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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150676/severe-pollution-in-china-amplified-by-atmospheric-moisture
#1
Xuexi Tie, Ru-Jin Huang, Junji Cao, Qiang Zhang, Yafang Cheng, Hang Su, Di Chang, Ulrich Pöschl, Thorsten Hoffmann, Uli Dusek, Guohui Li, Douglas R Worsnop, Colin D O'Dowd
In recent years, severe haze events often occurred in China, causing serious environmental problems. The mechanisms responsible for the haze formation, however, are still not well understood, hindering the forecast and mitigation of haze pollution. Our study of the 2012-13 winter haze events in Beijing shows that atmospheric water vapour plays a critical role in enhancing the heavy haze events. Under weak solar radiation and stagnant moist meteorological conditions in winter, air pollutants and water vapour accumulate in a shallow planetary boundary layer (PBL)...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149812/architectures-and-mechanical-properties-of-drugs-and-complexes-of-surface-active-compounds-at-air-water-and-oil-water-interfaces
#2
Dipak K Sarker
BACKGROUND: Drugs can represents a multitude of compounds from proteins and peptides, such as growth hormones and insulin and on to simple organic molecules such as flurbiprofen, ibuprofen and lidocaine. Given the chemical nature of these compounds two features are always present. A portion or portions of the molecule that has little affinity for apolar surfaces and media and the opposite a series of part or one large part that has considerable affinity for hydrophilic, polar or charged media and surfaces...
November 17, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149444/morphology-molecular-structure-and-stable-carbon-isotopic-composition-of-black-carbon-bc-in-urban-topsoils
#3
Yutong Zong, Qing Xiao, Shenggao Lu
Urban soils contain significant amounts of black carbon (BC) from biomass and fossil fuel combustion and regard to be a pool of BC. BC in urban soils has multiple effects on environmental processes in urban system, such as global climate change, air quality, and public health. Urban topsoil samples (0-10 cm) were collected from Anshan, Liaoning Province, northeast China, which is one of the most important old steel industrial bases in China. The BC in urban topsoils was extracted using the density method. Their chemical composition, morphology, molecular structure, and stable carbon isotopic composition were examined using elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and stable carbon isotope (δ(13)C)...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148717/raman-spectroscopy-of-single-light-absorbing-carbonaceous-particles-levitated-in-air-using-an-annular-laser-beam
#4
Masaru Uraoka, Keisuke Maegawa, Shoji Ishizaka
A laser trapping technique is a powerful means to investigate the physical and chemical properties of single aerosol particles in a non-contact manner. However, optical trapping of strongly light-absorbing particles such as black carbon or soot is quite difficult because the repulsive force caused by heat is orders of magnitude larger than the attractive force of radiation pressure. In this study, a laser trapping and Raman microspectroscopy system using an annular laser beam was constructed to achieve non-contact levitation of single light-absorbing particles in air...
November 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148695/a-high-thermal-and-air-stability-cathode-material-with-concentration-gradient-buffer-for-li-ion-batteries
#5
Ji-Lei Shi, Ran Qi, Xu-Dong Zhang, Peng-Fei Wang, Weigui Fu, Ya-Xia Yin, Jian Xu, Li-Jun Wan, Yu-Guo Guo
Delivery of high-capacity with high thermal and air stability is a great challenge in developing of Ni-rich layered cathodes for commercialized Li-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein we present a surface concentration-gradient spherical particle with varying elemental composition from the outer end LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) to the inner end LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA). This cathode material with the merit of NCM concentration-gradient protective buffer and the inner NCA core shows high capacity retention of 99.8% after 200 cycles at 0...
November 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145766/environmental-samples-make-soiled-bedding-sentinels-dispensable-for-hygienic-monitoring-of-ivc-reared-mouse-colonies
#6
Manuel Miller, Markus Brielmeier
Accurate knowledge of the health status of experimental animals is pivotal to high scientific and ethical standards in biomedical research. Individually ventilated cages (IVCs) are becoming the predominant system for housing laboratory mice, as they prevent cage-to-cage infections. However, this feature constitutes a major drawback for hygienic monitoring of mouse colonies, as traditional screening programs build on reliable transmission of infectious agents from experimental animals to sentinel mice commonly tested as representatives for the mouse colonies...
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145141/characterizing-pollutant-emissions-from-mosquito-repellents-incenses-and-implications-in-risk-assessment-of-human-health
#7
Lina Wang, Xinran Zheng, Svetlana Stevanovic, Zhiyuan Xiang, Jing Liu, Huiwen Shi, Jing Liu, Mingzhou Yu, Chun Zhu
Mosquito-repellent incense is one of the most popular products used for dispelling mosquitos during summer in China. It releases large amounts of particulate and gaseous pollutants which constitute a potential hazard to human health. We conducted chamber experiment to characterize major pollutants from three types of mosquito-repellent incenses, further assessed the size-fractionated deposition in human respiratory system, and evaluated the indoor removing efficiency by fresh air. Results showed that the released pollutant concentrations were greater than permissible levels in regulations in GB3095-2012, as well as suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO)...
October 22, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144436/an-in-silico-subject-variability-study-of-upper-airway-morphological-influence-on-the-airflow-regime-in-a-tracheobronchial-tree
#8
Yu Feng, Jianan Zhao, Xiaole Chen, Jiang Lin
Determining the impact of inter-subject variability on airflow pattern and nanoparticle deposition in the human respiratory system is necessary to generate population-representative models, useful for several biomedical engineering applications. Thus, the overall research objective is to quantitatively correlate geometric parameters and coupled transport characteristics of air, vapor, and nanoparticles. Focusing on identifying morphological parameters that significantly influence airflow field and nanoparticle transport, an experimentally validated computational fluid-particle dynamics (CFPD) model was employed to simulate airflow pattern in three human lung-airway configurations...
November 16, 2017: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143840/nonaffine-deformation-and-tunable-yielding-of-colloidal-assemblies-at-the-air-water-interface
#9
Armando Maestro, Alessio Zaccone
Silica nanoparticles trapped at the air-water interface form a 2D solid state with amorphous order. We propose a theoretical model to describe how this solid-like state deforms under a shear strain ramp up to and beyond a yielding point which leads to plastic flow. The model accounts for all the particle-level and many-body physics of the system: nonaffine displacements, local connectivity and its evolution in terms of cage-breaking, and interparticle interactions mediated by the particle chemistry and colloidal forces...
November 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142039/risk-factors-associated-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-exposure-to-cigarette-smoke-and-air-pollution-from-pregnancy-to-disease-diagnosis
#10
Camila Maria Paiva França, Adriana Maluf Elias Sallum, Alfésio Luis Ferreira Braga, Fernando Louzada Strufaldi, Clovis Artur Almeida Silva, Sylvia Costa Lima Farhat
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate exposure to environmental factors inhaled during pregnancy and after birth until juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) diagnosis among residents of a large city. METHODS: This is an exploratory case-control study that consists of 66 patients with JIA and 124 healthy controls matched by age and sex, living in the São Paulo, Brazil, metropolitan area until JIA diagnosis, and whose mothers had resided in this region during pregnancy. A structured and reliable questionnaire (κ index for test-retest was 0...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138444/the-elusive-evidence-of-volcanic-lightning
#11
K Genareau, P Gharghabi, J Gafford, M Mazzola
Lightning strikes are known to morphologically alter and chemically reduce geologic formations and deposits, forming fulgurites. A similar process occurs as the result of volcanic lightning discharge, when airborne volcanic ash is transformed into lightning-induced volcanic spherules (LIVS). Here, we adapt the calculations used in previous studies of lightning-induced damage to infrastructure materials to determine the effects on pseudo-ash samples of simplified composition. Using laboratory high-current impulse experiments, this research shows that within the lightning discharge channel there is an ideal melting zone that represents roughly 10% or less of the total channel radius at which temperatures are sufficient to melt the ash, regardless of peak current...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136378/anisotropic-self-assembly-from-isotropic-colloidal-building-blocks
#12
Marcel Rey, Adam D Law, D Martin A Buzza, Nicolas Vogel
Spherical colloidal particles generally self-assemble into hexagonal lattices in two dimensions. However, more com-plex, non-hexagonal phases have been predicted theoretically for isotropic particles with a soft repulsive shoulder but have not been experimentally realized. We study the phase behaviour of microspheres in the presence of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAm) microgels at the air/water interface. We observe a complex phase diagram, including phases with chain and square arrangements, which exclusively form in the presence of the microgels...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136194/fast-skin-dose-estimation-system-for-interventional-radiology
#13
Takeshi Takata, Jun'ichi Kotoku, Hideyuki Maejima, Shinobu Kumagai, Norikazu Arai, Takenori Kobayashi, Kenshiro Shiraishi, Masayoshi Yamamoto, Hiroshi Kondo, Shigeru Furui
To minimise the radiation dermatitis related to interventional radiology (IR), rapid and accurate dose estimation has been sought for all procedures. We propose a technique for estimating the patient skin dose rapidly and accurately using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation with a graphical processing unit (GPU, GTX 1080; Nvidia Corp.). The skin dose distribution is simulated based on an individual patient's computed tomography (CT) dataset for fluoroscopic conditions after the CT dataset has been segmented into air, water and bone based on pixel values...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134986/phase-separation-in-organic-aerosol
#14
Miriam Arak Freedman
Organic aerosol is ubiquitous in the atmosphere, and impacts climate through the scattering and absorption of light and through the formation of nuclei for cloud droplets. These aerosol particles, which are composed of organic compounds and salts, are of great recent interest due to the complex chemistry that occurs within the particles as well as at the air-aerosol interface. Historically, organic aerosol was thought to undergo two phase transitions as the relative humidity around the particles is varied: efflorescence (crystallization) and deliquescence (water uptake)...
November 14, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128243/an-empirical-model-to-predict-road-dust-emissions-based-on-pavement-and-traffic-characteristics
#15
Elio Padoan, Franco Ajmone-Marsan, Xavier Querol, Fulvio Amato
The relative impact of non-exhaust sources (i.e. road dust, tire wear, road wear and brake wear particles) on urban air quality is increasing. Among them, road dust resuspension has generally the highest impact on PM concentrations but its spatio-temporal variability has been rarely studied and modeled. Some recent studies attempted to observe and describe the time-variability but, as it is driven by traffic and meteorology, uncertainty remains on the seasonality of emissions. The knowledge gap on spatial variability is much wider, as several factors have been pointed out as responsible for road dust build-up: pavement characteristics, traffic intensity and speed, fleet composition, proximity to traffic lights, but also the presence of external sources...
November 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127923/in-situ-capture-and-conversion-of-atmospheric-co2-into-nano-caco3-using-a-novel-pathway-based-on-deep-eutectic-choline-chloride-calcium-chloride
#16
Mohammad Karimi, Akbar Jodaei, Asiyeh Khajvandi, Amirhosein Sadeghinik, Rahim Jahandideh
This study presents a newfangled method and provides a new approach toward capturing-entrapping the toxic and harmful greenhouse gas CO2 and subsequently employing it as a useful precursor for the production of value-added calcite (CaCO3) nanoparticles. All the processes are done in a single system (one-pot and in-situ processing) based on deep eutectic choline chloride-calcium chloride (Calcoline) at mild temperature of 50 °C in direct contact with air. The Calcoline eutectic mixture shows the calcite production yield of 6...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127795/an-investigation-of-the-leaf-retention-capacity-efficiency-and-mechanism-for-atmospheric-particulate-matter-of-five-greening-tree-species-in-beijing-china
#17
Jinqiang Liu, Zhiguo Cao, Songyan Zou, Huanhuan Liu, Xiao Hai, Shihua Wang, Jie Duan, Benye Xi, Guangxuan Yan, Shaowei Zhang, Zhongkui Jia
Urban trees have the potential to reduce air pollution, but the retention capacity and efficiency of different tree species for atmospheric particulate matter (PM) accumulation and the underlying mechanism hasn't been well understood. To select tree species with high air purification abilities, the supplementing ultrasonic cleaning (UC) procedure was first introduced into the conventional leaf cleaning methods [single water cleaning (WC) or plus brush cleaning (BC)] for eluting the leaf-retained PM. Further updates to the methodology were applied to investigate the retention capacity, efficiency, and mechanism for PM of five typical greening tree species in Beijing, China...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123138/chemical-and-cellular-oxidant-production-induced-by-naphthalene-secondary-organic-aerosol-soa-effect-of-redox-active-metals-and-photochemical-aging
#18
Wing Y Tuet, Yunle Chen, Shierly Fok, Dong Gao, Rodney J Weber, Julie A Champion, Nga L Ng
Exposure to air pollution is a leading global health risk. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) constitute a large portion of ambient particulate matter (PM). In this study, the water-soluble oxidative potential (OP) determined by dithiothreitol (DTT) consumption and intracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) production was measured for SOA generated from the photooxidation of naphthalene in the presence of iron sulfate and ammonium sulfate seed particles. The measured intrinsic OP varied for aerosol formed using different initial naphthalene concentrations, however, no trends were observed between OP and bulk aerosol composition or seed type...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120693/mesoscale-behavior-study-of-collector-aggregations-in-a-self-excited-wet-dust-scrubber
#19
Xiaochuan Li, Xiang Wu, Haibin Hu, Shuguang Jiang, Tao Wei, Dongxue Wang
In order to address the bottleneck problem of low fine-particle removal efficiency of self-excited dust scrubbers, this paper is focused on the influence of the intermittent gas-liquid two-phase flow on the mesoscale behavior of collector aggregations. The latter is investigated by the application of high-speed dynamic image technology to the self-excited dust scrubber experimental setup. The real-time-scale monitoring of the dust removal process is provided to clarify its operating mechanism at the mesoscale level...
November 9, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120614/connecting-the-elementary-reaction-pathways-of-criegee-intermediates-to-the-chemical-erosion-of-squalene-interfaces-during-ozonolysis
#20
Nadja Heine, Frances A Houle, Kevin R Wilson
Criegee Intermediates (CI), formed in alkene ozonolysis, are central for controlling the multiphase chemistry of organic molecules in both indoor and outdoor environments. Here we examine the heterogeneous ozonolysis of squalene, a key species in indoor air chemistry. Aerosol mass spectrometry is used to investigate how the ozone (O3) concentration, relative humidity (RH) and particle size control reaction rates and mechanisms. Although the reaction rate is found to be independent of RH, the reaction products and particle size depend upon H2O...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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