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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926789/profiling-quinones-in-ambient-air-samples-collected-from-the-athabasca-region-canada
#1
Andrzej Wnorowski, Jean-Pierre Charland
This paper presents new findings on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon oxidation products-quinones that were collected in ambient air samples in the proximity of oil sands exploration. Quinones were characterized for their diurnal concentration variability, phase partitioning, and molecular size distribution. Gas-phase (GP) and particle-phase (PM) ambient air samples were collected separately in the summer; a lower quinone content was observed in the PM samples from continuous 24-h sampling than from combined 12-h sampling (day and night)...
September 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926254/new-in-situ-measurements-of-the-viscosity-of-gas-clathrate-hydrate-slurries-formed-from-model-water-in-oil-emulsions
#2
Ahmad Majid, David T Wu, Carolyn A Koh
In-situ rheological measurements for clathrate hydrate slurries were performed using a high pressure rheometer to determine the effect of hydrate particles on the viscosity and transportability of these slurries. These measurements were conducted using a well-characterized model water-in-oil emulsion1. The emulsion consists of a model liquid hydrocarbon, water, and a surfactant mixture of sorbitane monooleate 80 (Span 80) and sodium di-2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (Aerosol OT, AOT). This emulsion was used as an analog to water-in-crude oil (w/o) emulsions and provides reproducible results...
September 19, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916396/ultrafine-particle-transport-and-deposition-in-a-large-scale-17-generation-lung-model
#3
Mohammad S Islam, Suvash C Saha, Emilie Sauret, Tevfik Gemci, Ian A Yang, Y T Gu
To understand how to assess optimally the risks of inhaled particles on respiratory health, it is necessary to comprehend the uptake of ultrafine particulate matter by inhalation during the complex transport process through a non-dichotomously bifurcating network of conduit airways. It is evident that the highly toxic ultrafine particles damage the respiratory epithelium in the terminal bronchioles. The wide range of in silico available and the limited realistic model for the extrathoracic region of the lung have improved understanding of the ultrafine particle transport and deposition (TD) in the upper airways...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916281/explaining-the-spatiotemporal-variation-of-fine-particle-number-concentrations-over-beijing-and-surrounding-areas-in-an-air-quality-model-with-aerosol-microphysics
#4
Xueshun Chen, Zifa Wang, Jie Li, Huansheng Chen, Min Hu, Wenyi Yang, Zhe Wang, Baozhu Ge, Dawei Wang
In this study, a three-dimensional air quality model with detailed aerosol microphysics (NAQPMS + APM) was applied to simulate the fine particle number size distribution and to explain the spatiotemporal variation of fine particle number concentrations in different size ranges over Beijing and surrounding areas in the haze season (Jan 15 to Feb 13 in 2006). Comparison between observations and the simulation indicates that the model is able to reproduce the main features of the particle number size distribution...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915935/secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry-the-application-in-the-analysis-of-atmospheric-particulate-matter
#5
REVIEW
Di Huang, Xin Hua, Guang-Li Xiu, Yong-Jie Zheng, Xiao-Ying Yu, Yi-Tao Long
Currently, considerable attention has been paid to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) investigation due to its importance in human health and global climate change. Surface characterization, single particle analysis and depth profiling of PM is important for a better understanding of its formation processes and predicting its impact on the environment and human being. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a surface technique with high surface sensitivity, high spatial resolution chemical imaging and unique depth profiling capabilities...
October 9, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911223/direct-sampling-and-analysis-of-atmospheric-particulate-organic-matter-by-proton-transfer-reaction-mass-spectrometry
#6
Markus Muller, Philipp Eichler, Barbara D'Anna, Wen Tan, Armin Wisthaler
We report on a new method for analyzing atmospheric submicrometer particulate organic matter which combines direct particle sampling and volatilization with on-line chemical ionization mass spectrometric analysis. Technically, the method relies on the combined use of a CHARON ("Chemical Analysis of Aerosol On-line") particle inlet and a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS). Laboratory studies on target analytes showed that the ionization conditions in the PTR-ToF-MS lead to extensive fragmentation of levoglucosan and cis-pinonic acid, while protonated oleic acid and 5-cholestane molecules remain intact...
September 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910728/hygroscopicity-of-internally-mixed-particles-composed-of-nh4-2so4-and-citric-acid-under-pulsed-rh-change
#7
Xiao-Min Shi, Feng-Min Wu, Bo Jing, Na Wang, Lin-Lin Xu, Shu-Feng Pang, Yun-Hong Zhang
In this research, we applied a pulsed RH controlling system and a rapid scan vacuum FTIR spectrometer (PRHCS-RSVFTIR) to investigate hygroscopicity of internally mixed (NH4)2SO4(AS)/citric acid (CA) particles. The water content and efflorescence ratio of AS in the particles and ambient relative humidity (RH) as a function of time were obtained with a subsecond time resolution. The hygroscopic behavior of AS aerosols in two different RH control processes (equilibrium and RH pulsed processes) showed that AS droplets crystallize with RH ranging from 42% to 26...
September 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910093/uptake-of-gaseous-alkylamides-by-suspended-sulfuric-acid-particles-formation-of-ammonium-aminium-salts
#8
Hangfei Chen, MingYi Wang, Lei Yao, Jianmin Chen, Lin Wang
Amides represent an important class of nitrogen-containing compounds in the atmosphere that can in theory interact with atmospheric acidic particles and contribute to secondary aerosol formation. In this study, uptake coefficients (γ) of six alkylamides (C1 to C3) by suspended sulfuric acid particles were measured using an aerosol flow tube coupled to a High Resolution Time-of-Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (HRToF-CIMS). At 293 K and < 3% relative humidity (RH), the measured uptake coefficients for six alkylamides were in the range of (4...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904380/transfer-of-labile-organic-matter-and-microbes-from-the-ocean-surface-to-the-marine-aerosol-an-experimental-approach
#9
Eugenio Rastelli, Cinzia Corinaldesi, Antonio Dell'Anno, Marco Lo Martire, Silvestro Greco, Maria Cristina Facchini, Matteo Rinaldi, Colin O'Dowd, Darius Ceburnis, Roberto Danovaro
Surface ocean bubble-bursting generates aerosols composed of microscopic salt-water droplets, enriched in marine organic matter. The organic fraction profoundly influences aerosols' properties, by scattering solar radiations and nucleating water particles. Still little is known on the biochemical and microbiological composition of these organic particles. In the present study, we experimentally simulated the bursting of bubbles at the seawater surface of the North-Eastern Atlantic Ocean, analysing the organic materials and the diversity of the bacteria in the source-seawaters and in the produced aerosols...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903066/development-of-fine-solid-crystal-suspension-with-enhanced-solubility-stability-and-aerosolization-performance-for-dry-powder-inhalation
#10
Ling Lin, Guilan Quan, Tingting Peng, Zhengwei Huang, Vikramjeet Singh, Ming Lu, Chuanbin Wu
Dry powder for inhalation (DPI) is an attractive approach for the treatment of local lung diseases. However, the application of drugs with poor water solubility is often limited due to the dissolution obstacles in the fluid layer of the lung lining. In this study, fine solid-crystal suspension (FSCS) was proposed as a solvent-free method to improve the solubility of a drug with poor solubility (itraconazole) and achieve high deposition efficiency simultaneously. The FSCS, in which the crystalline drug particle was highly dispersed in the crystalline excipient, was initially prepared as drug-excipient extrudate by hot melt extrusion, followed by jet milling into fine particles...
September 10, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902512/cloud-processing-of-secondary-organic-aerosol-from-isoprene-and-methacrolein-photooxidation
#11
Chiara Giorio, Anne Monod, Lola Brégonzio-Rozier, Helen Langley DeWitt, Mathieu Cazaunau, Brice Temime-Roussel, Aline Gratien, Vincent Michoud, Edouard Pangui, Sylvain Ravier, Arthur T Zielinski, Andrea Tapparo, Reinhilde Vermeylen, Magda Claeys, Didier Voisin, Markus Kalberer, Jean-Francois Doussin
Aerosol-cloud interaction contributes to the largest uncertainties in the estimation and interpretation of the Earth's changing energy budget. The present study explores experimentally the impacts of water condensation evaporation events, mimicking processes occurring in atmospheric clouds, on the molecular composition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the photooxidation of methacrolein. A range of on- and off-line mass spectrometry techniques were used to obtain a detailed chemical characterization of SOA formed in control experiments in dry conditions, in triphasic experiments, i...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900265/urban-heat-island-impacted-by-fine-particles-in-nanjing-china
#12
Hao Wu, Tijian Wang, Nicole Riemer, Pulong Chen, Mengmeng Li, Shu Li
Atmospheric aerosol particles (especially particles with aerodynamic diameters equal to or less than 2.5 μm, called PM2.5) can affect the surface energy balance and atmospheric heating rates and thus may impact the intensity of urban heat islands. In this paper, the effect of fine particles on the urban heat island intensity in Nanjing was investigated via the analysis of observational data and numerical modelling. The observations showed that higher PM2.5 concentrations over the urban area corresponded to lower urban heat island (UHI) intensities, especially during the day...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895874/charge-transport-by-inverse-micelles-in-non-polar-media
#13
Filip Strubbe, Kristiaan Neyts
Charged inverse micelles play an important role in the electrical charging and the electrodynamics of nonpolar colloidal dispersion relevant for applications such as electronic ink displays and liquid toner printing. This review examines the properties and the behavior of charged inverse micelles in microscale devices in the absence of colloidal particles. It is discussed how charge in nonpolar liquids is stabilized in inverse micelles and how conductivity depends on the inverse micelle size, water content and ionic impurities...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895085/use-of-an-open-port-sampling-interface-coupled-to-electrospray-ionization-for-the-on-line-analysis-of-organic-aerosol-particles
#14
Kenneth D Swanson, Anne L Worth, Gary L Glish
A simple design for an open port sampling interface coupled to electrospray ionization (OPSI-ESI) is presented for the analysis of organic aerosols. The design uses minimal modifications to a Bruker electrospray (ESI) emitter to create a continuous flow, self-aspirating open port sampling interface. Considerations are presented for introducing aerosol to the open port sampling interface including aerosol gas flow and solvent flow rates. The device has been demonstrated for use with an aerosol of nicotine as well as aerosol formed in the pyrolysis of biomass...
September 11, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895029/chemical-characteristics-of-soluble-aerosols-over-the-central-himalayas-insights-into-spatiotemporal-variations-and-sources
#15
Lekhendra Tripathee, Shichang Kang, Dipesh Rupakheti, Zhiyuan Cong, Qianggong Zhang, Jie Huang
In order to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of aerosols and its soluble chemical compositions of the data gap zone in the central Himalayan region, aerosol samples were collected at four sites. The sampling location were characterized by four different categories, such as urban (Bode), semi-urban site in the northern Indo-Gangetic Plain (Lumbini), rural (Dhunche), and semiarid rural (Jomsom). A total of 230 aerosol samples were collected from four representative sites for a yearlong period and analyzed for water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs)...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892860/fine-particles-at-a-background-site-in-central-france-chemical-compositions-seasonal-variations-and-pollution-events
#16
Lin He, Hui Chen, Jérôme Rangognio, Abderrazak Yahyaoui, Patrice Colin, Jinhe Wang, Véronique Daële, Abdelwahid Mellouki
To expand our knowledge of regional fine particles in Central France (Centre-Val de Loire region), a field observation study of PM2.5 was carried out at Verneuil site (46.81467N, 2.61012E, 180m.a.s.l.) from 2011 to 2014. The mass concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and biomass burning tracer (Levoglucosan) in PM2.5 were measured. Annual average PM2.5 mass concentrations were 11.8, 9.5, 12.6 and 10.2μg·m(-3) in 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively, three of four higher than the WHO guideline of 10μg·m(-3)...
September 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890203/regional-aerosol-deposition-in-the-human-airways-the-siminhale-benchmark-case-and-a-critical-assessment-of-in-silico-methods
#17
P Koullapis, S C Kassinos, J Muela, C Perez-Segarra, J Rigola, O Lehmkuhl, Y Cui, M Sommerfeld, J Elcner, M Jicha, I Saveljic, N Filipovic, F Lizal, L Nicolaou
Regional deposition effects are important in the pulmonary delivery of drugs intended for the topical treatment of respiratory ailments. They also play a critical role in the systemic delivery of drugs with limited lung bioavailability. In recent years, significant improvements in the quality of pulmonary imaging have taken place, however the resolution of current imaging modalities remains inadequate for quantifying regional deposition. Computational Fluid-Particle Dynamics (CFPD) can fill this gap by providing detailed information about regional deposition in the extrathoracic and conducting airways...
September 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889236/seasonal-variation-in-water-soluble-ions-in-airborne-particulate-deposition-in-the-suburban-nanjing-area-yangtze-river-delta-china-during-haze-days-and-normal-days
#18
Junlin An, Qimin Cao, Jianan Zou, Honglei Wang, Qing Duan, Yuanzhe Shi, Chen Chen, Junxiu Wang
To investigate the seasonal variation and characterization of water-soluble ions (WSIs) present in airborne particle deposition (APD) during Haze Days (visibility ≤7.5 km) and Normal Days (visibility >7.5 km) in suburban Nanjing area, 151 filter samples were collected from 18 May 2013 to 26 May 2014. Ten different WSIs from the samples were determined by Ion Chromatography. The results indicated that secondary WSIs (NH4(+), NO3(-), and SO4(2-)) were the main ions in the WSIs, averaging 17.2, 18.5, and 17...
September 9, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883490/in-vitro-exposure-of-simulated-meat-cooking-fumes-to-assess-adverse-biological-effects
#19
Bijay Kumar Poudel, Jungwook Choi, Jae Hong Park, Kyung-Oh Doh, Jeong Hoon Byeon
The heterocyclic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is considered as a human carcinogenic or mutagenic compound that is produced from the co-condensation of creatinine and amino acids as meats cook at high temperatures. The cooking of meats at high temperatures produces fumes, and these fumes can be suspended as aerosols via the vapor-to-particle (or -droplet) process in a temperature gradient field. Size distributions of the aerosols included a significant portion of nano- and submicron-sized particles, and these can be directly deposited in the lungs and on skin by particle transport phenomena near cooking areas...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881502/biochemical-and-aerosol-characterization-of-ricin-for-use-in-non-clinical-efficacy-studies
#20
Roy E Barnewall, Carol G Riffle, Randy L Jones, David J Guistino, Richard M Chou, Mike S Anderson, Michelle L Vassar, Carrie A Howland
Ricin toxin may be used as a biological warfare agent and no medical countermeasures are currently available. Here, a well-characterized lot of ricin was aerosolized to determine the delivered dose for future pre-clinical efficacy studies.  Mouse intraperitoneal (IP) median lethal dose (LD50 ) bioassay measured potency at 5.62 and 7.35 μg/kg on Days 0 and 365, respectively. Additional analyses included total protein, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blotting, and rabbit reticulocyte lysate activity assay...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
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