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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785958/association-between-hypertensive-disorders-in-pregnancy-and-particulate-matter-in-the-contiguous-united-states-1999-2004
#1
Tao Xue, Tong Zhu, Weiwei Lin, Evelyn O Talbott
Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy harm both maternal and infant health and have been linked to ambient particulate matter. However, existing studies are restricted to a local scale and remain inconsistent. A large-scale study is required to enrich the epidemiological evidence and explore the potential sources of the inconsistency. Making use of US birth certificates (1999-2004), and monitoring data from the environmental protection agency air quality networks, we associated hypertensive disorders in pregnancy with maternal exposure to fine particles or coarse particles using logistic regression analysis after adjusting for many covariates among >5 million subjects in the contiguous United States...
May 21, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784934/investigation-on-the-structures-and-magnetic-properties-of-carbon-or-nitrogen-doped-cobalt-ferrite-nanoparticles
#2
Derang Cao, Lining Pan, Jianan Li, Xiaohong Cheng, Zhong Zhao, Jie Xu, Qiang Li, Xia Wang, Shandong Li, Jianbo Wang, Qingfang Liu
Carbon or nitrogen doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized in the air by a facile calcination process. X-ray diffraction, mapping, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mössbauer spectra results indicate that the nonmetal elements as the interstitial one are doped into cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. The morphologies of doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles change from near-spherical to irregular cubelike shapes gradually with the increased carbon or nitrogen concentration, and their particles sizes also increase more than 200 nm...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783648/stability-of-go-modified-by-different-dispersants-in-cement-paste-and-its-related-mechanism
#3
Wu-Jian Long, Changle Fang, Jingjie Wei, Haodao Li
Graphene oxide (GO) is a potential material to be used as a nano-reinforcement in cement matrix. However, a prerequisite for GO to fulfill its function in the cement matrix is homogeneous dispersion. In this study, the effects of three different dispersing agents (DAs), including polycarboxylate-based high range water reducer (P-HRWR), naphthalene-based high range water reducer (N-HRWR), and air entraining agent (AEA) on the dispersion of GO in aqueous solution, simulated concrete pore solution (SCPS), and suspension of cement pastes were sequentially investigated...
May 18, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783199/inhalational-exposure-to-particulate-matter-air-pollution-alters-the-composition-of-the-gut-microbiome
#4
Ece A Mutlu, Işın Y Comba, Takugo Cho, Phillip A Engen, Cemal Yazıcı, Saul Soberanes, Robert B Hamanaka, Recep Niğdelioğlu, Angelo Y Meliton, Andrew J Ghio, G R Scott Budinger, Gökhan M Mutlu
Recent studies suggest an association between particulate matter (PM) air pollution and gastrointestinal (GI) disease. In addition to direct deposition, PM can be indirectly deposited in oropharynx via mucociliary clearance and upon swallowing of saliva and mucus. Within the GI tract, PM may alter the GI epithelium and gut microbiome. Our goal was to determine the effect of PM on gut microbiota in a murine model of PM exposure via inhalation. C57BL/6 mice were exposed via inhalation to either concentrated ambient particles or filtered air for 8-h per day, 5-days a week, for a total of 3-weeks...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781773/a-comparison-of-total-inward-leakage-measured-using-sodium-chloride-nacl-and-corn-oil-aerosol-methods-for-air-purifying-respirators
#5
Samy Rengasamy, Ziqing Zhuang, George Niezgoda, Gary Walbert, Robert Lawrence, Brenda Boutin, Judith Hudnall, William P Monaghan, Michael Bergman, Colleen Miller, James Harris, Christopher Coffey
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard 16900-1:2014 specifies the use of sodium chloride (NaCl) and corn oil aerosols, and sulfur hexafluoride gas for measuring total inward leakage (TIL). However, a comparison of TIL between different agents is lacking. The objective of this study was to measure and compare TIL for respirators using corn oil and NaCl aerosols. TIL was measured with 10 subjects donning two models of filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) including FFP1, N95, P100, and elastomeric half-mask respirators (ERs) in NaCl and corn oil aerosol test chambers, using continuous sampling methods...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781400/two-step-extraction-method-for-lead-isotope-fractionation-to-reveal-anthropogenic-lead-pollution
#6
Kenshi Katahira, Hiroshi Moriwaki, Kazuo Kamura, Hideo Yamazaki
This study developed the 2-step extraction method which eluted the Pb adsorbing on the surface of sediments in the first solution by aqua regia and extracted the Pb absorbed inside particles into the second solution by mixed acid of nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide solution. We applied the method to sediments in the enclosed water area and found out that the isotope ratios of Pb in the second solution represented those of natural origin. This advantage of the method makes it possible to distinguish the Pb between natural origin and anthropogenic source on the basis of the isotope ratios...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775300/secondary-organic-aerosol-formation-from-ambient-air-at-an-urban-site-in-beijing-effects-of-oh-exposure-and-precursor-concentrations
#7
Jun Liu, Biwu Chu, Tianzeng Chen, Changgeng Liu, Ling Wang, Xiaolei Bao, Hong He
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is an important component of atmospheric fine particles (PM2.5 ), while the key factors controlling SOA formation in ambient air remain poorly understood. In this work, the SOA formation in Beijing urban ambient air was investigated using an oxidation flow reactor (OFR) with high concentrations of OH radicals. The SOA formation potential increased significantly with the increase of ambient PM2.5 concentration during the observation. The optimum ambient exposure time, which is the aging time equivalent to atmospheric oxidation (with similar OH exposure) associated with the peak SOA formation, varied between 2 to 4 days in this study...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775285/reduced-ultrafine-particle-concentration-in-urban-air-changes-in-nucleation-and-anthropogenic-emissions
#8
Provat K Saha, Ellis S Robinson, Rishabh Urvesh Shah, Naomi Zimmerman, Joshua Schulz Apte, Allen L Robinson, Albert A Presto
Nucleation is an important source of ambient ultrafine particles (UFP). We present observational evidence of the changes in the frequency and intensity of nucleation events in urban air by analyzing long-term particle size distribution measurements at an urban background site in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania during 2001-02 and 2016-17. We find that both frequency and intensity of nucleation events have been reduced by 40-50 % over the past 15 years, resulting in a 70% reduction in UFP concentrations from nucleation...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773963/why-local-air-pollution-is-more-than-daily-peaks-modelling-policies-in-a-city-in-order-to-avoid-premature-deaths
#9
Doris A Behrens, Olivia Koland, Ulrike Leopold-Wildburger
We use a predator-prey representation of an urban system to analyse how policy interventions can prevent the adverse effects of air pollution on people's health. The number of residents is treated as prey variable, and particulate matter that consists of particles with a diameter of up to 10 micrometres ( PM10 ) as predator variable. This representation allows integration of population trends and the effects of environmental interventions on the average level of PM10 concentration (which establishes a baseline for the potential health burden for residents)...
2018: Central European Journal of Operations Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772822/measurement-of-wall-shear-stress-in-high-speed-air-flow-using-shear-sensitive-liquid-crystal-coating
#10
Jisong Zhao
Wall shear stress is an important quantity in fluid mechanics, but its measurement is a challenging task. An approach to measure wall shear stress vector distribution using shear-sensitive liquid crystal coating (SSLCC) is described. The wall shear stress distribution on the test surface beneath high speed jet flow is measured while using the proposed technique. The flow structures inside the jet flow are captured and the results agree well with the streakline pattern that was visualized using the oil-flow technique...
May 17, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772184/tuning-interfacial-properties-and-processes-by-controlling-the-rheology-and-structure-of-pnipam-particles-at-air-water-interfaces
#11
Armando Maestro, Daniel William Jones, Carmen S de Rojas Sanchez, Eduardo Guzmán, Michael H G Duits, Pietro Cicuta
In this work, by combining controlled experiments on single interfaces with measurements on solitary bubbles and liquid foams, we show that Poly N-Isopropyl Acrylamide (PNIPAM) microgels assembled at air/water interfaces exhibit a solid to liquid transition changing the temperature, and that this is associated with the change in the interfacial microstructure of the PNIPAM particles around their volume phase transition temperature VPTT. We show that the solid behaves as a soft 2D colloidal glass, and that the existence of this solid/liquid transition offers an ideal platform for tuning the permeability of air bubbles covered by PNIPAM and to control macroscopic foam properties such as drainage, stability and foamability...
May 17, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768714/detection-of-an-avian-lineage-influenza-a-h7n2-virus-in-air-and-surface-samples-at-a-new-york-city-feline-quarantine-facility
#12
Francoise M Blachere, William G Lindsley, Angela M Weber, Donald H Beezhold, Robert E Thewlis, Kenneth R Mead, John D Noti
BACKGROUND: In December 2016, an outbreak of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N2) occurred in cats at a New York City animal shelter and quickly spread to other shelters in New York and Pennsylvania. The A(H7N2) virus also spread to an attending veterinarian. In response, 500 cats were transferred from these shelters to a temporary quarantine facility for continued monitoring and treatment. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study was to assess the occupational risk of A(H7N2) exposure among emergency response workers at the feline quarantine facility...
May 16, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765201/deposition-and-transport-of-linezolid-mediated-by-a-synthetic-surfactant-synsurf-%C3%A2-within-a-pressurized-metered-dose-inhaler-a-calu-3-model
#13
Lyné van Rensburg, Johann M van Zyl, Johan Smith
Background: Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that a synthetic peptide containing lung surfactant enhances the permeability of chemical compounds through bronchial epithelium. The purpose of this study was to test two formulations of Synsurf® combined with linezolid as respirable compounds using a pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI). Methods: Aerosolization efficiency of the surfactant-drug microparticles onto Calu-3 monolayers as an air interface culture was analyzed using a Next Generation Impactor™...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763798/effect-of-blockage-ratios-on-the-characteristics-of-methane-air-explosion-suppressed-by-bc-powder
#14
Ligang Zheng, Gang Li, Yalei Wang, Xiaochao Zhu, Rongkun Pan, Yan Wang
To investigate the effect of blockage ratios on the explosion suppression by powder suppressant, an experimental study was performed to suppress the methane-air explosion in a 5L duct with different blockage ratios and various concentrations of BC dry powder. The results indicate that flames experienced both the spherical and finger-shaped stages. Furthermore, the smoothness of flame front initially decreased and then increased. Flame propagation velocities were higher with larger blockage ratios except for φ = 1...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763762/removal-of-pcdd-fs-pcp-and-mercury-from-sediments-thermal-oxidation-versus-pyrolysis
#15
Moo-Been Chang, Yen-Chen Hsu, Shu-Hao Chang
A continuous pilot-scale system (CPS) equipped with effective air pollution control devices (APCDs) is used for remediating the sediments contaminated with PCDD/Fs, PCP and Hg simultaneously. The removal efficiencies of these three pollutants in sediments collected from seawater pond and river, respectively, are evaluated via thermal treatment processes. PAHs and CBz formed during thermal oxidation and pyrolysis are also analyzed for better understanding the behaviors of chlorinated organic compounds. Experimental results indicate that low-molecular-weight PAHs are closely related to the formation of CBz, PCDD/Fs, and CPs, while low chlorinated PCDD/Fs and CBz are predominant in flue gas with thermal oxidation...
May 7, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761364/-low-emission-zones-in-germany-a-reliable-measure-for-keeping-current-air-quality-standards
#16
REVIEW
Josef Cyrys, H-Erich Wichmann, Regina Rückerl, Annette Peters
Low Emission Zones (LEZs) were implemented as a measure for improving the quality of ambient air. As of February 2018, 58 LEZs were in operation in Germany; however they differ significantly, especially regarding their size.The effectiveness of LEZs has been investigated by dispersion modelling as well as by analysis of PM10 (particles which pass through a size-selective inlet with a 50 % efficiency cut-off at 10 μm aerodynamic diameter) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) measurement values. Recent studies show a clear trend...
May 14, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760600/comprehensive-proteome-analysis-of-nasal-lavage-samples-after-controlled-exposure-to-welding-nanoparticles-shows-an-induced-acute-phase-and-a-nuclear-receptor-lxr-rxr-activation-that-influence-the-status-of-the-extracellular-matrix
#17
Neserin Ali, Stefan Ljunggren, Helen M Karlsson, Aneta Wierzbicka, Joakim Pagels, Christina Isaxon, Anders Gudmundsson, Jenny Rissler, Jörn Nielsen, Christian H Lindh, Monica Kåredal
Background: Epidemiological studies have shown that many welders experience respiratory symptoms. During the welding process a large number of airborne nanosized particles are generated, which might be inhaled and deposited in the respiratory tract. Knowledge of the underlying mechanisms behind observed symptoms is still partly lacking, although inflammation is suggested to play a central role. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of welding fume particle exposure on the proteome expression level in welders suffering from respiratory symptoms, and changes in protein mediators in nasal lavage samples were analyzed...
2018: Clinical Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758867/stable-sulfur-isotope-ratios-and-chemical-compositions-of-fine-aerosols-pm-2-5-in-beijing-china
#18
Lianfang Wei, Siyao Yue, Wanyu Zhao, Wenyi Yang, Yingjie Zhang, Lujie Ren, Xiaokun Han, Qingjun Guo, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Pingqing Fu
Pervasive particulate pollution has been observed over large areas of the North China Plain. The high level of sulfate, a major component in fine particles, is pronounced during heavy pollution periods. Being different from source apportionments by atmospheric chemistry-transport model and receptor modeling methods, here we utilize sulfur isotopes to discern the potential emission sources. Sixty-five daily PM2.5 samples were collected at an urban site in Beijing between September 2013 and July 2014. Inorganic ions, organic/elemental carbon and stable sulfur isotopes of sulfate were analyzed...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758401/factors-determining-the-exposure-of-dairy-farmers-to-thoracic-organic-dust
#19
Hugo Pfister, Laurent Madec, Pierre Le Cann, Nathalie Costet, Martine Chouvet, Stéphane Jouneau, Laurent Vernhet
Bronchial respiratory diseases are more common in dairy farmers than in the general population, perhaps because the repeated inhalation of organic dust contributes to the development of these disorders. However, the factors determining the exposure of farmers to particles that can enter the lower bronchial tract and interact with it, i.e. the thoracic fraction of the inhalable dust, remain to be identified. We therefore measured the exposure of dairy farmers to thoracic organic dust and identified the farm features and tasks that increased exposure...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757092/groundnut-shell-gasification-performance-in-a-fluidized-bed-gasifier-with-bubbling-air-as-gasification-medium
#20
Dharminder Singh, Sanjeev Yadav, V M Rajesh, Pravakar Mohanty
This work was focused on finding the groundnut shell (GNS) gasification performance in a fluidized bed gasifier with bubbling air as gasification medium. Groundnut shell in powder form (a mixture of different particle size as given in Table 8) was gasified using naturally available river sand as bed material, top of the bed feeding, conventional charcoal as bed heating medium, and two cyclones for proper cleaning and cooling the product gas. Experiments were performed using different operating conditions such as equivalence ratio (ER) between 0...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Technology
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