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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636594/surface-tension-prevails-over-solute-effect-in-organic-influenced-cloud-droplet-activation
#1
Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Andreas Zuend, Ari Laaksonen, Kevin J Sanchez, Greg Roberts, Darius Ceburnis, Stefano Decesari, Matteo Rinaldi, Natasha Hodas, Maria Cristina Facchini, John H Seinfeld, Colin O' Dowd
The spontaneous growth of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) into cloud droplets under supersaturated water vapour conditions is described by classic Köhler theory. This spontaneous activation of CCN depends on the interplay between the Raoult effect, whereby activation potential increases with decreasing water activity or increasing solute concentration, and the Kelvin effect, whereby activation potential decreases with decreasing droplet size or increases with decreasing surface tension, which is sensitive to surfactants...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633065/differential-accumulation-of-pahs-elements-and-pb-isotopes-by-five-lichen-species-from-the-athabasca-oil-sands-region-in-alberta-canada
#2
Joseph R Graney, Matthew S Landis, Keith J Puckett, William B Studabaker, Eric S Edgerton, Allan H Legge, Kevin E Percy
A 2014 case study investigated the relative accumulation efficiency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total sulfur (S), total nitrogen (N), major and minor elements and Pb isotopes in five common lichen species at three boreal forest sites in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in northeastern Alberta, Canada to identify the optimum lichen species for future biomonitoring. Differences in concentrations of PAHs, multiple elements, and Pb isotopes in fruticose (Bryoria furcellata, Cladina mitis, Evernia mesomorpha) and foliose (Hypogymnia physodes and Tuckermannopsis americana) lichens were found along a 100 km distance gradient from the primary oil sands operations...
June 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632170/current-research-in-lidar-technology-used-for-the-remote-sensing-of-atmospheric-aerosols
#3
REVIEW
Adolfo Comerón, Constantino Muñoz-Porcar, Francesc Rocadenbosch, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gómez, Michaël Sicard
Lidars are active optical remote sensing instruments with unique capabilities for atmospheric sounding. A manifold of atmospheric variables can be profiled using different types of lidar: concentration of species, wind speed, temperature, etc. Among them, measurement of the properties of aerosol particles, whose influence in many atmospheric processes is important but is still poorly stated, stands as one of the main fields of application of current lidar systems. This paper presents a review on fundamentals, technology, methodologies and state-of-the art of the lidar systems used to obtain aerosol information...
June 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630346/the-role-of-jet-and-film-drops-in-controlling-the-mixing-state-of-submicron-sea-spray-aerosol-particles
#4
Xiaofei Wang, Grant B Deane, Kathryn A Moore, Olivia S Ryder, M Dale Stokes, Charlotte M Beall, Douglas B Collins, Mitchell V Santander, Susannah M Burrows, Camille M Sultana, Kimberly A Prather
The oceans represent a significant global source of atmospheric aerosols. Sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles comprise sea salts and organic species in varying proportions. In addition to size, the overall composition of SSA particles determines how effectively they can form cloud droplets and ice crystals. Thus, understanding the factors controlling SSA composition is critical to predicting aerosol impacts on clouds and climate. It is often assumed that submicrometer SSAs are mainly formed by film drops produced from bursting bubble-cap films, which become enriched with hydrophobic organic species contained within the sea surface microlayer...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630285/efficient-transport-of-tropospheric-aerosol-into-the-stratosphere-via-the-asian-summer-monsoon-anticyclone
#5
Pengfei Yu, Karen H Rosenlof, Shang Liu, Hagen Telg, Troy D Thornberry, Andrew W Rollins, Robert W Portmann, Zhixuan Bai, Eric A Ray, Yunjun Duan, Laura L Pan, Owen B Toon, Jianchun Bian, Ru-Shan Gao
An enhanced aerosol layer near the tropopause over Asia during the June-September period of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) was recently identified using satellite observations. Its sources and climate impact are presently not well-characterized. To improve understanding of this phenomenon, we made in situ aerosol measurements during summer 2015 from Kunming, China, then followed with a modeling study to assess the global significance. The in situ measurements revealed a robust enhancement in aerosol concentration that extended up to 2 km above the tropopause...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628304/secondary-organic-aerosol-soa-from-nitrate-radical-oxidation-of-monoterpenes-effects-of-temperature-dilution-and-humidity-on-aerosol-formation-mixing-and-evaporation
#6
Christopher M Boyd, Theodora Nah, Lu Xu, Thomas Berkemeier, Nga Lee Ng
Nitrate radical (NO3) oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) is important for nighttime secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. SOA produced at night may evaporate the following morning due to increasing temperatures or dilution of semivolatile compounds. We isothermally dilute the oxidation products from the limonene+NO3 reaction at 25 °C and observe negligible evaporation of organic aerosol via dilution. The SOA yields from limonene+NO3 are approximately constant (~174%) at 25 °C and range from 81-148% at 40 °C...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628140/-correlation-study-between-respiratory-death-and-airborne-particles-in-beijing-spatiotemporal-analysis-based-on-satellite-remote-sensing-data
#7
X Y Wu, G X Li, X Y Wang, F C Liang, X C Pan
OBJECTIVE: To use vertical and humidity correcting method to calibrate aerosol optical depth (AOD), and to explore the feasibility of calibrated-AOD as exposure index to measure the level of air pollutants from the ground and to establish the exposure-response relationship between calibrated-AOD and people's health outcomes. METHODS: First of all, we interpolated AOD, PM2.5, relative humidity and planetary boundary layer height using Kriging method to obtain data at different locations and matched different data with respiratory death in Beijing by geographical coordinates...
June 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626480/development-of-dry-powder-inhaler-containing-tadalafil-loaded-plga-nanoparticles
#8
Jaleh Varshosaz, Somayeh Taymouri, Hamed Hamishehkar, Razieh Vatankhah, Shadi Yaghubi
Inhalable dry powders containing poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) were developed for the delivery of tadalafil (TAD) for treatment of life-treating pulmonary arterial hypertension. Taguchi design was employed to evaluate the effects of different formulation variables on the physicochemical characteristics of PLGA-NPs prepared using emulsion solvent evaporation method. Inhalable PLGA-NPs of TAD were successfully prepared by co-spray drying the PLGA-NPs with inert carriers. Physicochemical characteristics and in vitro deposition of the aerosolized drug were also evaluated...
June 2017: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626243/characterization-of-an-aerosol-microconcentrator-for-analysis-using-microscale-optical-spectroscopies
#9
Lina Zheng, Pramod Kulkarni, Konstantinos Zavvos, Huayan Liang, M Eileen Birch, Dionysios D Dionysiou
Efficient microconcentration of aerosols to a substrate is essential for effectively coupling the collected particles to microscale optical spectroscopies such as laser-induced or spark microplasma, or micro-Raman or infrared spectroscopies. In this study, we present detailed characterization of a corona-based aerosol microconcentration technique developed previously (Diwakar and Kulkarni, 2012). The method involves two coaxial electrodes separated by a few millimeters, one held at a high electrical potential and the other grounded...
February 2017: Journal of Aerosol Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621942/hygroscopicity-of-organic-compounds-as-a-function-of-carbon-chain-length-carboxyl-hydroperoxy-and-carbonyl-functional-groups
#10
Sarah Suda Petters, Demetrios Pagonis, Megan Suzanne Claflin, Ezra J T Levin, Markus D Petters, Paul J Ziemann, Sonia M Kreidenweis
The albedo and microphysical properties of clouds are controlled in part by the hygroscopicity of particles serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Hygroscopicity of complex organic mixtures in the atmosphere varies widely and remains challenging to predict. Here we present new measurements characterizing the CCN activity of pure compounds in which carbon chain length and the number of hydroperoxy, carboxyl, and carbonyl functional groups were systematically varied to establish the contributions of these groups to organic aerosol apparent hygroscopicity...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620668/nanoscale-spectroscopic-and-mechanical-characterization-of-individual-aerosol-particles-using-peak-force-infrared-microscopy
#11
Le Wang, Dandan Huang, Chak K Chan, Yong Jie Li, Xiaoji G Xu
Atmospheric aerosol particles of sizes less than 2.5 microns affect public health in cities. Understanding the fine structures of aerosol particles is important to decipher their source. Here, we use a novel spectroscopic and mechanical microscopy technique of 10 nm spatial resolution to reveal the nanoscale structures of individual aerosol particles.
June 16, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618895/silver-nanoparticles-inhaled-during-pregnancy-reach-and-affect-the-placenta-and-the-foetus
#12
Luisa Campagnolo, Micol Massimiani, Lucia Vecchione, Diletta Piccirilli, Nicola Toschi, Andrea Magrini, Elena Bonanno, Manuel Scimeca, Luca Castagnozzi, Giorgio Buonanno, Luca Stabile, Francesco Cubadda, Federica Aureli, Paul Hb Fokkens, Wolfgang G Kreyling, Flemming R Cassee, Antonio Pietroiusti
Recently, interest for the potential impact of consumer-relevant engineered nanoparticles on pregnancy has dramatically increased. This study investigates whether inhaled silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) reach and cross mouse placental barrier and induce adverse effects. Apart from their relevance for the growing use in consumer products and biomedical applications, AgNPs are selected since they can be unequivocally identified in tissues. Pregnant mouse females are exposed during the first 15 days of gestation by nose-only inhalation to a freshly produced aerosol of 18-20 nm AgNPs for either 1 or 4 hours, at a particle number concentration of 3...
June 16, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617149/comparison-of-airway-deposition-distributions-of-particles-in-healthy-and-diseased-workers-in-an-egyptian-industrial-site
#13
Péter Füri, Werner Hofmann, Ágnes Jókay, Imre Balásházy, Mona Moustafa, Blanka Czitrovszky, Gábor Kudela, Árpád Farkas
The objective of this study is the prediction and comparison of airway deposition patterns of an industrial aerosol in healthy workers and workers suffering from silicosis. Mass concentrations and related size distributions of particulate matter were measured in the industrial area of Samalut in Minia, Egypt. A novel stochastic lung deposition model, simulating the symptoms of silicosis by chronic bronchial (Br) obstruction and emphysema in the acinar (Ac) region, was applied to compute mass deposition fractions, deposition density, deposition rate and deposition density rate distributions in healthy and diseased workers...
June 15, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612759/nanogenerator-power-output-influence-of-particle-size-and-crystallinity-of-batio3
#14
Gian Nutal Schädli, Robert Büchel, Sotiris E Pratsinis
Lead-free piezoelectric nanogenerators made with BaTiO3 offer an attractive energy harvesting solution towards portable, battery-free medical devices such as self-powered pacemakers. Here, we assembled nanogenerators made of thin, flexible poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) films containing either polycrystalline BaTiO3 nanoparticles of various sizes or commercial monocrystalline particles of 64 or 278 nm in average diameter. The nanoparticles were prepared by hydrogen-driven flame aerosol technology and had an average diameter of 24-50 nm with an average crystal size of about 10 nm...
July 7, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611228/effect-of-interval-between-actuations-of-albuterol-hydrofluoroalkane-pressurized-metered-dose-inhalers-on-their-aerosol-characteristics
#15
Ariel Berlinski, David Pennington
BACKGROUND: Albuterol hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) either alone or with a valved holding chamber is used to treat bronchoconstriction. Delays between actuation and inhalation are common. Currently, the recommended interval between actuations of an albuterol HFA is 60 s. Using a shorter interval when multiple actuations are ordered will improve productivity in the hospital setting. METHODS: We studied aerosol characteristics of albuterol HFA (Ventolin, ProAir, and Proventil) with a cascade impactor calibrated at 30 L/min...
June 13, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609222/thoracic-and-respirable-aerosol-fractions-of-spray-products-containing-non-volatile-compounds
#16
Katharina Schwarz, Wolfgang Koch
A versatile and simple mass balance method for the measurement of the release fraction of thoracic and respirable particles of non-volatile compounds of spray products is presented. The release fractions are defined as the ratio between the mass of suspended non-volatile particulate matter in the thoracic, respectively, respirable particle size range and the total mass of non-volatile material released with the spray action. For its determination, a spray bolus of short duration and of defined mass is sprayed into a well stirred control chamber...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607400/arctic-sea-ice-melt-leads-to-atmospheric-new-particle-formation
#17
M Dall Osto, D C S Beddows, P Tunved, R Krejci, J Ström, H-C Hansson, Y J Yoon, Ki-Tae Park, S Becagli, R Udisti, T Onasch, C D O Dowd, R Simó, Roy M Harrison
Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) and growth significantly influences climate by supplying new seeds for cloud condensation and brightness. Currently, there is a lack of understanding of whether and how marine biota emissions affect aerosol-cloud-climate interactions in the Arctic. Here, the aerosol population was categorised via cluster analysis of aerosol size distributions taken at Mt Zeppelin (Svalbard) during a 11 year record. The daily temporal occurrence of NPF events likely caused by nucleation in the polar marine boundary layer was quantified annually as 18%, with a peak of 51% during summer months...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605184/modeling-photosensitized-secondary-organic-aerosol-formation-in-laboratory-and-ambient-aerosols
#18
William Gang Tsui, Yi Rao, Hai-Lung Dai, V Faye McNeill
Photosensitized reactions involving imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC) have been experimentally observed to contribute to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) growth. However, the extent of photosensitized reactions in ambient aerosols remains poorly understood and unaccounted for in atmospheric models. Here we use GAMMA 4.0, a photochemical box model that couples gas-phase and aqueous-phase aerosol chemistry, along with recent laboratory measurements of the kinetics of IC photochemistry, to analyze IC-photosensitized SOA formation in laboratory and ambient settings...
June 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602287/optimization-of-plasma-sampling-depth-and-aerosol-gas-flow-rates-for-single-particle-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry-analysis
#19
Ildikó Kálomista, Albert Kéri, Gábor Galbács
We performed experiments to assess the separate and also the combined effect of the sampling depth and the aerosol gas flow rates on the signal formation in single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) measurements by using dispersions containing Ag and Au NPs. It was found that the NP signal can significantly be improved by the optimization of the sampling depth. With respect to the "robust" setting, a signal improvement of nearly 100% could be achieved, which translates into a 25-30% improvement in size detection limits...
September 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599193/organic-and-inorganic-speciation-of-particulate-matter-formed-during-different-combustion-phases-in-an-improved-cookstove
#20
Anna Leavey, Sameer Patel, Raul Martinez, Dhruv Mitroo, Claire Fortenberry, Michael Walker, Brent Williams, Pratim Biswas
Residential solid fuel combustion in cookstoves has established health impacts including bladder and lung cancers, cataracts, low birth weight, and pneumonia. The chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) from 4 commonly-used solid fuels (coal, dung, ambient/dry applewood, and oakwood pellets), emitted from a gasifier cookstove, as well as propane, were examined. Temporal changes between the different cookstove burn-phases were also explored. Normalized concentrations of non-refractory PM1, total organics, chloride, ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, and 41 particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and a Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas chromatograph (TAG), respectively...
June 6, 2017: Environmental Research
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