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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934655/nano-sized-emission-from-commercially-available-paints-used-for-indoor-surfaces-during-drying
#1
Rikke Bramming Jørgensen, Ingrid Grav Hveding, Karoline Solheim
Consumers worry about the presence of nano-particles in paints and the risk of exposure. As a result, the paint industry now omits marketing paints as containing nanoparticles. The industry claims that no nanoparticles are released into the indoor environment; this, however, has yet to be documented. In this study, the emission of nano-sized emission from four indoor paints was investigated. The emission was studied for both base and full-pigmented versions of the paints, which consisted of three water-borne acrylic paints and one solvent-borne alkyd paint...
September 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931866/ion-channel-aligned-gas-blocking-membrane-for-lithium-air-batteries
#2
Wonsung Choi, Mokwon Kim, Jung Ock Park, Joon-Hee Kim, Kyunghwan Choi, Yong Su Kim, Tae Young Kim, Ken Ogata, Dongmin Im, Seok-Gwang Doo, Yunil Hwang
Lithium-metal-based batteries, owing to the extremely high specific energy, have been attracting intense interests as post-Li-ion batteries. However, their main drawback is that consumption/de-activation of lithium metal can be accelerated when O2 or S used in the cathode crosses over to the metal, reducing the lifetime of the batteries. In use of ceramic solid state electrolyte (SSE) separator, despite the capability of gas blocking, thick and heavy plates (~0.3 mm) are necessitated to compensate its mechanical fragility, which ruin the high specific energy of the batteries...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929325/computational-fluid-dynamics-cfd-analysis-of-airlift-bioreactor-effect-of-draft-tube-configurations-on-hydrodynamics-cell-suspension-and-shear-rate
#3
Sanjay B Pawar
The biomass productivity of microalgae cells mainly depends on the hydrodynamics of airlift bioreactor (ABR). Thus, the hydrodynamics of concentric tube ABR was initially studied using two-phase three-dimensional CFD simulations with the Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. The performance of ABR (17 L) was examined for different configurations of the draft tube using various drag models such as Grace, Ishii-Zuber, and Schiller-Naumann. The gas holdups in the riser and the downcomer were well predicted using E-L approach...
September 19, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929152/size-dependent-targeted-delivery-of-gold-nanoparticles-modified-with-the-il-6r-specific-aptamer-air-3a-to-il-6r-carrying-cells
#4
Lisa Prisner, Nadine Bohn, Ulrich Hahn, Alf Mews
The delivery of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to specific cells strongly depends on the properties e.g. the size of the particles and is of great interest for a large variety of biomedical applications. Here we investigated the size dependence of the receptor-ligand mediated AuNP delivery to cells by comparing very small "molecular" Au-clusters of only 2 nm to larger 7 nm and 36 nm AuNPs with a distinct surface plasmon resonance. Since the molecular weight in this range changes by almost three orders of magnitude, we show how the amount of gold relates to the number of delivered AuNPs...
September 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928530/influence-of-drying-process-and-particle-size-of-persimmon-fibre-on-its-physicochemical-antioxidant-hydration-and-emulsifying-properties
#5
R Martínez-Las Heras, E F Landines, A Heredia, M L Castelló, A Andrés
Persimmon, given its current surplus production, could be an alternative source for the extraction of certain interesting ingredients for the food industry and human health, such as fibre. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyse the influence of hot air and freeze-drying, as well as the particle size of fibre extracted from persimmon peels or pulp on their physicochemical, antioxidant, hydration and emulsifying properties, compared to commercial fibres (from peach, lemon, orange and apple). The results showed that both freeze-dried persimmon pulp and freeze-dried peel had better hydration properties and oil holding capacity than other fibres analysed, although the swelling capacity was higher for lemon fibre...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928511/color-bioactive-compounds-and-morphological-characteristics-of-encapsulated-asian-pear-juice-powder-during-spray-drying
#6
Chang-Gon Lee, Maruf Ahmed, Gui-Hun Jiang, Jong-Bang Eun
Encapsulated Asian pear juice powder was produced through spray drying using three maltodextrin levels (15, 20, and 25% w/v) and three inlet air temperatures (130, 150, and 170 °C). The impact of maltodextrin concentrations and inlet air temperatures on color, bioactive compounds, and morphological characteristics of encapsulated Asian pear juice powder were investigated. Maltodextrin concentrations and inlet air temperatures significantly influenced L(*) and b(*) values of encapsulated Asian pear juice powder...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926789/profiling-quinones-in-ambient-air-samples-collected-from-the-athabasca-region-canada
#7
Andrzej Wnorowski, Jean-Pierre Charland
This paper presents new findings on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon oxidation products-quinones that were collected in ambient air samples in the proximity of oil sands exploration. Quinones were characterized for their diurnal concentration variability, phase partitioning, and molecular size distribution. Gas-phase (GP) and particle-phase (PM) ambient air samples were collected separately in the summer; a lower quinone content was observed in the PM samples from continuous 24-h sampling than from combined 12-h sampling (day and night)...
September 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926066/electrostatic-interactions-between-particles-through-heterogeneous-fluid-phases
#8
Dong Woo Kang, Mina Lee, Kyung Hak Kim, Ming Xia, Sang Hyuk Im, Bum Jun Park
We investigated the electrostatic interactions between particles acting through heterogeneous fluid phases. An oil lens system floating on the surface of water was used to trap particles at different fluid-fluid interfaces. The inner particles are located at the centrosymmetrically curved oil-water interface inside the oil lens while satellite particles are located at the curved air-water interface, separated by a particular distance from the triple phase boundary. The satellite particles are likely to be captured in an energy minimum state due to electrostatic repulsions by the inner particles balanced with the gravity-induced potential energy...
September 19, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923740/electrokinetic-motion-of-a-spherical-polystyrene-particle-at-a-liquid-fluid-interface
#9
Junyan Zhang, Yongxin Song, Dongqing Li
Electrokinetic movement of spherical polystyrene particles at different liquid-fluid interfaces was experimentally investigated in this paper. A novel method was developed to place the particles rightly at the interfaces formed in a large plastic container. The velocity was measured by an optical microscope. The experimental results show that the particles (3, 5 and 10μm in diameter) at the water-air interface, water-dodecane interface and NaCl solution-air interface move in the opposite direction of the applied electric field...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922412/walker-occupancy-has-an-impact-on-changing-airborne-bacterial-communities-in-an-underground-pedestrian-space-as-small-dust-particles-increased-with-raising-both-temperature-and-humidity
#10
Torahiko Okubo, Takako Osaki, Eriko Nozaki, Akira Uemura, Kouhei Sakai, Mizue Matushita, Junji Matsuo, Shinji Nakamura, Shigeru Kamiya, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi
Although human occupancy is a source of airborne bacteria, the role of walkers on bacterial communities in built environments is poorly understood. Therefore, we visualized the impact of walker occupancy combined with other factors (temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, dust particles) on airborne bacterial features in the Sapporo underground pedestrian space in Sapporo, Japan. Air samples (n = 18; 4,800L/each sample) were collected at 8:00 h to 20:00 h on 3 days (regular sampling) and at early morning / late night (5:50 h to 7:50 h / 22:15 h to 24:45 h) on a day (baseline sampling), and the number of CFUs (colony forming units) OTUs (operational taxonomic units) and other factors were determined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919325/the-influence-of-lifestyle-on-airborne-particle-surface-area-doses-received-by-different-western-populations
#11
A Pacitto, L Stabile, T Moreno, P Kumar, A Wierzbicka, L Morawska, G Buonanno
In the present study, the daily dose in terms of particle surface area received by citizens living in five cities in Western countries, characterized by different lifestyle, culture, climate and built-up environment, was evaluated and compared. For this purpose, the exposure to sub-micron particle concentration levels of the population living in Barcelona (Spain), Cassino (Italy), Guilford (United Kingdom), Lund (Sweden), and Brisbane (Australia) was measured through a direct exposure assessment approach. In particular, measurements of the exposure at a personal scale were performed by volunteers (15 per each population) that used a personal particle counter for different days in order to obtain exposure data in microenvironments/activities they resided/performed...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918084/uranium-isotopes-in-tree-bark-as-a-spatial-tracer-of-environmental-contamination-near-former-uranium-processing-facilities-in-southwest-ohio
#12
Elise Conte, Elisabeth Widom, David Kuentz
Inappropriate handling of radioactive waste at nuclear facilities can introduce non-natural uranium (U) into the environment via the air or groundwater, leading to anthropogenic increases in U concentrations. Uranium isotopic analyses of natural materials (e.g. soil, plants or water) provide a means to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic U in areas near sources of radionuclides to the environment. This study examines the utility of two different tree bark transects for resolving the areal extent of U atmospheric contamination using several locations in southwest Ohio that historically processed U...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916281/explaining-the-spatiotemporal-variation-of-fine-particle-number-concentrations-over-beijing-and-surrounding-areas-in-an-air-quality-model-with-aerosol-microphysics
#13
Xueshun Chen, Zifa Wang, Jie Li, Huansheng Chen, Min Hu, Wenyi Yang, Zhe Wang, Baozhu Ge, Dawei Wang
In this study, a three-dimensional air quality model with detailed aerosol microphysics (NAQPMS + APM) was applied to simulate the fine particle number size distribution and to explain the spatiotemporal variation of fine particle number concentrations in different size ranges over Beijing and surrounding areas in the haze season (Jan 15 to Feb 13 in 2006). Comparison between observations and the simulation indicates that the model is able to reproduce the main features of the particle number size distribution...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916279/the-role-of-il-6-released-from-pulmonary-epithelial-cells-in-diesel-ufp-induced-endothelial-activation
#14
Rossella Bengalli, Eleonora Longhin, Sara Marchetti, Maria C Proverbio, Cristina Battaglia, Marina Camatini
Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and their ultrafine fraction (UFP) are known to induce cardiovascular effects in exposed subjects. The mechanisms leading to these outcomes are still under investigation, but the activation of respiratory endothelium is likely to be involved. Particles translocation through the air-blood barrier and the release of mediators from the exposed epithelium have been suggested to participate in the process. Here we used a conditioned media in vitro model to investigate the role of epithelial-released mediators in the endothelial cells activation...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910686/a-simple-and-environment-friendly-approach-for-synthesizing-macroporous-polymers-from-aqueous-foams
#15
Haotian Tan, Shuhua Tu, Yongliang Zhao, Haitao Wang, Qiangguo Du
We propose a facile and environment-friendly approach for the preparation of macroporous polyacrylamide (PAM) via thermal-initiated polymerization of aqueous foams that are stabilized by surface-modified silica nanoparticles. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) is used to delicately adjust the surface amphiphilicity of silica to stabilize aqueous foams. The air bubble size and size distribution is affected by the wettability of silica particles, solid content and air volume fraction in the foams. The morphology of macroporous polymers is observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM)...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906431/an-optical-fiber-based-airborne-particle-sensor
#16
Yifan Wang, John F Muth
A new optical-fiber-based airborne particle counter is reported. Unlike traditional light-scatter-based techniques, the particle is detected through the drop in optical fiber coupling efficiency as the particle disrupts the electromagnetic mode of the optical beam. The system is simple, substantially smaller than traditional systems, and does not require high power laser input. This makes it attractive for wearable air quality monitors where size is a premium. There is close agreement between theoretical model and experimental results for solid and liquid particles in the 1 to 10 µm range...
September 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900324/a-significant-breakthrough-in-the-incidence-of-childhood-cancers-and-evaluation-of-its-risk-factors-in-southern-iran
#17
Asma Erjaee, Maryam Niknam, Ahmadreza Sadeghi, Maryam Dehghani, Zeinab Safaei, Saeed Hosseini Teshnizi, Mehran Karimi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This study investigates epidemiologic and practical information about the incidence and risk factors of childhood cancer in a population of Southern Iranian children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total number of 300 cancer patients along with 600 age- and gender-matched healthy control were interviewed by a trained physician regarding their demographic characteristics, and major family-associated risk factors, childhood malignancies. RESULTS: The average annual percentage change for cancers in the studied population is calculated as 45%...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900265/urban-heat-island-impacted-by-fine-particles-in-nanjing-china
#18
Hao Wu, Tijian Wang, Nicole Riemer, Pulong Chen, Mengmeng Li, Shu Li
Atmospheric aerosol particles (especially particles with aerodynamic diameters equal to or less than 2.5 μm, called PM2.5) can affect the surface energy balance and atmospheric heating rates and thus may impact the intensity of urban heat islands. In this paper, the effect of fine particles on the urban heat island intensity in Nanjing was investigated via the analysis of observational data and numerical modelling. The observations showed that higher PM2.5 concentrations over the urban area corresponded to lower urban heat island (UHI) intensities, especially during the day...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895029/chemical-characteristics-of-soluble-aerosols-over-the-central-himalayas-insights-into-spatiotemporal-variations-and-sources
#19
Lekhendra Tripathee, Shichang Kang, Dipesh Rupakheti, Zhiyuan Cong, Qianggong Zhang, Jie Huang
In order to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of aerosols and its soluble chemical compositions of the data gap zone in the central Himalayan region, aerosol samples were collected at four sites. The sampling location were characterized by four different categories, such as urban (Bode), semi-urban site in the northern Indo-Gangetic Plain (Lumbini), rural (Dhunche), and semiarid rural (Jomsom). A total of 230 aerosol samples were collected from four representative sites for a yearlong period and analyzed for water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs)...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893993/arresting-dissolution-by-interfacial-rheology-design
#20
Peter J Beltramo, Manish Gupta, Alexandra Alicke, Irma Liascukiene, Deniz Z Gunes, Charles N Baroud, Jan Vermant
A strategy to halt dissolution of particle-coated air bubbles in water based on interfacial rheology design is presented. Whereas previously a dense monolayer was believed to be required for such an "armored bubble" to resist dissolution, in fact engineering a 2D yield stress interface suffices to achieve such performance at submonolayer particle coverages. We use a suite of interfacial rheology techniques to characterize spherical and ellipsoidal particles at an air-water interface as a function of surface coverage...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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