two-photon-imaging-of-mitochondria-and-microbes-with-emission-between-430-nm-and-640-nm
#6
Xinglong Yang, Nuoxin Wang, Lingmin Zhang, Luru Dai, Huawu Shao, Xingyu Jiang
Multi-photon excitation and versatile fluorescent probes are in high need for biological imaging, since one probe can satisfy many needs as a biosensor. Herein we synthesize a series of two-photon excited probes based on tetraphenylethene (TPE) structures (TPE-Acr, TPE-Py, and TPE-Quino), which can image both mammalian cells and bacteria based on aggregation-induced emission (AIE) without washing them. Because of cationic moieties, the fluorescent molecules can aggregate into nanoscale fluorescent organic nanoscale dots to image mitochondria and bacteria with tunable emissions using both one-photon and two-photon excitation...
March 24, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337488/supercritical-carbon-dioxide-based-sterilization-of-decellularized-heart-valves
#7
Ryan S Hennessy, Soumen Jana, Brandon J Tefft, Meghana R Helder, Melissa D Young, Rebecca R Hennessy, Nicholas J Stoyles, Amir Lerman
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this research project encompasses finding the most efficient and effective method of decellularized tissue sterilization. BACKGROUND: Aortic tissue grafts have been utilized to repair damaged or diseased valves. Although, the tissues for grafting are collected aseptically, it does not eradicate the risk of contamination nor disease transfer. Thus, sterilization of grafts is mandatory. Several techniques have been applied to sterilize grafts; however, each technique shows drawbacks...
February 2017: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337204/phenol-soluble-modulin-%C3%AE-peptide-toxins-from-aggressive-staphylococcus-aureus-induce-rapid-formation-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-through-a-reactive-oxygen-species-independent-pathway
#8
Halla Björnsdottir, Agnes Dahlstrand Rudin, Felix P Klose, Jonas Elmwall, Amanda Welin, Marios Stylianou, Karin Christenson, Constantin F Urban, Huamei Forsman, Claes Dahlgren, Anna Karlsson, Johan Bylund
Neutrophils have the ability to capture and kill microbes extracellularly through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). These are DNA and protein structures that neutrophils release extracellularly and are believed to function as a defense mechanism against microbes. The classic NET formation process, triggered by, e.g., bacteria, fungi, or by direct stimulation of protein kinase C through phorbol myristate acetate, is an active process that takes several hours and relies on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are further modified by myeloperoxidase (MPO)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337192/editorial-bioactive-compounds-from-microbes
#9
EDITORIAL
Roberto Mazzoli, Katharina Riedel, Enrica Pessione
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337180/the-effect-of-increased-loads-of-dissolved-organic-matter-on-estuarine-microbial-community-composition-and-function
#10
Sachia J Traving, Owen Rowe, Nina M Jakobsen, Helle Sørensen, Julie Dinasquet, Colin A Stedmon, Agneta Andersson, Lasse Riemann
Increased river loads are projected as one of the major consequences of climate change in the northern hemisphere, leading to elevated inputs of riverine dissolved organic matter (DOM) and inorganic nutrients to coastal ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated DOM on a coastal pelagic food web from the coastal northern Baltic Sea, in a 32-day mesocosm experiment. In particular, the study addresses the response of bacterioplankton to differences in character and composition of supplied DOM...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337127/nlrp3-inflammasome-in-neurological-diseases-from-functions-to-therapies
#11
REVIEW
Limin Song, Lei Pei, Shanglong Yao, Yan Wu, You Shang
Neuroinflammation has been identified as a causative factor of multiple neurological diseases. The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-, leucine-rich repeat- and pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a subcellular multiprotein complex that is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), can sense and be activated by a wide range of exogenous and endogenous stimuli such as microbes, aggregated and misfolded proteins, and adenosine triphosphate, which results in activation of caspase-1...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337070/genomic-methods-and-microbiological-technologies-for-profiling-novel-and-extreme-environments-for-the-extreme-microbiome-project-xmp
#12
Scott Tighe, Ebrahim Afshinnekoo, Tara M Rock, Ken McGrath, Noah Alexander, Alexa McIntyre, Sofia Ahsanuddin, Daniela Bezdan, Stefan J Green, Samantha Joye, Sarah Stewart Johnson, Don A Baldwin, Nathan Bivens, Nadim Ajami, Joseph R Carmical, Ian Charold Herriott, Rita Colwell, Mohamed Donia, Jonathan Foox, Nick Greenfield, Tim Hunter, Jessica Hoffman, Joshua Hyman, Ellen Jorgensen, Diana Krawczyk, Jodie Lee, Shawn Levy, Natàlia Garcia-Reyero, Matthew Settles, Kelley Thomas, Felipe Gómez, Lynn Schriml, Nikos Kyrpides, Elena Zaikova, Jon Penterman, Christopher E Mason
The Extreme Microbiome Project (XMP) is a project launched by the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Metagenomics Research Group (ABRF MGRG) that focuses on whole genome shotgun sequencing of extreme and unique environments using a wide variety of biomolecular techniques. The goals are multifaceted, including development and refinement of new techniques for the following: 1) the detection and characterization of novel microbes, 2) the evaluation of nucleic acid techniques for extremophilic samples, and 3) the identification and implementation of the appropriate bioinformatics pipelines...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Techniques: JBT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336973/microbial-community-composition-is-related-to-soil-biological-and-chemical-properties-and-bacterial-wilt-outbreak
#13
Rui Wang, Hongchun Zhang, Liguang Sun, Gaofu Qi, Shu Chen, Xiuyun Zhao
Soil microbes play important roles in plant growth and health. Little is known about the differences of soil microbes between healthy and bacterial wilt infected soils with Ralstonia solanacearum. By Illumina-MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene amplicons, we found the soil microbial composition and diversity were distinct between healthy and bacterial wilt infected soils. Soil microbial community varied at different plant growth stages due to changes of root exudates composition and soil pH. Healthy soils exhibited higher microbial diversity than the bacterial wilt infected soils...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336891/nanocellulose-based-materials-for-water-purification
#14
REVIEW
Hugo Voisin, Lennart Bergström, Peng Liu, Aji P Mathew
Nanocellulose is a renewable material that combines a high surface area with high strength, chemical inertness, and versatile surface chemistry. In this review, we will briefly describe how nanocellulose is produced, and present-in particular, how nanocellulose and its surface modified versions affects the adsorption behavior of important water pollutants, e.g., heavy metal species, dyes, microbes, and organic molecules. The processing of nanocellulose-based membranes and filters for water purification will be described in detail, and the uptake capacity, selectivity, and removal efficiency will also be discussed...
March 5, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336551/gut-microbes-may-up-pd-1-inhibitor-response
#15
(no author information available yet)
Confirming the results of animal studies, new research shows that the composition of patients' microbiome influences their response to checkpoint inhibitors. Patients with melanoma who benefit from PD-1 inhibitors carry a greater variety of species and higher numbers of microbes in the Clostridiales group. Increased abundance of certain bacteria in this group also correlated with higher numbers of CD8+ T cells in patients' tumors.
March 23, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336292/structural-elucidation-and-physiologic-functions-of-specialized-pro-resolving-mediators-and-their-receptors
#16
REVIEW
Nan Chiang, Charles N Serhan
The acute inflammatory response is host protective to contain foreign invaders. Many of today's pharmacopeia that block pro-inflammatory chemical mediators can cause serious unwanted side effects such as immune suppression. Uncontrolled inflammation is now considered a pathophysiologic basis associated with, many widely occurring diseases such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, obesity and asthma, as well as the classic inflammatory diseases, e.g. arthritis, periodontal diseases...
March 20, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336094/distinct-succession-patterns-of-abundant-and-rare-bacteria-in-temporal-microcosms-with-pollutants
#17
Shuo Jiao, Yantao Luo, Mingmei Lu, Xiao Xiao, Yanbing Lin, Weimin Chen, Gehong Wei
Elucidating the driving forces behind the temporal dynamics of abundant and rare microbes is essential for understanding the assembly and succession of microbial communities. Here, we explored the successional trajectories and mechanisms of abundant and rare bacteria via soil-enrichment subcultures in response to various pollutants (phenanthrene, n-octadecane, and CdCl2) using time-series Illumina sequencing datasets. The results reveal different successional patterns of abundant and rare sub-communities in eighty pollutant-degrading consortia and two original soil samples...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335862/modeling-infectious-diseases-in-the-context-of-a-developing-immune-system
#18
Samrah Masud, Vincenzo Torraca, Annemarie H Meijer
Zebrafish has been used for over a decade to study the mechanisms of a wide variety of inflammatory disorders and infections, with models ranging from bacterial, viral, to fungal pathogens. Zebrafish has been especially relevant to study the differentiation, specialization, and polarization of the two main innate immune cell types, the macrophages and the neutrophils. The optical accessibility and the early appearance of myeloid cells that can be tracked with fluorescent labels in zebrafish embryos and the ability to use genetics to selectively ablate or expand immune cell populations have permitted studying the interaction between infection, development, and metabolism...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335814/symbiosis-and-microbiome-flexibility-in-calcifying-benthic-foraminifera-of-the-great-barrier-reef
#19
Martina Prazeres, Tracy Ainsworth, T Edward Roberts, John M Pandolfi, William Leggat
BACKGROUND: Symbiosis is a phenomenon that allows organisms to colonise a wide range of environments and occupy a variety of ecological niches in marine environments. Large benthic foraminifera (LBF) are crucial marine calcifiers that rely on photo-endosymbionts for growth and calcification, yet the influence of environmental conditions in shaping their interactions with prokaryotic and eukaryotic associates is poorly known. RESULTS: Here, we used next-generation sequencing to identify eukaryotic photosynthesizing and prokaryotic microbes associated with the common LBF Amphistegina lobifera across a physio-chemical gradient on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR)...
March 23, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335651/from-mystery-to-mechanism-can-proteomics-build-systems-level-understanding-of-our-gut-microbes
#20
Carlos G Gonzalez, Lichao Zhang, Joshua E Elias
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
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