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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345915/observation-of-ph-induced-protein-reorientation-at-the-water-surface
#1
Konrad Meister, Steven Joop Roeters, Arja Paananen, Sander Woutersen, Jan Versluis, Géza R Szilvay, Huib J Bakker
Hydrophobins are surface-active proteins that form a hydrophobic, water-repelling film around aerial fungal structures. They have a compact, particle-like structure, in which hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions are spatially separated. This surface property renders them amphiphilic and is reminiscent of synthetic Janus particles. Here we report surface-specific chiral and non-chiral vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy (VSFG) measurements of hydrophobins adsorbed to their natural place of action, the air-water interface...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345707/selectivity-control-between-mizoroki-heck-and-homo-coupling-reactions-for-synthesising-multinuclear-metal-complexes-unique-addition-effects-of-tertiary-phosphines-and-o2
#2
Yasuomi Yamazaki, Osamu Ishitani
The addition of a tertiary phosphine and O2 to reaction solutions strongly affected the reactivity and selectivity of coupling reactions between transition metal complexes. The Mizoroki-Heck reaction between metal complexes with bromo and those with vinyl groups in the diimine ligand did not proceed using Pd(OAc)2 in the presence of 2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2',6'-dimethoxybiphenyl (Sphos) under Ar but proceeded selectively after injection of air into the reaction vessel. In the absence of the phosphine ligand, on the other hand, not only the Mizoroki-Heck reaction but also a homo-coupling reaction between the metal complexes with the bromo groups proceeded at the same time...
March 27, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343744/new-technology-for-recovering-residual-metals-from-nonmetallic-fractions-of-waste-printed-circuit-boards
#3
Guangwen Zhang, Yaqun He, Haifeng Wang, Tao Zhang, Shuai Wang, Xing Yang, Wencheng Xia
Recycling of waste printed circuit boards is important for environmental protection and sustainable resource utilization. Corona electrostatic separation has been widely used to recycle metals from waste printed circuit boards, but it has poor separation efficiency for finer sized fractions. In this study, a new process of vibrated gas-solid fluidized bed was used to recycle residual metals from nonmetallic fractions, which were treated using the corona electrostatic separation technology. The effects of three main parameters, i...
March 23, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343101/the-influence-of-odd-even-car-trial-on-fine-and-coarse-particles-in-delhi
#4
Prashant Kumar, Sunil Gulia, Roy M Harrison, Mukesh Khare
The odd-even car trial scheme, which reduced car traffic between 08.00 and 20.00 h daily, was applied from 1 to 15 January 2016 (winter scheme, WS) and 15-30 April 2016 (summer scheme, SS). The daily average PM2.5 and PM10 exceeded national standards, with highest concentrations (313 μg m(-3) and 639 μg m(-3), respectively) during winter and lowest (53 μg m(-3) and 130 μg m(-3)) during the monsoon (June-August). PM concentrations during the trials can be interpreted either as reduced or increased, depending on the periods used for comparison purposes...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343038/physicochemical-characterization-of-ambient-pm2-5-in-tehran-air-and-its-potential-cytotoxicity-in-human-lung-epithelial-cells-a549
#5
Anoushiravan MohseniBandpi, Akbar Eslami, Abbas Shahsavani, Fariba Khodagholi, Abdolazim Alinejad
As air pollution is a major problem in Tehran, this study aimed to investigate the physicochemical characterization of the water-soluble and organic contents of ambient PM2.5 in Tehran and determine its in vitro toxicological impact on human lung epithelial cells (A549). A total of 11 sampling stations were selected, including three categories: traffic, urban, and suburban. All sampling was carried out in the spring and summer of 2015. Ion chromatography (IC), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and GC-MS were used to analyze ionic compounds, heavy metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), respectively, and an ELISA reader was used for cytotoxicity analysis...
March 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341207/transcriptome-analysis-of-airborne-pm2-5-induced-detrimental-effects-on-human-keratinocytes
#6
Hyoung-June Kim, Il-Hong Bae, Eui Dong Son, Juyearl Park, Nari Cha, Hyewon Na, Changjo Jung, You-Seak Go, Dae-Yong Kim, Tae Ryong Lee, Dong Wook Shin
Ambient air pollution is becoming more severe worldwide, posing a serious threat to human health. Fine airborne particles of particulate matter (PM2.5) show higher cytotoxicity than other coarse fractions. Indeed, PM2.5 induces cardiovascular or respiratory damage; however, few studies have evaluated the detrimental effect of PM2.5 to normal human skin. We used a next-generation sequencing-based (RNA-Seq) method with transcriptome and Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis to determine the harmful influences of PM2...
March 21, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340948/application-of-ultrasound-aided-method-for-the-synthesis-of-cds-incorporated-three-dimensional-tio2-photocatalysts-with-enhanced-performance
#7
Joon Yeob Lee, Wan-Kuen Jo
In this study, an ultrasound-aided hydrothermal-impregnation method was used to synthesize three-dimensional (3D) urchin-like CdS-TiO2 nanostructures (UCTs) with variable CdS content. The photocatalytic efficiencies (for degrading limonene and toluene vapor) of UCTs synthesized using the ultrasound-aided process were greater than those of UCTs fabricated without ultrasound treatment. In addition, the photocatalytic efficiencies of ultrasound-treated UCTs were greater than those of zero-dimensional ultrasound-treated CdS-TiO2 particles, which, in turn, were greater than those of untreated 3D TiO2...
March 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340080/measuring-pm2-5-ultrafine-particles-air-nicotine-and-wipe-samples-following-the-use-of-electronic-cigarettes
#8
Paul Melstrom, Bartosz Koszowski, Meridith Hill Thanner, Eunha Hoh, Brian King, Rebecca Bunnell, Tim McAfee
Background: Few studies have examined the extent of inhalation or dermal contact among bystanders following short-term, secondhand e-cigarette exposure. Objective: Measure PM2.5 (particles <2.5 microns), UF (ultrafine particles <100nm), and nicotine in air and deposited on surfaces and clothing pre-/during/post- a short-term (two-hour) e-cigarette exposure. Methods: E-cigarettes were used ad libitum by three experienced users for two hours during two separate sessions (disposable e-cigarettes, then tank-style e-cigarettes, or "tanks") in a 1858ft3 room...
March 9, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336895/exchange-bias-optimization-by-controlled-oxidation-of-cobalt-nanoparticle-films-prepared-by-sputter-gas-aggregation
#9
Ricardo López Antón, Juan A González, Juan P Andrés, Peter S Normile, Jesús Canales-Vázquez, Pablo Muñiz, José M Riveiro, José A De Toro
Porous films of cobalt nanoparticles have been obtained by sputter gas aggregation and controllably oxidized by air annealing at 100 °C for progressively longer times (up to more than 1400 h). The magnetic properties of the samples were monitored during the process, with a focus on the exchange bias field. Air annealing proves to be a convenient way to control the Co/CoO ratio in the samples, allowing the optimization of the exchange bias field to a value above 6 kOe at 5 K. The occurrence of the maximum in the exchange bias field is understood in terms of the density of CoO uncompensated spins and their degree of pinning, with the former reducing and the latter increasing upon the growth of a progressively thicker CoO shell...
March 11, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334489/ce-iv-gd-iii-mixed-oxides-as-hosts-for-er-iii-based-upconversion-phosphors
#10
Cecilia Sorbello, Petra Gross, Cristian A Strassert, Matías Jobbágy, Beatriz C Barja
A family of Er(III) and Er(III) -Yb(III) based nanophosphors, hosted in monophasic oxidic Ce(IV) -Gd(III) binary solid solutions, was prepared. The samples were formulated with a constant Er(III) content as the activator, with the eventual addition of Yb(III) as a sensitizer. The amorphous Ce0.94-x Gdx Er0.06 (OH)CO3 ⋅H2 O and Ce0.94-x Gdx Er0.05 Yb0.01 (OH)CO3 ⋅H2 O precursors were prepared by following the urea method to obtain monodispersed spheres of tunable size ranging from 30 to 450 nm. After being decomposed at 1273 K under an atmosphere of air, the precursors of 200 nm in diameter evolved into monophasic polycrystalline particles preserving the parent shape and size...
March 23, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334443/pollutant-ground-concentrations-of-nonneutrally-buoyant-particles
#11
Alon Mandel, Eli Stern, Amos Ullmann, Neima Brauner
A methodology is suggested for the estimation of the mass density and the cumulative ground deposition of a nonvolatile, nonneutrally buoyant, air pollutant (liquid or solid) released from a polluted column (following an explosion caused during routine operation in, e.g., the chemical industry or due to any kind of hostile act) and deposited on the ground via gravitational settling. In many cases, the deposited mass due to gravitational settling constitutes a significant fraction of the original inventory released from the source...
March 23, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333580/air-quality-measurements-from-rubber-bands-to-tapping-the-rainbow
#12
George M Hidy, Peter K Mueller, Samuel L Altshuler, Judith C Chow, John G Watson
It is axiomatic that good measurements are integral to good public policy for environmental protection. The generalized term for "measurements" includes sampling and quantitation, data integrity, documentation, network design, sponsorship and operations, and archiving and accessing for applications. Each of these components has evolved and advanced over the last 200 years as knowledge of atmospheric chemistry and physics has matured. Air quality was first detected by what people could see smoke and smell contaminated air...
March 23, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330428/toxicity-of-airborne-dust-as-an-indicator-of-moisture-problems-in-school-buildings
#13
Jenni Tirkkonen, Martin Täubel, Hanna Leppänen, Matti Peltonen, William Lindsley, Bean T Chen, Anne Hyvärinen, Maija-Riitta Hirvonen, Kati Huttunen
Moisture-damaged indoor environments are thought to increase the toxicity of indoor air particulate matter (PM), indicating that a toxicological assay could be used as a method for recognizing buildings with indoor air problems. We aimed to test if our approach of analyzing the toxicity of actively collected indoor air PM in vitro differentiates moisture-damaged from non-damaged school buildings. We collected active air samples with NIOSH Bioaerosol Cyclone Samplers from moisture-damaged (index) and non-damaged (reference) school buildings (4 + 4)...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330307/effect-of-particle-size-moisture-content-and-supplements-on-selective-pretreatment-of-cotton-stalks-by-daedalea-flavida-and-enzymatic-saccharification
#14
Harmanpreet Meehnian, Asim K Jana, Mithu Maiti Jana
A large amount of cotton stalk waste biomass with high cellulose content are incinerated by the farmers causing air pollution. The high cellulose content of cotton stalks can be converted to fermentable sugars by fungal delignification pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and enzymatic saccharification. The effect of particle size, moisture content, and media supplements was studied for delignification of cotton stalks by Daedalea flavida MTCC 145 (DF-2) in solid-state fermentation. The highest lignolytic enzyme activities, optimal lignin degradation 29...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329947/-air-pollution-and-adverse-birth-outcome-in-china-a-comprehensive-review
#15
P F Zhu, Y Zhang, J Ban, T T Li, X M Shi
Objective: To summarize the progress in the research of the association between air pollution and adverse birth outcomes in China. Methods: A literature retrieval was conducted by using the databases of CNKI, Wanfang, Pubmed, Science Direct, and Web of Science to select relevant research papers published before 30(th), June 2016 in China according to inclusion criteria. Finally, 27 papers were included in analysis. Results: Exposure to particulate matter (PM(10)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), total suspended particles (TSP) during pregnancy might increase risk for low birth weight; exposure to PM(10), SO(2), NO(2) during pregnancy might increase risk for premature birth; and exposure to SO(2), NO(2), ozone (O(3)), and PM(10) during pregnancy might increase risk for congenital heart diseases and other birth defects...
March 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327263/pit-and-fissure-sealant-retention-following-air-abrasion-preparation-with-bioactive-glass-and-aluminum-oxide-particles
#16
Maryam Khoroushi, Alireza Eshghi, Fatemeh Naderibeni
PURPOSE: Alumina air abrasion is an alternative for acid-etch technique for tooth preparation before placement of a fissure sealant. The aim of this study was to compare the retention of sealants placed subsequent to air abrasion with alumina and bioactive glass (BAG) particles. METHODS: Sixty-two 6-12 year old children were included in this study. Using a halfmouth design, the fissures were prepared using air abrasion with alumina particles on randomly assigned permanent mandibular or/and maxillary first molars on one side of the mouth (Group 1) and air abrasion with BAG on the contralateral side of the mouth (Group 2)...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Dentistry for Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326230/methods-for-preparing-polymer-decorated-single-exchange-biased-magnetic-nanoparticles-for-application-in-flexible-polymer-based-films
#17
Laurence Ourry, Delphine Toulemon, Souad Ammar, Fayna Mammeri
Background: Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) must not only be well-defined in composition, shape and size to exhibit the desired properties (e.g., exchange-bias for thermal stability of the magnetization) but also judiciously functionalized to ensure their stability in air and their compatibility with a polymer matrix, in order to avoid aggregation which may seriously affect their physical properties. Dipolar interactions between NPs too close to each other favour a collective magnetic glass state with lower magnetization and coercivity because of inhomogeneous and frustrated macrospin cluster freezing...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325703/investigation-of-sewage-sludge-treatment-using-air-plasma-assisted-gasification
#18
Nerijus Striūgas, Vitas Valinčius, Nerijus Pedišius, Robertas Poškas, Kęstutis Zakarauskas
This study presents an experimental investigation of downdraft gasification process coupled with a secondary thermal plasma reactor in order to perform experimental investigations of sewage sludge gasification, and compare process parameters running the system with and without the secondary thermal plasma reactor. The experimental investigation were performed with non-pelletized mixture of dried sewage sludge and wood pellets. To estimate the process performance, the composition of the producer gas, tars, particle matter, producer gas and char yield were measured at the exit of the gasification and plasma reactor...
March 18, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324768/analysis-of-different-materials-subjected-to-open-air-explosions-in-search-of-explosive-traces-by-raman-microscopy
#19
Félix Zapata, Carmen García-Ruiz
Post-explosion scenes offer such chaos and destruction that evidence recovery and detection of post-blast residues from the explosive in the surrounding materials is highly challenging and difficult. The suitability of materials to retain explosives residues and their subsequent analysis has been scarcely investigated. Particularly, the use of explosive mixtures containing inorganic oxidizing salts to make improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is a current security concern due to their wide availability and lax control...
March 16, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322599/dissolvit-an-in-vitro-method-for-simulating-the-dissolution-and-absorption-of-inhaled-dry-powder-drugs-in-the-lungs
#20
Per Gerde, Maria Malmlöf, Lina Havsborn, Carl-Olof Sjöberg, Pär Ewing, Stefan Eirefelt, Katarina Ekelund
The main purpose of this work was to develop an in vitro method for simulating the dissolution and absorption of inhaled dry powder drugs that also mimics systemic pharmacokinetic data. A second purpose was to evaluate this method. DissolvIt(®) was developed as a simulation of the air-blood barrier of the upper airways, constituting: "airborne" particles deposited on a glass cover slip, a mucus simulant, a polycarbonate (basal) membrane, and a pumped albumin buffer simulating the pulmonary blood flow. The PreciseInhale(®) exposure system was used to aerosolize and deposit test formulations onto cover slips...
February 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
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