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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749286/detection-of-aerosolized-bacteria-in-expired-air-samples-from-asian-elephants-elephas-maximus
#1
Sophie M Burke, Larry Vogelnest, Paul Thompson, Euan R Tovey, Peter Williamson
Elephant-mediated transmission of tuberculosis is assumed to be similar to human models, which state close and prolonged contact with an infected individual is required for transmission. Although considered a risk factor for infection, several case studies have reported that close contact with an elephant is not always necessary for transmission, and the role of aerosolized bacteria remains unclear. To investigate aerosol-mediated transmission of pathogenic bacteria from elephants, a method for the detection of aerosols using an adapted sampling system was developed...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745779/-emissions-from-dairy-industry-and-the-influence-of-herd-management
#2
Ulrich Dämmgen, Wilfried Brade, Hans-Dieter Haenel, Claus Rösemann, Jürgen Dämmgen, Ulrich Meyer
The purpose of this paper is to identify specific emission-reduction opportunities in dairy herds arising from aspects of useful herd management with the potential to reduce emissions, which are within the scope of veterinary activities. In future, it might be one of a veterinarian's advisory capacities to deal with the aspect of climate and environmental protection in animal husbandry. The models involved are similar to those of the national agricultural emission inventory. They allow quantifying the impacts of improved animal health, extended productive lifespan and grazing of an entire dairy herd (cows, calves, heifers and bulls) on emissions from the herd itself, in addition to those originating from the entire production chain, including provision of primary energy, water, feed production and processing...
July 26, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745352/airborne-persistent-toxic-substances-ptss-in-china-occurrence-and-its-implication-associated-with-air-pollution
#3
REVIEW
Pu Wang, Qinghua Zhang, Yingming Li, Julius Matsiko, Ya Zhang, Guibin Jiang
In recent years, China suffered from extensive air pollution due to the rapidly expanding economic and industrial developments. Its severe impact on human health has raised great concern currently. Persistent toxic substances (PTSs), a large group of environmental pollutants, have also received much attention due to their adverse effects on both the ecosystem and public health. However, limited studies have been conducted to reveal the airborne PTSs associated with air pollution at the national scale in China...
July 26, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744677/light-absorption-by-water-soluble-organic-carbon-in-atmospheric-fine-particles-in-the-central-tibetan-plateau
#4
YanGe Zhang, JianZhong Xu, JinSen Shi, CongHui Xie, XinLei Ge, JunFeng Wang, ShiChang Kang, Qi Zhang
Brown carbon (BrC) has recently received much attention because of its light absorption features. The chemical compositions, optical properties, and sources of fine aerosol at a high-elevation mountain observatory (4730 m a.s.l.) in the central Tibetan Plateau were measured between 31 May and 1 July 2015. A low flow-rate sampler was used to collect 24-h average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) filter samples. Water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and light absorption by water-soluble BrC were determined for 26 filter samples...
July 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743393/considerations-for-the-use-of-ultra-high-pressures-in-liquid-chromatography-for-2-1mm-inner-diameter-columns
#5
K Broeckhoven, G Desmet
The current contribution investigates the effects of viscous heat dissipation in chromatographic columns (with an emphasis on so-called narrow bore columns with an inner diameter of 2.1mm) using numerical simulations of the temperature and velocity profiles and the resulting band broadening, for the first time at operating pressures up to 2000bar. When operating columns under well-thermostatted conditions to maintain a constant temperature of the mobile phase, a dramatic increase in plate heights can be observed that voids any advantage one could expect from the possibility to use smaller particles offered by the increased pressure limit...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743263/exposure-to-ambient-particulate-matter-alters-the-microbial-composition-and-induces-immune-changes-in-rat-lung
#6
Naijian Li, Fang He, Baoling Liao, Yuming Zhou, Bing Li, Pixin Ran
BACKGROUND: Ambient particulate matter exposure has been shown to increase the risks of respiratory diseases. However, the role of the lung microbiome and the immune response to inhaled particulate matter are largely unexplored. We studied the influence of biomass fuel and motor vehicle exhaust particles on the lung microbiome and pulmonary immunologic homeostasis in rats. METHODS: Fifty-seven Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into clean air (CON), biomass fuel (BMF), and motor vehicle exhaust (MVE) groups...
July 25, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741740/ultrafine-fine-and-black-carbon-particle-concentrations-in-california-child-care-facilities
#7
Fraser W Gaspar, Randy Maddalena, Jeffery Williams, Rosemary Castorina, Zhong-Min Wang, Kazukiyo Kumagai, Thomas E McKone, Asa Bradman
Although many U.S. children spend time in child care, little information exists on exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) in this environment, even though PM may be associated with asthma and other respiratory illness, which is a key concern for young children. To address this data gap, we measured ultrafine particles (UFP), PM2.5 , PM10 , and black carbon in 40 California child care facilities and examined associations with potential determinants. We also tested a low-cost optical particle measuring device (Dylos monitor)...
July 25, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738481/-progress-in-research-of-relationship-between-ambient-air-pm-2-5-and-lung-diseases
#8
Y Xia, L Fan, Y Guan, S Y Liu, Y Xiao
Fine Particulate Matter (PM(2.5)-particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) can penetrate deeply into the lung, deposit in the alveoli, and consequently impair lung function. Both short term and long term exposures to PM(2.5) are associated with the incidence of respiratory diseases (e.g. asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer). This paper summarizes the effects of ambient air PM(2.5) exposure on human respiratory system revealed by epidemiological studies.
July 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738173/simulating-the-meteorology-and-pm10-concentrations-in-arizona-dust-storms-with-the-weather-research-and-forecasting-model-with-chemistry-wrf-chem
#9
Peter Hyde, Alex Mahalov, Jialun Li
Nine dust storms in south-central Arizona, USA were simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem) at 2-km resolution. The windblown dust emission algorithm was the Air Force Weather Agency model. In comparison with ground-based PM10 observations, the model unevenly reproduces the dust storm events. The model adequately estimates the location and timing of the events, but it is unable to precisely replicate the magnitude and timing of the elevated hourly concentrations of particles 10 microns and smaller ([PM10])...
July 24, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736586/photothermal-microscopy-of-coupled-nanostructures-and-the-impact-of-nanoscale-heating-in-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy
#10
Zhi-Cong Zeng, Hao Wang, Paul Johns, Gregory V Hartland, Zachary D Schultz
The optical properties of plasmonic nanoparticles are strongly dependent on interactions with other nanoparticles, which complicates analysis for systems larger than a few particles. In this work we examined heat dissipation in aggregated nanoparticles, and its influence on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), through correlated photothermal heterodyne imaging, electron microscopy and SERS measurements. For dimers the per particle absorption cross-sections show evidence of interparticle coupling, however, the effects are much smaller than those for the field enhancements that are important for SERS...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735838/cardiovascular-effects-of-air-pollution
#11
REVIEW
Thomas Bourdrel, Marie-Abèle Bind, Yannick Béjot, Olivier Morel, Jean-François Argacha
Air pollution is composed of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide and ozone. PM is classified according to size into coarse particles (PM10), fine particles (PM2.5) and ultrafine particles. We aim to provide an original review of the scientific evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies examining the cardiovascular effects of outdoor air pollution. Pooled epidemiological studies reported that a 10μg/m(3) increase in long-term exposure to PM2.5 was associated with an 11% increase in cardiovascular mortality...
July 20, 2017: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735182/fluidized-bed-fenton-coupled-with-ceramic-membrane-separation-for-advanced-treatment-of-flax-wastewater
#12
Dong Fan, Lili Ding, Hui Huang, Mengtian Chen, Hongqiang Ren
Fluidized-bed Fenton coupled with ceramic membrane separation to treat the flax secondary effluent was investigated. The operating variables, including initial pH, dosage of H2O2 and Fe(0), air flow rate, TMP and pore size, were optimized. The distributions of DOMs in the treatment process were analyzed. Under the optimum condition (600mgL(-1)H2O2, 1.4gL(-1) Fe(0), pH=3, 300Lh(-1) air flow rate and 15psi TMP), the highest TOC and color removal efficiencies were 84% and 94% in the coupled reactor with 100nm ceramic membrane, reducing 39% of total iron with similar removal efficiency compared with Fluidized-bed Fenton...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733822/concentrations-and-inhalation-risk-assessment-of-short-chain-polychlorinated-paraffins-in-the-urban-air-of-dalian-china
#13
Xiuhua Zhu, Hao Bai, Yuan Gao, Jiping Chen, Heping Yuan, Longxing Wang, Wei Wang, Xuewei Dong, Xiaoxiao Li
The concentrations of short-chain polychlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in the urban air of Dalian, China, were monitored from March to October 2010 and from September to October 2016 with active high-volume sampler. The total concentration of SCCPs (particulate phase + gas phase) ranged from 15.12 to 66.44 ng m(-3), with an average of 30.26 ng m(-3) in 2010, and 65.30 to 91.00 ng m(-3), with an average of 78.15 ng m(-3) in 2016. Hexa-chlorinated dodecane and hexa-chlorinated undecane are the predominant components in the gas phase, while octa-chlorinated undecane and hepta-chlorinated tridecane are dominant in the particulate phase...
July 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733639/particle-adsorption-on-hydrogel-surfaces-in-aqueous-media-due-to-van-der-waals-attraction
#14
Naoko Sato, Yurina Aoyama, Junpei Yamanaka, Akiko Toyotama, Tohru Okuzono
Particle adhesion onto hydrogels has recently attracted considerable attention because of the potential biomedical applications of the resultant materials. A variety of interactions have been taken advantage of for adsorption, including electrostatic forces, hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding. In this study, we report significant adsorption of submicron-sized silica particles onto hydrogel surfaces in water, purely by van der Waals (vdW) attraction. The vdW forces enabled strong adhesions between dielectric materials in air...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732926/intensified-oxalic-acid-crystallization-using-ultrasonic-reactors-understanding-effect-of-operating-parameters-and-type-of-ultrasonic-reactor
#15
Rakhi S Vishwakarma, Parag R Gogate
The present work reports the comparison of the effectiveness of ultrasonic bath and horn for intensifying the cooling crystallization of oxalic acid for the first time. The effect of various parameters such as temperature, crystallization time, irradiation time, ultrasonic frequency and ultrasonic power on the crystal characteristics has been investigated. The average particle size of oxalic acid crystals reduced with an increase in irradiation time and ultrasonic power dissipation. Comparison of crystal characteristics obtained in ultrasonic bath with that obtained in the ultrasonic horn under optimized parameters revealed that the average size in the case of ultrasonic horn and bath were only marginally different...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732402/characteristics-of-black-carbon-in-snow-from-laohugou-no-12-glacier-on-the-northern-tibetan-plateau
#16
Yulan Zhang, Shichang Kang, Chaoliu Li, Tanguang Gao, Zhiyuan Cong, Michael Sprenger, Yajun Liu, Xiaofei Li, Junming Guo, Mika Sillanpää, Kun Wang, Jizu Chen, Yang Li, Shiwei Sun
Black carbon (BC) emitted from the incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuel impacts the climate system, cryospheric change, and human health. This study documents black carbon deposition in snow from a benchmark glacier on the northern Tibetan Plateau. Significant seasonality of BC concentrations indicates different input or post-depositional processes. BC particles deposited in snow had a mass volume median diameter slightly larger than that of black carbon particles typically found in the atmosphere...
July 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732305/association-between-gaseous-air-pollutants-and-inflammatory-hemostatic-and-lipid-markers-in-a-cohort-of-midlife-women
#17
Xiangmei May Wu, Rupa Basu, Brian Malig, Rachel Broadwin, Keita Ebisu, Ellen B Gold, Lihong Qi, Carol Derby, Rochelle S Green
BACKGROUND: Exposures to ambient gaseous pollutants have been linked to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but the biological mechanisms remain uncertain. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the changes in CVD marker levels resulting from elevated exposure to ambient gaseous pollutants in midlife women. METHODS: Annual repeated measurements of several inflammatory, hemostatic and lipid makers were obtained from 2306 midlife women enrolled in the longitudinal Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) between 1999 and 2004...
July 18, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732168/inland-sea-spray-aerosol-transport-and-incomplete-chloride-depletion-varying-degrees-of-reactive-processing-observed-during-soas
#18
Amy Lynne Bondy, Bingbing Wang, Alexander Laskin, Rebecca Lynn Craig, Manelisi Victor Nhliziyo, Steven Bertman, Kerri A Pratt, Paul B Shepson, Andrew P Ault
Multiphase reactions involving sea spray aerosol (SSA) impact trace gas budgets in coastal regions by acting as a reservoir for oxidized nitrogen and sulfur species, as well as a source of halogen gases (HCl, ClNO2, etc.). While most studies of multiphase reactions on SSA have focused on marine environments, far less is known about SSA transported inland. Herein, single particle measurements of SSA are reported at a site > 320 km from the Gulf of Mexico, with transport times of 7-68 h. Samples were collected during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) in June-July 2013 near Centreville, Alabama...
July 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731859/air-pollution-and-parkinson-s-disease-evidence-and-future-directions
#19
REVIEW
Natalia Palacios
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease of unknown etiology that is thought to be caused by a complex combination of environmental and/or genetic factors. Air pollution exposure is linked to numerous adverse effects on human health, including brain inflammation and oxidative stress, processes that are believed to contribute to the development and progression of PD. This review provides an overview of recent advances in the epidemiology of air pollution and PD, including evidence of the effects of various pollutants (ozone, PM10, PM2...
July 21, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730356/seasonal-variation-of-chemical-composition-and-source-apportionment-of-pm2-5-in-pune-india
#20
Ranjeeta D Gawhane, Pasumarthi Surya Prakasa Rao, Krishnakant B Budhavant, Vinayak Waghmare, Dhananjay C Meshram, Pramod D Safai
Particulate matter with size less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM2.5) samples were collected from an urban site Pune, India, during April 2015 to April 2016. The samples were analyzed for various chemical constituents, including water soluble inorganic ions, organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC). The yearly mean total mass concentration of PM2.5 at Pune was 37.3 μg/m(3), which is almost four times higher than the annual WHO standard (10 μg/m(3)), and almost equal to that recommended by the Central Pollution Control Board, India (40 μg/m(3))...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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