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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545217/a-miniature-bird-borne-passive-air-sampler-for-monitoring-halogenated-flame-retardants
#1
Manon Sorais, Ali Rezaei, Joseph O Okeme, Miriam L Diamond, Ricardo Izquierdo, Jean-François Giroux, Jonathan Verreault
Birds have been used intensively as biomonitors of halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), and several studies have reported elevated tissue concentrations and inter-individual variability for these contaminants. While diet is known to be an important exposure pathway for HFRs in birds, it has been suggested that exposure through air may represent an underestimated source of HFRs for certain species. However, a method was not available for measuring the atmospheric exposure of individual birds to HFRs or other semi-volatile contaminants...
May 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545203/influence-of-urban-vegetation-on-air-pollution-and-noise-exposure-a-case-study-in-gothenburg-sweden
#2
Jenny Klingberg, Malin Broberg, Bo Strandberg, Pontus Thorsson, Håkan Pleijel
Air pollution levels (NO2, PAHs, O3) were investigated, before (BLE) and after (ALE) leaf emergence, in the urban landscape of Gothenburg, Sweden. The aims were to study the 1) spatial and temporal variation in pollution levels between urban green areas, 2) effect of urban vegetation on air pollution levels at the same distance from a major emission source (traffic route), 3) improvement of urban air quality in urban parks compared to adjacent sites near traffic, 4) correlation between air pollution and noise in a park...
May 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545099/fine-particles-in-homes-of-predominantly-low-income-families-with-children-and-smokers-key-physical-and-behavioral-determinants-to-inform-indoor-air-quality-interventions
#3
Neil E Klepeis, John Bellettiere, Suzanne C Hughes, Benjamin Nguyen, Vincent Berardi, Sandy Liles, Saori Obayashi, C Richard Hofstetter, Elaine Blumberg, Melbourne F Hovell
Children are at risk for adverse health outcomes from occupant-controllable indoor airborne contaminants in their homes. Data are needed to design residential interventions for reducing low-income children's pollutant exposure. Using customized air quality monitors, we continuously measured fine particle counts (0.5 to 2.5 microns) over a week in living areas of predominantly low-income households in San Diego, California, with at least one child (under age 14) and at least one cigarette smoker. We performed retrospective interviews on home characteristics, and particle source and ventilation activities occurring during the week of monitoring...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544997/exposure-to-ultrafine-particles-in-different-transport-modes-in-the-city-of-rome
#4
Mario Grana, Nicola Toschi, Laura Vicentini, Antonio Pietroiusti, Andrea Magrini
There is evidence of adverse health impacts from human exposure to particulate air pollution, including increased rates of respiratory and cardiovascular illness, hospitalizations, and pre-mature mortality. Most recent hypotheses assign an important role to ultrafine particles (UFP) (<0.1 μm) and to associated transition metals (in particular Fe). In a large city like Rome, where many active people spend more than one hour per day in private or public transportation, it may be important to evaluate the level of exposure to harmful pollutants which occurs during urban travelling...
May 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544976/long-range-transport-of-xe-133-emissions-under-convective-and-non-convective-conditions
#5
J Kuśmierczyk-Michulec, M Krysta, M Kalinowski, E Hoffmann, J Baré
To investigate the transport of xenon emissions, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) operates an Atmospheric Transport Modelling (ATM) system based on the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART. The air mass trajectory ideally provides a "link" between a radionuclide release and a detection confirmed by radionuclide measurements. This paper investigates the long-range transport of Xe-133 emissions under convective and non-convective conditions, with special emphasis on evaluating the changes in the simulated activity concentration values due to the inclusion of the convective transport in the ATM simulations...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544899/identifying-risk-sources-of-air-contamination-by-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons
#6
Jiri Huzlik, Frantisek Bozek, Adam Pawelczyk, Roman Licbinsky, Magdalena Naplavova, Michael Pondelicek
This article is directed to determining concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are sorbed to solid particles in the air. Pollution sources were identified on the basis of the ratio of benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiPe) to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Because various important information is lost by determining the simple ratio of concentrations, least squares linear regression (classic ordinary least squares regression), reduced major axis, orthogonal regression, and Kendall-Theil robust diagnostics were utilized for identification...
May 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544898/aerosol-and-snow-transfer-processes-an-investigation-on-the-behavior-of-water-soluble-organic-compounds-and-ionic-species
#7
Elena Barbaro, Roberta Zangrando, Sara Padoan, Ornela Karroca, Giuseppa Toscano, Warren R L Cairns, Carlo Barbante, Andrea Gambaro
The concentrations of water-soluble compounds (ions, carboxylic acids, amino acids, sugars, phenolic compounds) in aerosol and snow have been determined at the coastal Italian base "Mario Zucchelli" (Antarctica) during the 2014-2015 austral summer. The main aim of this research was to investigate the air-snow transfer processes of a number of classes of chemical compounds and investigate their potential as tracers for specific sources. The composition and particle size distribution of Antarctic aerosol was measured, and water-soluble compounds accounted for 66% of the PM10 total mass concentration...
May 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541795/near-roadway-monitoring-of-vehicle-emissions-as-a-function-of-mode-of-operation-for-ldvs
#8
Dongqi Wen, Wenjuan Zhai, Sheng Xiang, Zhice Hu, Tongchuan Wei, Kenneth E Noll
Determination of the effect of vehicles emissions on air quality near roadways is important because vehicles are a major source of air pollution. A near roadway monitoring program was undertaken in Chicago between August 4 and October 30 2014 to measure ultrafine particles, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, traffic volume and speed, and wind direction and speed. The objective of this study was to develop a method to relate short term changes in traffic mode of operation to air quality near roadways using data averaged over 5 minute intervals to provide a better understanding of the processes controlling air pollution concentrations near roadways...
May 25, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541679/biomagnetic-monitoring-of-atmospheric-pollution-a-review-of-magnetic-signatures-from-biological-sensors
#9
Jelle Hofman, Barbara A Maher, Adrian R Muxworthy, Karen Wuyts, Ana Castanheiro, Roeland Samson
Biomagnetic monitoring of atmospheric pollution is a growing application in the field of environmental magnetism. Particulate matter (PM) in atmospheric pollution contains readily-measurable concentrations of magnetic minerals. Biological surfaces, exposed to atmospheric pollution, accumulate magnetic particles over time, providing a record of location-specific, time-integrated air quality information. This review summarizes current knowledge of biological material ('sensors') used for biomagnetic monitoring purposes...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541209/pairwise-force-sph-model-for-real-time-multi-interaction-applications
#10
Tao Yang, Ralph R Martin, Ming C Lin, Jian Chang, Shi-Min Hu
In this paper, we present a novel pairwise-force smoothed particle hydrodynamics (PF-SPH) model to allow modeling of various interactions at interfaces in real time. Realistic capture of interactions at interfaces is a challenging problem for SPH-based simulations, especially for scenarios involving multiple interactions at different interfaces. Our PF-SPH model can readily handle multiple kinds of interactions simultaneously in a single simulation; its basis is to use a larger support radius than that used in standard SPH...
May 19, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541125/electrically-conductive-borate-based-bioactive-glass-scaffolds-for-bone-tissue-engineering-applications
#11
Mert Turk, Aylin M Deliormanlı
In this study, electrically conductive, borate-based, porous 13-93B3 bioactive glass composite scaffolds were prepared using a polymer foam replication technique. For this purpose, a slurry containing 40 vol% glass particles and 0-10 wt% graphene nanoplatelets was prepared by dispersing the particles in ethanol in the presence of ethyl cellulose. Composite scaffolds were subjected to a controlled heat treatment, in air atmosphere, to decompose the foam and sinter the glass particles into a dense network...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540736/effects-of-diesel-exhaust-on-cardiovascular-function-and-oxidative-stress
#12
Simon Wilson, Mark R Miller, David E Newby
SIGNIFICANCE: Air pollution is a major global health concern with the particulate matter (PM) being especially associated with marked increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Diesel exhaust emissions are a particularly rich source of the smallest sizes of PM ("fine" and "ultrafine") in urban environments, and it is these particles that are believed to be the most detrimental to cardiovascular health. Recent Advances: Controlled exposure studies to diesel exhaust in animals and man demonstrate alterations in blood pressure, heart rate, vascular tone, endothelial function, myocardial perfusion, thrombosis, atherogenesis and plaque stability...
May 25, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538693/preparation-characterization-and-antioxidant-activity-evaluation-of-liposomes-containing-water-soluble-hydroxytyrosol-from-olive
#13
Jiao-Jiao Yuan, Frank G F Qin, Jun-Ling Tu, Bing Li
Due to the multiple hydroxyl groups in its structure, hydroxytyrosol (HT) is very sensitive to air and light and has very strong instability and hydrophilicity that affect its biological activity. This study attempted to prepare liposomes containing water-soluble HT to improve the bioavailability and biocompatibility of the target drug. The preparation process factors (temperature, mass ratio of phospholipid (PL) and cholesterol (CH), Tween-80 volume, HT mass) were studied and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the conditions...
May 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537717/organophosphate-esters-in-air-snow-and-seawater-in-the-north-atlantic-and-the-arctic
#14
Jing Li, Zhiyong Xie, Wenying Mi, Senchao Lai, Chongguo Tian, Kay-Christian Emeis, Ralf Ebinghaus
The concentrations of eight organophosphate esters (OPEs) have been investigated in air, snow and seawater samples collected during the cruise of ARK-XXVIII/2 from 6th June to 3rd July 2014 across the North Atlantic and the Arctic. The sum of gaseous and particle concentrations (∑OPE) ranged from 35 to 343 pg/m3. The three chlorinated OPEs accounted for 88 ± 5% of the ∑OPE. The most abundant OPE was tris-(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), with concentrations ranging from 30 to 227 pg/m3, followed by three major OPEs, such as tris-(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP, 0...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536439/pesticides-in-fine-airborne-particles-from-a-green-analysis-method-to-atmospheric-characterization-and-risk-assessment
#15
Madson M Nascimento, Gisele O da Rocha, Jailson B de Andrade
The intensive use of pesticides such as herbicides, insecticides, fungicides and acaricides has been lead to ubiquitous contamination, being present not only in soils, water bodies and/or crops, but also in the atmosphere. Considering the massive amount of pesticides employed globally, together to their persistence, this may be an important concern regarding air quality and human health worldwide. In the present study we developed a green sensitive sample preparation method for determination of nine organophosphates, two pyrethroids, one carbamate, and one strobirulin in PM2...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535039/deposition-of-gold-nanotriangles-in-large-scale-close-packed-monolayers-for-x-ray-based-temperature-calibration-and-sers-monitoring-of-plasmon-driven-catalytic-reactions
#16
Ferenc Liebig, Radwan M Sarhan, Mathias Sander, Wouter A Koopman, Roman Schuetz, Matias Bargheer, Joachim Koetz
Anisotropic plasmonic particles such as gold nanotriangles have extraordinary structural, optical and physico-chemical properties. For many applications in different fields it is essential to prepare them in a chemically and physically stable, structurally well-defined manner, e.g., as large and uniform coverage on a substrate. We present a direct method for the large scale close-packed monolayer formation of edge-to-edge ordered, ultrathin crystalline gold nanotriangles on Si-wafers or quartz glass via the transfer of these asymmetric particles to the air-liquid interface after adding ethanol-toluene mixtures without any subsequent surface functionalization...
May 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532662/molecular-design-of-flotation-collectors-a-recent-progress
#17
REVIEW
Guangyi Liu, Xianglin Yang, Hong Zhong
The nature of froth flotation is to selectively hydrophobize valuable minerals by collector adsorption so that the hydrophobized mineral particles can attach air bubbles. In recent years, the increasing commercial production of refractory complex ores has been urgent to develop special collectors for enhancing flotation separation efficiency of valuable minerals from these ores. Molecular design methods offer an effective way for understanding the structure-property relationship of flotation collectors and developing new ones...
May 10, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532657/mechanistic-link-between-diesel-exhaust-particles-and-respiratory-reflexes
#18
Ryan K Robinson, Mark A Birrell, John J Adcock, Michael A Wortley, Eric D Dubuis, Shu Chen, Catriona M McGilvery, Sheng Hu, Milo Sp Shaffer, Sara J Bonvini, Sarah A Maher, Ian S Mudway, Alexandra E Porter, Chris Carlsten, Teresa D Tetley, Maria G Belvisi
BACKGROUND: Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major component of particulate matter in Europe's largest cities and epidemiological evidence links exposure with respiratory symptoms and asthma exacerbations. Respiratory reflexes are responsible for symptoms and are regulated by vagal afferent nerves which innervate the airway. It is not known how DEP exposure activates airway afferents to elicit symptoms such as cough and bronchospasm. OBJECTIVE: To identify the mechanisms involved in the activation of airway sensory afferents by DEPs...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532158/particulate-matter-heavy-metals-and-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-accumulation-on-the-leaves-of-tilia-cordata-mill-in-five-polish-cities-with-different-level-of-air-pollution
#19
Robert Popek, Adrian Łukowski, Christopher Bates, Jacek Oleksyn
Urbanized areas are struggling with the problem of air pollution and when the number of people living in cities increasing, the situation is likely to deteriorate. One of the most harmful pollutants is particulate matter (PM). Increased levels of PM in the atmosphere are likely to have a negative impact on human health. Phytoremediation technology could be a solution. It involves plants acting as bio-filters by accumulating particles on, and in the leaves, which removes the particles from the atmosphere.This study looks at the accumulation of PM including heavy metals (HMs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), on the foliage of small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531345/plastic-and-human-health-a-micro-issue
#20
Stephanie L Wright, Frank J Kelly
Microplastics are a pollutant of environmental concern. Their presence in food destined for human consumption and in air samples has been reported. Thus, microplastic exposure via diet or inhalation could occur, the human health effects of which are unknown. The current review article draws upon cross-disciplinary scientific literature to discuss and evaluate the potential human health impacts of microplastics and outlines urgent areas for future research. Key literature up to September 2016 relating to bioaccumulation, particle toxicity, and chemical and microbial contaminants were critically examined...
May 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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