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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351572/differential-susceptibility-in-ambient-particle-related-first-ever-stroke-onset-risk-findings-from-a-national-case-crossover-study
#1
Tianjia Guan, Tao Xue, Yuanli Liu, Yixuan Zheng, Siyuan Fan, Kebin He, Qiang Zhang
Different populations may respond differently to ambient fine particulate (PM2.5) exposure; however, less is known about the distribution of susceptible individuals among the entire population. We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover design to assess associations between stroke risk and PM2.5. During 2013-2015, 1,356 first-ever stroke onset events were derived from a large representative sample, the China National Stroke Screening Survey (CNSSS) database; daily PM2.5 averages with a spatial resolution of 0...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351455/thrombosis-systemic-and-cardiac-oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-induced-by-pulmonary-exposure-to-diesel-exhaust-particles-and-the-effect-of-nootkatone-thereon
#2
Abderrahim Nemmar, Suhail Al-Salam, Sumaya Beegam, Priya Yuvaraju, Badreldin H Ali
Adverse cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution persist even at lower concentrations than those of the current air quality limit. Therefore, identification of safe and effective measures against particles-induced cardiovascular toxicity is needed. Nootkatone is a sesquiterpenoid in grapefruit with diverse bioactivities including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. However, its protective effect on the cardiovascular injury induced by diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has not been studied before...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351245/exposure-to-ambient-air-particles-increases-the-risk-of-mental-disorder-findings-from-a-natural-experiment-in-beijing
#3
Zhen Jia, Yongjie Wei, Xiaoqian Li, Lixin Yang, Huijie Liu, Chen Guo, Lulu Zhang, Nannan Li, Shaojuan Guo, Yan Qian, Zhigang Li
Epidemiology studies indicated that air pollution has been associated with adverse neurological effects in human. Moreover, the secretion of glucocorticoid (GC) affects the mood regulation, and the negative feedback of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors (GR) inhibits the GC secretion. Meanwhile, the over secretion of GC can interfere the immune system and induce neurotoxicity. In the present study, the human test showed that the secretion of the cortisol in plasma was elevated after exposure in heavy air pollution...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349743/chemically-and-size-resolved-particulate-matter-dry-deposition-on-stone-and-surrogate-surfaces-inside-and-outside-the-low-emission-zone-of-milan-application-of-a-newly-developed-deposition-box
#4
Luca Ferrero, Marco Casati, Lara Nobili, Luca D'Angelo, Grazia Rovelli, Giorgia Sangiorgi, Cristiana Rizzi, Maria Grazia Perrone, Antonio Sansonetti, Claudia Conti, Ezio Bolzacchini, Elena Bernardi, Ivano Vassura
The collection of atmospheric particles on not-filtering substrates via dry deposition, and the subsequent study of the particle-induced material decay, is trivial due to the high number of variables simultaneously acting on the investigated surface. This work reports seasonally resolved data of chemical composition and size distribution of particulate matter deposed on stone and surrogate surfaces obtained using a new method, especially developed at this purpose. A "Deposition Box" was designed allowing the particulate matter dry deposition to occur selectively removing, at the same time, variables that can mask the effect of airborne particles on material decay...
January 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348652/intensification-of-ice-nucleation-observed-in-ocean-ship-emissions
#5
E S Thomson, D Weber, H G Bingemer, J Tuomi, M Ebert, J B C Pettersson
Shipping contributes primary and secondary emission products to the atmospheric aerosol burden that have implications for climate, clouds, and air quality from regional to global scales. In this study we exam the potential impact of ship emissions with regards to ice nucleating particles. Particles that nucleate ice are known to directly affect precipitation and cloud microphysical properties. We have collected and analyzed particles for their ice nucleating capacity from a shipping channel outside a large Scandinavia port...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346900/smoothed-particle-hydrodynamics-study-of-the-roughness-effect-on-contact-angle-and-droplet-flow
#6
Elena Shigorina, Jannes Kordilla, Alexandre M Tartakovsky
We employ a pairwise force smoothed particle hydrodynamics (PF-SPH) model to simulate sessile and transient droplets on rough hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. PF-SPH allows modeling of free-surface flows without discretizing the air phase, which is achieved by imposing the surface tension and dynamic contact angles with pairwise interaction forces. We use the PF-SPH model to study the effect of surface roughness and microscopic contact angle on the effective contact angle and droplet dynamics. In the first part of this work, we investigate static contact angles of sessile droplets on different types of rough surfaces...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346281/a-prototype-sensor-for-in-situ-sensing-of-fine-particulate-matter-and-volatile-organic-compounds
#7
Chee-Loon Ng, Fuu-Ming Kai, Ming-Hui Tee, Nicholas Tan, Harold F Hemond
Air pollution exposure causes seven million deaths per year, according to the World Health Organization. Possessing knowledge of air quality and sources of air pollution is crucial for managing air pollution and providing early warning so that a swift counteractive response can be carried out. An optical prototype sensor (AtmOptic) capable of scattering and absorbance measurements has been developed to target in situ sensing of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). For particulate matter testing, a test chamber was constructed and the emission of PM2...
January 18, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345249/effects-of-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-on-the-prevention-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-in-rats-exposed-to-air-pollutant-particles-less-than-2-5-micrometers-in-diameter-pm2-5
#8
Lerong Chen, Xiaolan Yuan, Luru Zou, Jianping Peng, Xinchun Hu
BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) on airway changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rats exposed to air pollutant particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), and to evaluate the mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS Three groups were included in this study: a normal group, a COPD model group, and a COPD with 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment group. In each group, the rats were divided into four subgroups: control and different doses of PM2...
January 18, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342982/detection-of-zro%C3%A2-nanoparticles-in-lung-tissue-sections-by-time-of-flight-secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry-and-ion-beam-microscopy
#9
Lothar Veith, Julia Böttner, Antje Vennemann, Daniel Breitenstein, Carsten Engelhard, Jan Meijer, Irina Estrela-Lopis, Martin Wiemann, Birgit Hagenhoff
The increasing use of nanoparticles (NP) in commercial products requires elaborated techniques to detect NP in the tissue of exposed organisms. However, due to the low amount of material, the detection and exact localization of NP within tissue sections is demanding. In this respect, Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and Ion Beam Microscopy (IBM) are promising techniques, because they both offer sub-micron lateral resolutions along with high sensitivities. Here, we compare the performance of the non-material-consumptive IBM and material-consumptive ToF-SIMS for the detection of ZrO₂ NP (primary size 9-10 nm) in rat lung tissue...
January 15, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341859/an-indoor-air-quality-evaluation-in-a-residential-retrofit-project-using-spray-polyurethane-foam
#10
Shen Tian, Scott Ecoff, John Sebroski, Jason Miller, Harold Rickenbacker, Melissa Bilec
Understanding of indoor air quality (IAQ) during and after spray polyurethane foam (SPF) application is essential to protect the health of both workers and building occupants. Previous efforts such as field monitoring, micro-chamber/spray booth emission studies and fate/transport modeling have been conducted to understand the chemical exposure of SPF and guide risk mitigation strategies. However, each type of research has its limitation and can only reveal partial information on the relationship between SPF and IAQ...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340432/capture-of-colloidal-particles-by-a-moving-microfluidic-bubble
#11
Irma Liascukiene, Gabriel Amselem, Deniz Z Gunes, Charles N Baroud
Foams can be stabilized for long periods by the adsorption of solid particles on the liquid-gas interfaces. Although such long-term observations are common, mechanistic descriptions of the particle adsorption process are scarce, especially in confined flows, in part due to the difficulty of observing the particles in the complex gas-liquid dispersion of a foam. Here, we characterise the adsorption of micron-scale particles onto the interface of a bubble flowing in a colloidal aqueous suspension within a microfluidic channel...
January 17, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337924/effect-of-humid-aging-on-the-oxygen-adsorption-in-sno%C3%A2-gas-sensors
#12
Koichi Suematsu, Nan Ma, Ken Watanabe, Masayoshi Yuasa, Tetsuya Kida, Kengo Shimanoe
To investigate the effect of aging at 580 °C in wet air (humid aging) on the oxygen adsorption on the surface of SnO₂ particles, the electric properties and the sensor response to hydrogen in dry and humid atmospheres for SnO₂ resistive-type gas sensors were evaluated. The electric resistance in dry and wet atmospheres at 350 °C was strongly increased by humid aging. From the results of oxygen partial pressure dependence of the electric resistance, the oxygen adsorption equilibrium constants (K₁; for O- adsorption, K₂; for O2- adsorption) were estimated on the basis of the theoretical model of oxygen adsorption...
January 16, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337646/stability-of-an-aluminum-salt-adjuvanted-protein-d-conjugated-pneumococcal-vaccine-after-exposure-to-subzero-temperatures
#13
Juliette Fortpied, Florence Wauters, Christelle Rochart, Philippe Hermand, Bernard Hoet, Nicolas Moniotte, Ivo Vojtek
Accidental exposure of a vaccine containing an aluminum-salt adjuvant to temperatures below 0°C in the cold chain can lead to freeze damage. Our study evaluated the potential for freeze damage in a licensed aluminum-salt-containing protein-D-conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PHiD-CV; Synflorix, GSK) in conditions that included static storage, single subzero-temperature excursions, and simulated air-freight transportation. Several parameters were assessed including freezing at subzero temperatures, aluminum-salt-particle size, antigen integrity and immunogenicity in the mouse...
January 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337433/numerical-simulation-of-two-consecutive-nasal-respiratory-cycles-toward-a-better-understanding-of-nasal-physiology
#14
Ludovic de Gabory, Nicolas Reville, Yannick Baux, Nicolas Boisson, Laurence Bordenave
BACKGROUND: Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations have greatly improved the understanding of nasal physiology. We postulate that simulating the entire and repeated respiratory nasal cycles, within the whole sinonasal cavities, is mandatory to gather more accurate observations and better understand airflow patterns. METHODS: A 3-dimensional (3D) sinonasal model was constructed from a healthy adult computed tomography (CT) scan which discretized in 6.6 million cells (mean volume, 0...
January 16, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336681/exposure-to-firework-chemicals-from-production-factories-in-pregnant-women-and-risk-of-preterm-birth-occurrence-in-liuyang-china
#15
Xun Li, Hongzhuan Tan, Meiling Luo, Xinrui Wu, Xin Huang, Shujin Zhou, Lin Shen, Yue He, Yi Liu, Li Hu, Mengshi Chen, Shimin Hu, Shi Wu Wen
In the production of fireworks, various pollutants including particles of metals and organic compounds are released into the environment. Although the adverse effects of these air pollutants are known, the impact on pregnant women residing in this area remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to examine the association between maternal exposure to fireworks production chemicals and frequency of preterm birth in Liuyang, China. Maternal exposure to fireworks production was estimated at the residential district level and assessed using factory density, which was defined as the number of fireworks factories per 1000 residents in each district...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335180/synthesis-of-nanometer-sized-fayalite-and-magnesium-iron-ii-mixture-olivines
#16
Odeta Qafoku, Eugene S Ilton, Mark E Bowden, Libor Kovarik, Xin Zhang, Ravi K Kukkadapu, Mark H Engelhard, Christopher J Thompson, Herbert T Schaef, Bernard Peter McGrail, Kevin M Rosso, John S Loring
Olivines are divalent orthosilicates with important geologic, biological, and industrial significance and are typically comprised of mixtures of Mg2+ and Fe2+ ranging from forsterite (Mg2SiO4) to fayalite (Fe2SiO4). Investigating the role of Fe(II) in olivine reactivity requires the ability to synthesize olivines that are nanometer-sized, have different percentages of Mg2+ and Fe2+, and have good bulk and surface purity. This article demonstrates a new method for synthesizing nanosized fayalite and Mg-Fe mixture olivines...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335169/seasonal-variations-in-fine-particle-composition-from-beijing-prompt-oxidative-stress-response-in-mouse-lung-and-liver
#17
Michal Pardo, Fanfan Xu, Xinghua Qiu, Tong Zhu, Yinon Rudich
Exposure to air pollution can induce oxidative stress, inflammation and adverse health effects. To understand how seasonal and chemical variations drive health impacts, we investigated indications for oxidative stress and inflammation in mice exposed to water and organic extracts from urban fine particles/PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) collected in Beijing, China. Higher levels of pollution components were detected in heating season (HS, winter and part of spring) PM2.5 than in the non-heating season (NHS, summer and part of spring and autumn) PM2...
January 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333080/comparisons-of-traffic-related-ultrafine-particle-number-concentrations-measured-in-two-urban-areas-by-central-residential-and-mobile-monitoring
#18
Matthew C Simon, Neelakshi Hudda, Elena N Naumova, Jonathan I Levy, Doug Brugge, John L Durant
Traffic-related ultrafine particles (UFP; <100 nanometers diameter) are ubiquitous in urban air. While studies have shown that UFP are toxic, epidemiological evidence of health effects, which is needed to inform risk assessment at the population scale, is limited due to challenges of accurately estimating UFP exposures. Epidemiologic studies often use empirical models to estimate UFP exposures; however, the monitoring strategies upon which the models are based have varied between studies. Our study compares particle number concentrations (PNC; a proxy for UFP) measured by three different monitoring approaches (central-site, short-term residential-site, and mobile on-road monitoring) in two study areas in metropolitan Boston (MA, USA)...
November 2017: Atmospheric Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332999/an-integrated-electrolysis-electrospray-ionization-antimicrobial-platform-using-engineered-water-nanostructures-ewns-for-food-safety-applications
#19
Nachiket Vaze, Yi Jiang, Lucas Mena, Yipei Zhang, Dhimiter Bello, Stephen S Leonard, Anna M Morris, Mary Eleftheriadou, Georgios Pyrgiotakis, Philip Demokritou
Engineered water nanostructures (EWNS) synthesized utilizing electrospray and ionization of water, have been, recently, shown to be an effective, green, antimicrobial platform for surface and air disinfection, where reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated and encapsulated within the particles during synthesis, were found to be the main inactivation mechanism. Herein, the antimicrobial potency of the EWNS was further enhanced by integrating electrolysis, electrospray and ionization of de-ionized water in the EWNS synthesis process...
March 2018: Food Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332278/exposure-to-nanoscale-and-microscale-particulate-air-pollution-prior-to-mining-development-near-a-northern-indigenous-community-in-qu%C3%A3-bec-canada
#20
Avik J Ghoshdastidar, Zhenzhong Hu, Yevgen Nazarenko, Parisa A Ariya
This study serves as a baseline characterization of indoor and outdoor air quality in a remote northern indigenous community prior to the start of a major nearby mining operation, including measurements of nanoparticles, which has never been performed in this context before. We performed aerosol sample collection and real-time aerosol measurements at six different locations at the Cree First Nation of Waswanipi and the Montviel campsite, located 45 km west of the Cree First Nation of Waswanipi, in the south of the Nord-du-Québec region...
January 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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