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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647864/bonding-of-composite-resins-to-peek-the-influence-of-adhesive-systems-and-air-abrasion-parameters
#1
Bogna Stawarczyk, Simon Taufall, Malgorzata Roos, Patrick R Schmidlin, Nina Lümkemann
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the tensile bond strength (TBS) to polyaryletheretherketone (PEEK) after different pretreatment and conditioning methods. METHODS: Four hundred PEEK specimens were fabricated and allocated to the following air-abrasion methods (n 1 = 80/pretreatment): (i) 50 μm Al2O3 (0.05 MPa); (ii) 50 μm Al2O3 (0.35 MPa); (iii) 110 μm Al2O3 (0.05 MPa); (iv) 110 μm Al2O3 (0.35 MPa); and (v) Rocatec 110 μm (0...
June 24, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647262/development-of-a-hybrid-photo-bioreactor-and-nanoparticle-adsorbent-system-for-the-removal-of-co2-and-selected-organic-and-metal-co-pollutants
#2
Andrea A Rocha, Christian Wilde, Zhenzhong Hu, Oleg Nepotchatykh, Yevgen Nazarenko, Parisa A Ariya
Fossil fuel combustion and many industrial processes generate gaseous emissions that contain a number of toxic organic pollutants and carbon dioxide (CO2) which contribute to climate change and atmospheric pollution. There is a need for green and sustainable solutions to remove air pollutants, as opposed to conventional techniques which can be expensive, consume additional energy and generate further waste. We developed a novel integrated bioreactor combined with recyclable iron oxide nano/micro-particle adsorption interfaces, to remove CO2, and undesired organic air pollutants using natural particles, while generating oxygen...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647248/synergetic-analysis-of-springtime-air-pollution-episodes-over-gwangju-korea
#3
Sung-Kyun Shin, Kwon-Ho Lee, Seung-Shik Park, Man Sing Wong
The characteristics of springtime aerosols, including their optical and microphysical properties, were analyzed for the months of March to May of 2009 in Gwangju (35.23°N, 126.84°E), Korea. A high Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR)-derived aerosol depolarization ratio (δ) of 0.25±0.04 was determined on dust particles during the observation period. The Ångström exponent values of the 440-870nm wavelength pair (Å440-870) and single-scattering albedo at 675nm (Ω675) measured by a CIMEL sun/sky radiometer were 0...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647234/local-pm10-and-pm2-5-emission-inventories-from-agricultural-tillage-and-harvest-in-northeastern-china
#4
Weiwei Chen, Daniel Q Tong, Shichun Zhang, Xuelei Zhang, Hongmei Zhao
Mineral particles or particulate matters (PMs) emitted during agricultural activities are major recurring sources of atmospheric aerosol loading. However, precise PM inventory from agricultural tillage and harvest in agricultural regions is challenged by infrequent local emission factor (EF) measurements. To understand PM emissions from these practices in northeastern China, we measured EFs of PM10 and PM2.5 from three field operations (i.e., tilling, planting and harvesting) in major crop production (i.e., corn and soybean), using portable real-time PM analyzers and weather station data...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646113/aerosolization-of-mycotoxins-after-growth-of-toxinogenic-fungi-on-wallpaper
#5
Brankica Aleksic, Marjorie Draghi, Sebastien Ritoux, Sylviane Bailly, Marlène Lacroix, Isabelle P Oswald, Jean-Denis Bailly, Enric Robine
Many fungi can develop on building material in indoor environments if moisture is high enough. Among species that are frequently observed, some are known to be potent mycotoxin producers. This presence of toxinogenic fungi in indoor environments raises the question of the possible exposure of occupants to these toxic compounds by inhalation after aerosolization.This study investigated the mycotoxin production by Penicillium brevicompactum, Aspergillus versicolor and Stachybotrys chartarum during their growth on wallpaper and the possible subsequent aerosolization of produced mycotoxins from contaminated substrates...
June 23, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645299/programming-of-mouse-obesity-by-maternal-exposure-to-concentrated-ambient-fine-particles
#6
Minjie Chen, Xiaoke Wang, Ziying Hu, Huifen Zhou, Yanyi Xu, Lianglin Qiu, Xiaobo Qin, Yuhao Zhang, Zhekang Ying
BACKGROUND: Many diseases including obesity may originate through alterations in the early-life environment that interrupts fetal development. Increasing evidence has shown that exposure to ambient fine particles (PM2.5) is associated with abnormal fetal development. However, its long-term metabolic effects on offspring have not been systematically investigated. RESULTS: To determine if maternal exposure to PM2.5 programs offspring obesity, female C57Bl/6j mice were exposed to filtered air (FA) or concentrated ambient PM2...
June 23, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644723/performance-evaluation-of-mobile-downflow-booths-for-reducing-airborne-particles-in-the-workplace
#7
Li-Ming Lo, Braden Hocker, Austin E Steltz, John Kremer, H Amy Feng
Compared to other common control measures, the downflow booth is a costly engineering control used to contain airborne dust or particles. The downflow booth provides unidirectional filtered airflow from the ceiling, entraining released particles away from the workers' breathing zone, and delivers contained airflow to a lower level exhaust for removing particulates by filtering media. In this study, we designed and built a mobile downflow booth that is capable of quick assembly and easy size change to provide greater flexibility and particle control for various manufacturing processes or tasks...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642923/the-influence-of-particle-size-and-curing-conditions-on-testing-mineral-trioxide-aggregate-cement
#8
William Nguyen Ha, Bill Kahler, Laurence James Walsh
Objectives: To assess the effects on curing conditions (dry versus submerged curing) and particle size on the compressive strength (CS) and flexural strength (FS) of set MTA cement. Materials and methods: Two different Portland cements were created, P1 and P2, with P1 < P2 in particle size. These were then used to create two experimental MTA products, M1 and M2, with M1 < M2 in particle size. Particle size analysis was performed according to ISO 13320. The particle size at the 90th percentile (i.e. the larger particles) was P1: 15...
December 2016: Acta Biomaterialia Odontologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641054/behavioural-interventions-to-reduce-nickel-exposure-in-a-nickel-processing-plant
#9
Krassi Rumchev, Helen Brown, Amanda Wheeler, Gavin Pereira, Jeff Spickett
Nickel is a widely used material in many industries. Although, there is enough evidence that occupational exposure to nickel may cause respiratory illnesses, allergies and even cancer, it is not possible to stop the use of nickel in occupational settings. Nickel exposure, however, can be controlled and reduced significantly in workplaces. The main objective of this study was to assess if educational intervention of hygiene behaviour could reduce nickel exposure among Indonesian nickel smelter workers. Participants were randomly assigned to three intervention groups (n = 99)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640607/primary-and-photochemically-aged-aerosol-emissions-from-biomass-cookstoves-chemical-and-physical-characterization
#10
Stephen M Reece, Aditya Sinha, Andrew P Grieshop
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation during photo-oxidation of primary emissions from cookstoves used in developing countries may make important contributions to their climate and air quality impacts. We present results from laboratory experiments with a field portable oxidation flow reactor (F-OFR) to study the evolution of emissions over hours to weeks of equivalent atmospheric aging. Lab tests, using dry red oak, measured fresh and aged emissions from a 3 stone fire (TSF), a "rocket" natural draft stove (NDS) and a forced draft gasifier stove (FDGS), in order of increasing modified combustion efficiency (MCE) and decreasing particulate matter emission factors (EF)...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640319/observational-constraints-on-particle-acidity-using-measurements-and-modelling-of-particles-and-gases
#11
J G Murphy, P K Gregoire, A G Tevlin, G R Wentworth, R A Ellis, M Z Markovic, T C VandenBoer
In many parts of the world, the implementation of air quality regulations has led to significant decreases in SO2 emissions with minimal impact on NH3 emissions. In Canada and the United States, the molar ratio of NH3 : SO2 emissions has increased dramatically between 1990 and 2014. In many regions of North America, this will lead the molar ratio of NHx : SO4, where NHx is the sum of particle phase NH4(+) and gas phase NH3, and SO4 is the sum of particle phase HSO4(-) and SO4(2-), to exceed 2. A thermodynamic model (E-AIM model II) is used to investigate the sensitivity of particle pH, and the gas-particle partitioning of NHx and inorganic nitrate, to the atmospheric NHx : SO4 ratio...
June 22, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638786/polyelectrolyte-enrobed-cancer-cells-in-view-of-personalized-immune-therapy
#12
Lien Lybaert, Keun Ah Ryu, Riet De Rycke, Alfred C Chon, Olivier De Wever, Karim Y Vermaelen, Aaron Esser-Kahn, Bruno G De Geest
Targeting the immune system with a personalized vaccine containing cues derived from the patient's malignancy might be a promising approach in the fight against cancer. It includes neo-antigens as well as nonmutated tumor antigens, preferentially leading to an immune response that is directed to a broader range of epitopes compared to strategies involving a single antigen. Here, this paper reports on an elegant method to encapsulate whole cancer cells into polyelectrolyte particles. Porous and nonaggregated microparticles containing dead cancer cells are obtained by admixing mannitol and live cancer cells with oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, dextran sulfate (anionic polysaccharide), and poly-l-arginine (cationic polypeptide) prior to atomization into a hot air stream...
June 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637465/early-pulmonary-response-is-critical-for-extra-pulmonary-carbon-nanoparticle-mediated-effects-comparison-of-inhalation-versus-intra-arterial-infusion-exposures-in-mice
#13
Koustav Ganguly, Dariusch Ettehadieh, Swapna Upadhyay, Shinji Takenaka, Thure Adler, Erwin Karg, Fritz Krombach, Wolfgang G Kreyling, Holger Schulz, Otmar Schmid, Tobias Stoeger
BACKGROUND: The death toll associated with inhaled ambient particulate matter (PM) is attributed mainly to cardio-vascular rather than pulmonary effects. However, it is unclear whether the key event for cardiovascular impairment is particle translocation from lung to circulation (direct effect) or indirect effects due to pulmonary particle-cell interactions. In this work, we addressed this issue by exposing healthy mice via inhalation and intra-arterial infusion (IAI) to carbon nanoparticles (CNP) as surrogate for soot, a major constituent of (ultrafine) urban PM...
June 20, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636780/nanoelectrical-and-nanoelectrochemical-imaging-of-pt-p-si-and-pt-p-si-electrodes
#14
Jingjing Jiang, Zhuangqun Huang, Chengxiang Xiang, Rakesh Poddar, Hans-Joachim Lewerenz, Kimberly M Papadantonakis, Nathan Lewis, Bruce Brunschwig
The interfacial properties of electrolessly deposited Pt nanoparticles (Pt-NP) on p-Si and p+-Si electrodes have been resolved on the nanometer scale using a combination of scanning probe methods. Atomic-force microscopy (AFM) showed highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles. Conductive AFM measurements showed that only about half of the particles exhibited measurable contact currents, with a factor of 10^3 difference in current. Local current-voltage measurements revealed a rectifying junction with a resistance of ≥ 10 MΩ at the Pt-NP/p-Si interface, while Pt-NP/p+-Si samples formed an Ohmic junction with a local resistance of ≥ 1 MΩ...
June 21, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636594/surface-tension-prevails-over-solute-effect-in-organic-influenced-cloud-droplet-activation
#15
Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Andreas Zuend, Ari Laaksonen, Kevin J Sanchez, Greg Roberts, Darius Ceburnis, Stefano Decesari, Matteo Rinaldi, Natasha Hodas, Maria Cristina Facchini, John H Seinfeld, Colin O' Dowd
The spontaneous growth of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) into cloud droplets under supersaturated water vapour conditions is described by classic Köhler theory. This spontaneous activation of CCN depends on the interplay between the Raoult effect, whereby activation potential increases with decreasing water activity or increasing solute concentration, and the Kelvin effect, whereby activation potential decreases with decreasing droplet size or increases with decreasing surface tension, which is sensitive to surfactants...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636318/inverse-photonic-glasses-by-packing-bi-disperse-hollow-microspheres-with-uniform-cores
#16
Seung-Hyun Kim, Sofia Magkiriadou, Do Kyung Rhee, Doo Sung Lee, Pil J Yoo, Vinothan N Manoharan, Gi-Ra Yi
A major fabrication challenge is producing disordered photonic materials with angle-independent structural red color. Theoretical work has shown that such color can be produced by fabricating inverse photonic glasses with monodisperse, non-touching voids in a silica matrix. Here we demonstrate a route toward such materials and show that they have angle-independent red color. We first synthesize monodisperse hollow silica particles with precisely controlled shell thickness, then make glassy colloidal structures by mixing two types of hollow particles with the same core size and different shell thicknesses...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635552/temporal-variation-of-fine-and-coarse-particulate-matter-sources-in-jeddah-saudi-arabia
#17
Chris C Lim, George D Thurston, Magdy Shamy, Mansour Alghamdi, Mamdouh Khoder, Abdullah M Mohorjy, Abdulrahman K Alkhalaf, Jason Brocato, Lung Chi Chen, Max Costa
This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the seasonal variations and weekday/weekend differences in fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particulate matter mass concentrations, elemental constituents, and potential source origins in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Air quality samples were collected over one year, from June 2011 to May 2012 at a frequency of three times per week, and analyzed. The average mass concentrations of PM2.5 (21.9 μg/m(3)) and PM10 (107.8 μg/m(3)) during the sampling period exceeded the recommended annual average levels by the World Health Organization (WHO) for PM2...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629640/is-physical-activity-a-modifier-of-the-association-between-air-pollution-and-arterial-stiffness-in-older-adults-the-sapaldia-cohort-study
#18
Simon Endes, Emmanuel Schaffner, Seraina Caviezel, Julia Dratva, Daiana Stolz, Christian Schindler, Nino Künzli, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Nicole Probst-Hensch
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Air pollution and insufficient physical activity have been associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, molecular mechanisms linked to arterial stiffness and cardiovascular disease. There are no studies on how physical activity modifies the association between air pollution and arterial stiffness. We examined whether the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution were modified by individual physical activity levels in 2823 adults aged 50-81 years from the well-characterized Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases (SAPALDIA)...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629362/long-term-exposure-to-ambient-ultrafine-particles-and-respiratory-disease-incidence-in-in-toronto-canada-a-cohort-study
#19
Scott Weichenthal, Li Bai, Marianne Hatzopoulou, Keith Van Ryswyk, Jeffrey C Kwong, Michael Jerrett, Aaron van Donkelaar, Randall V Martin, Richard T Burnett, Hong Lu, Hong Chen
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term health effects of ambient ultrafine particles (<0.1 μm) (UFPs) including their association with respiratory disease incidence. In this study, we examined the relationship between long-term exposure to ambient UFPs and the incidence of lung cancer, adult-onset asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Our study cohort included approximately 1.1 million adults who resided in Toronto, Canada and who were followed for disease incidence between 1996 and 2012...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628140/-correlation-study-between-respiratory-death-and-airborne-particles-in-beijing-spatiotemporal-analysis-based-on-satellite-remote-sensing-data
#20
X Y Wu, G X Li, X Y Wang, F C Liang, X C Pan
OBJECTIVE: To use vertical and humidity correcting method to calibrate aerosol optical depth (AOD), and to explore the feasibility of calibrated-AOD as exposure index to measure the level of air pollutants from the ground and to establish the exposure-response relationship between calibrated-AOD and people's health outcomes. METHODS: First of all, we interpolated AOD, PM2.5, relative humidity and planetary boundary layer height using Kriging method to obtain data at different locations and matched different data with respiratory death in Beijing by geographical coordinates...
June 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
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