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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550779/pathways-in-bacterial-and-archaeal-communities-dictated-by-ammonium-stress-in-a-high-solid-anaerobic-digester-with-dewatered-sludge
#1
Ning Li, Jin He, Han Yan, Sisi Chen, Xiaohu Dai
Metagenomic comparisons of microbial profiles were conducted to investigate differences between the samples from steady (Day 42), ammonium-adjusting (Day 63), and ammonium-stressed (Day 102) periods during the 110-day operation of a high solid anaerobic digester of sewage sludge. Comparing to the steady period, biogas production was slightly inhibited after ammonium adjustment, during which the microbes showed higher abundance in 6 of the total 22 ammonium-related genes. In addition, among the 19 amino-acid-related genes, 9 genes involved in amino acid generation and utilization were reduced, which partially revealed the reason of deterioration of volatile solids (VSs) degradation following ammonium stress...
May 18, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549981/early-pregnancy-vaginal-microbiome-trends-and-preterm-birth
#2
Molly J Stout, Yanjiao Zhou, Kristine M Wylie, Phillip I Tarr, George A Macones, Methodius G Tuuli
BACKGROUND: Despite decades of attempts to link infectious agents to preterm birth, an exact causative microbe or community of microbes remains elusive. Non-culture 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing suggests important racial differences and pregnancy specific changes in the vaginal microbial communities. A recent study examining the association of the vaginal microbiome and preterm birth documented important findings but was performed in a predominantly White cohort. Given the important racial differences in bacterial communities within the vagina as well as persistent racial disparities in preterm birth it is important to examine cohorts with varied demographic compositions...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549811/recent-developments-in-l-glutaminase-production-and-applications-an-overview
#3
REVIEW
Parameswaran Binod, Raveendran Sindhu, Aravind Madhavan, Amith Abraham, Anil Kuruvilla Mathew, Ummalyma Sabeela Beevi, Rajeev K Sukumaran, Sudhir P Singh, Ashok Pandey
l-glutaminases is an important industrial enzyme which finds potential applications in different sectors ranging from therapeutic to food industry. It is widely distributed in bacteria, actinomycetes, yeast and fungi. l-Glutaminases are mostly produced by Bacillus and Pseudomonas sp. and few reports were available with fungal, actinomycete and yeast system. Modern biotechnological tools help in the improved production as well as with tailor made properties for specific applications. Most of the genetic engineering studies were carried out for the production of l-glutaminase with improved thermo-tolerance and salt tolerance...
May 15, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549371/theoretical-analysis-of-coupled-effects-of-microbe-and-root-architecture-on-methane-oxidation-in-vegetated-landfill-covers
#4
S Feng, A K Leung, C W W Ng, H W Liu
Reduction of soil moisture by plant root-water uptake could improve soil aeration for microbial aerobic methane oxidation (MAMO) in a landfill cover, but excessive soil moisture removal could suppress microbial activity due to water shortage. Existing models ignore the coupled microbe-vegetation interaction. It is thus not known whether the presence of plants is beneficial or adverse to MAMO. This study proposes a newly-improved theoretical model that couples the effects of root-water uptake and microbial activity for capturing water-gas flow and MAMO in unsaturated soils...
May 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549299/the-effect-of-feed-supplementation-with-effective-microorganisms-em-on-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokine-concentrations-in-pigs
#5
Ewa Laskowska, Łukasz Jarosz, Zbigniew Grądzki
Effective microorganisms (EM) are used in numerous fields associated with agriculture. The beneficial effects of EM on the general health of pigs and on production parameters are also determined by the influence of these microbes on immunity. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of feed supplementation with EM on the concentration of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the serum and in a culture of PBMCs with and without ConA stimulation in pigs. ELISA kits were used to determine the cytokine levels in the porcine serum and the PBMC culture supernatants...
April 14, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549288/ecological-effects-of-soil-properties-and-metal-concentrations-on-the-composition-and-diversity-of-microbial-communities-associated-with-land-use-patterns-in-an-electronic-waste-recycling-region
#6
Wencheng Wu, Changxun Dong, Jiahui Wu, Xiaowen Liu, Yingxin Wu, Xianbin Chen, Shixiao Yu
Soil microbes play vital roles in ecosystem functions, and soil microbial communities may be strongly structured by land use patterns associated with electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities, which can increase the heavy metal concentration in soils. In this study, a suite of soils from five land use types (paddy field, vegetable field, dry field, forest field, and e-waste recycling site) were collected in Longtang Town, Guangdong Province, South China. Soil physicochemical properties and heavy metal concentrations were measured, and the indigenous microbial assemblages were profiled using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and clone library analyses...
May 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546564/roles-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells-in-the-maintenance-of-gut-homeostasis
#7
REVIEW
Ryu Okumura, Kiyoshi Takeda
The intestine is a unique organ inhabited by a tremendous number of microorganisms. Intestinal epithelial cells greatly contribute to the maintenance of the symbiotic relationship between gut microbiota and the host by constructing mucosal barriers, secreting various immunological mediators and delivering bacterial antigens. Mucosal barriers, including physical barriers and chemical barriers, spatially segregate gut microbiota and the host immune system to avoid unnecessary immune responses to gut microbes, leading to the intestinal inflammation...
May 26, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546563/microbiota-in-t-cell-homeostasis-and-inflammatory-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Naeun Lee, Wan-Uk Kim
The etiology of disease pathogenesis can be largely explained by genetic variations and several types of environmental factors. In genetically disease-susceptible individuals, subsequent environmental triggers may induce disease development. The human body is colonized by complex commensal microbes that have co-evolved with the host immune system. With the adaptation to modern lifestyles, its composition has changed depending on host genetics, changes in diet, overuse of antibiotics against infection and elimination of natural enemies through the strengthening of sanitation...
May 26, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546193/taking-a-look-at-plant-microbe-relationships
#9
EDITORIAL
Caroline Ash
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546156/ancestral-alliances-plant-mutualistic-symbioses-with-fungi-and-bacteria
#10
REVIEW
Francis M Martin, Stéphane Uroz, David G Barker
Within the plant microbiota, mutualistic fungal and bacterial symbionts are striking examples of microorganisms playing crucial roles in nutrient acquisition. They have coevolved with their hosts since initial plant adaptation to land. Despite the evolutionary distances that separate mycorrhizal and nitrogen-fixing symbioses, these associations share a number of highly conserved features, including specific plant symbiotic signaling pathways, root colonization strategies that circumvent plant immune responses, functional host-microbe interface formation, and the central role of phytohormones in symbiosis-associated root developmental pathways...
May 26, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546018/molecular-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-three-tlr-genes-in-yellow-catfish-pelteobagrus-fulvidraco-responses-to-stimulation-of-aeromonas-hydrophila-and-tlr-ligands
#11
Kai-Lun Wang, Wei Ji, Gui-Rong Zhang, Kai-Jian Wei, Ze-Chao Shi, Xiao-Ting Zhang, Huan Zheng, Qi-Xue Fan
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of the most extensively researched pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and play an important role in the innate immune system. In this study, partial cDNA sequences of the Pf_TLR18 and Pf_TLR19 genes and complete cDNA sequence of the Pf_TLR21 gene were cloned from yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). The open reading frames (ORFs) of the Pf_TLR18, Pf_TLR19 and Pf_TLR21 genes were 1956 bp, 2262 bp and 2949 bp in length, encoding 651, 753 and 982 amino acids, respectively...
May 22, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545829/gut-microbiota-and-hepatitis-b-virus-induced-chronic-liver-disease-implications-for-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Y Kang, Y Cai
Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases globally. It has been estimated that there are 350 million chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide. The liver is connected to the small intestine by the bile duct, which carries bile formed in the liver to the intestine. Nearly all of the blood that leaves the stomach and intestines must pass through the liver. Human intestines contain a wide diversity of microbes, collectively termed the 'gut microbiota'. Gut microbiota play a significant role in host metabolic processes and host immune modulation, and influence host development and physiology (organ development)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545444/site-specific-his-asp-phosphoproteomic-analysis-of-prokaryotes-reveals-putative-targets-for-drug-resistance
#13
Shu-Jung Lai, I-Fan Tu, Wan-Ling Wu, Jhih-Tian Yang, Louis Y P Luk, Mei-Chin Lai, Yu-Hsuan Tsai, Shih-Hsiung Wu
BACKGROUND: Phosphorylation of amino acid residues on proteins is an important and common post-translational modification in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Most research work has been focused on phosphorylation of serine, threonine or tyrosine residues, whereas phosphorylation of other amino acids are significantly less clear due to the controversy on their stability under standard bioanalytical conditions. RESULTS: Here we applied a shotgun strategy to analyze the histidine and aspartate phosphorylations in different microbes...
May 25, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545359/microbial-enzymatic-degradation-of-biodegradable-plastics
#14
Roohi, Kulsoom Bano, Mohammed Kuddus, Mohd Rehan Zaheer, Qamar Zia, Mohd Farhan Khan, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Gjumrakch Aliev
Background The use of different types of plastics in the world either synthetic or biodegradable has become a part in all sectors of the economy. Infrastructure such as agriculture, building and construction, telecommunication, consumer goods, packaging, health and medical are all high growth areas that ensure a spiralling demand for plastics. Lack of degradability, environmental pollution and closing of landfill sites has led to concern more about plastic waste disposal. Appropriate biodegradation should occur for these water-immiscible polymers since they eventually enter streams which can neither be recycled nor incinerated and also not despoiled with existing physical and chemical means of degradation...
May 23, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545131/major-changes-in-microbial-diversity-and-community-composition-across-gut-sections-of-a-juvenile-panchlora-cockroach
#15
Erin A Gontang, Frank O Aylward, Camila Carlos, Tijana Glavina Del Rio, Mansi Chovatia, Alison Fern, Chien-Chi Lo, Stephanie A Malfatti, Susannah G Tringe, Cameron R Currie, Roberto Kolter
Investigations of gut microbiomes have shed light on the diversity and genetic content of these communities, and helped shape our understanding of how host-associated microorganisms influence host physiology, behavior, and health. Despite the importance of gut microbes to metazoans, our understanding of the changes in diversity and composition across the alimentary tract, and the source of the resident community are limited. Here, using community metagenomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we assess microbial community diversity and coding potential in the foregut, midgut, and hindgut of a juvenile Panchlora cockroach, which resides in the refuse piles of the leaf-cutter ant species Atta colombica...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545004/autophagy-as-an-emerging-arena-for-plant-pathogen-interactions
#16
REVIEW
Daniel Hofius, Liang Li, Anders Hafrén, Nuria S Coll
Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation and recycling process that controls cellular homeostasis, stress adaptation, and programmed cell death in eukaryotes. Emerging evidence indicates that autophagy is a key regulator of plant innate immunity and contributes with both pro-death and pro-survival functions to antimicrobial defences, depending on the pathogenic lifestyle. In turn, several pathogens have co-opted and evolved strategies to manipulate host autophagy pathways to the benefit of infection, while some eukaryotic microbes require their own autophagy machinery for successful pathogenesis...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545003/adaptation-specialization-and-coevolution-within-phytobiomes
#17
REVIEW
David A Baltrus
Growth patterns of individual plants and evolutionary trajectories of plant communities are intimately linked with and are critically affected by host-associated microbiomes. Research across systems has begun to shed light on how these phytobiomes are established under laboratory and natural conditions, and have cultivated hope that a better understanding of the governing principles for host-microbe interactions can guide attempts to engineer microbiomes to boost agricultural yields. One important, yet relatively understudied, parameter in regards to phytobiome membership is the degree to which specialization and coevolution between plant species and microbes provides structure to these communities...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544731/taking-control-over-microbial-populations-current-approaches-for-exploiting-biological-noise-in-bioprocesses
#18
REVIEW
Frank Delvigne, Jonathan Baert, Hosni Sassi, Patrick Fickers, Alexander Grünberger, Christian Dusny
Phenotypic plasticity of microbial cells has attracted much attention and several research efforts have been dedicated to the description of methods aiming at characterizing phenotypic heterogeneity and its impact on microbial populations. However, different approaches have also been suggested in order to take benefit from noise in a bioprocess perspective, e.g. by increasing the robustness or productivity of a microbial population. This review is dedicated to outline these controlling methods. A common issue, that has still to be addressed, is the experimental identification and the mathematical expression of noise...
May 24, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544095/phenotypic-assays-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#19
Ok-Ryul Song, Nathalie Deboosere, Vincent Delorme, Christophe J Queval, Gaspard Deloison, Elisabeth Werkmeister, Frank Lafont, Alain Baulard, Raffaella Iantomasi, Priscille Brodin
Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major global threat, killing more than one million persons each year. With the constant increase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to first- and second-line drugs, there is an urgent need for the development of new drugs to control the propagation of TB. Although screenings of small molecules on axenic M. tuberculosis cultures were successful for the identification of novel putative anti-TB drugs, new drugs in the development pipeline remains scarce. Host-directed therapy may represent an alternative for drug development against TB...
May 19, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543918/gut-microbiota-of-the-pine-weevil-degrades-conifer-diterpenes-and-increases-insect-fitness
#20
Aileen Berasategui, Hassan Salem, Christian Paetz, Maricel Santoro, Jonathan Gershenzon, Martin Kaltenpoth, Axel Schmdit
The pine weevil (Hylobius abietis), a major pest of conifer forests throughout Europe, feeds on the bark and cambium, tissues rich in terpenoid resins that are toxic to many insect herbivores. Here we report the ability of the pine weevil gut microbiota to degrade the diterpene acids of Norway spruce. The diterpene acid levels present in ingested bark were substantially reduced on passage through the pine weevil gut. This reduction was significantly less upon antibiotic treatment, and supplementing the diet with gut suspensions from untreated insects restored the ability to degrade diterpenes...
May 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
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