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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781773/a-comparison-of-total-inward-leakage-measured-using-sodium-chloride-nacl-and-corn-oil-aerosol-methods-for-air-purifying-respirators
#1
Samy Rengasamy, Ziqing Zhuang, George Niezgoda, Gary Walbert, Robert Lawrence, Brenda Boutin, Judith Hudnall, William P Monaghan, Michael Bergman, Colleen Miller, James Harris, Christopher Coffey
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard 16900-1:2014 specifies the use of sodium chloride (NaCl) and corn oil aerosols, and sulfur hexafluoride gas for measuring total inward leakage (TIL). However, a comparison of TIL between different agents is lacking. The objective of this study was to measure and compare TIL for respirators using corn oil and NaCl aerosols. TIL was measured with 10 subjects donning two models of filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) including FFP1, N95, P100, and elastomeric half-mask respirators (ERs) in NaCl and corn oil aerosol test chambers, using continuous sampling methods...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778149/effect-of-temperature-tuning-on-the-aerosol-acoustic-aggregation-process
#2
Zhenghui Qiao, Wei Dong, Yaji Huang, Vincenzo Naso
Diesel exhaust aerosols (DEAs) can absorb and accumulate toxic metal particulates and bacteria suspended in the atmospheric environment, which impact human health and the environment. The use of acoustic standing waves (ASWs) to aggregate DEA is currently considered to be an efficient particle removal method; however, study of the effect of different temperatures on the acoustic aggregation process is scarce. To explore the method and technology to regulate and optimize the aerosol aggregation process through temperature tuning, an acoustic apparatus integrated with a temperature regulation function was constructed...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778012/reactive-oxygen-species-ros-activity-of-ambient-fine-particles-pm-2-5-measured-in-seoul-korea
#3
Jieun Park, Eun Ha Park, James J Schauer, Seung-Muk Yi, Jongbae Heo
Substantial increase in level of particulate matter has raised concerns in South Korea recently. Ambient particulate matter is classified as Group I carcinogen (IARC, 2013) and multiple epidemiological studies has demonstrated adverse health effects due to exposure of particulate matter. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) which has a diameter <2.5 μm is likely to penetrate deeply into lung and is known to be eliciting adverse health effects. A number of epidemiological studies have been conducted on adverse health effects of PM-related diseases and mortality rate, yet particulate matter (PM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity at the cellular level has not been actively studied in Korea...
May 16, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775933/observing-hno-3-release-dependent-upon-metal-complexes-in-malonic-acid-nitrate-droplets
#4
Xu Shao, Feng-Min Wu, Hui Yang, Shu-Feng Pang, Yun-Hong Zhang
Although the dicarboxylic acid has been reported to react with nitrate for aged internally mixed aerosols in atmosphere, the quantitative nitrate depletion dependent upon composition in particles is still not well constrained. The chemical composition evolutions for malonic acid/sodium nitrate (MA/SN), malonic acid/magnesium nitrate (MA/MN) and malonic acid/calcium nitrate (MA/CN) particles with the organic to inorganic molar ratio (OIR) of 1:1 are investigated by vacuum Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
May 9, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775536/spatial-variability-of-sources-and-mixing-state-of-atmospheric-particles-in-a-metropolitan-area
#5
Qing Ye, Peishi Gu, Hugh Z Li, Ellis S Robinson, Eric M Lipsky, Christos Kaltsonoudis, Alex K Y Lee, Joshua Schulz Apte, Allen L Robinson, Ryan Christopher Sullivan, Albert A Presto, Neil M Donahue
Characterizing intra-city variations of atmospheric particulate matter has mostly relied on fixed-site monitoring and quantifying variability in terms of different bulk aerosol species. In this study, we performed ground-based mobile measurements using a single-particle mass spectrometer to study spatial patterns of source-specific particles and the evolution of particle mixing state in 21 areas in the metropolitan area of Pittsburgh, PA. We selected sampling areas based on traffic density and restaurant density with each area ranging from 0...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775300/secondary-organic-aerosol-formation-from-ambient-air-at-an-urban-site-in-beijing-effects-of-oh-exposure-and-precursor-concentrations
#6
Jun Liu, Biwu Chu, Tianzeng Chen, Changgeng Liu, Ling Wang, Xiaolei Bao, Hong He
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is an important component of atmospheric fine particles (PM2.5 ), while the key factors controlling SOA formation in ambient air remain poorly understood. In this work, the SOA formation in Beijing urban ambient air was investigated using an oxidation flow reactor (OFR) with high concentrations of OH radicals. The SOA formation potential increased significantly with the increase of ambient PM2.5 concentration during the observation. The optimum ambient exposure time, which is the aging time equivalent to atmospheric oxidation (with similar OH exposure) associated with the peak SOA formation, varied between 2 to 4 days in this study...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775291/reactive-uptake-of-glyoxal-by-ammonium-containing-salt-particles-as-a-function-of-relative-humidity
#7
Masao Gen, Dandan Huang, Chak Keung Chan
Reactions between dissolved ammonia and carbonyls, which form light-absorbing species in atmospheric particles, can be accelerated by actively removing water from the reaction system. Here, we examine the effects of relative humidity (RH) on the reactive uptake of glyoxal (Gly) by aqueous particles of ammonium sulfate (AS), ammonium bisulfate, sodium sulfate, magnesium sulfate, ammonium nitrate (AN), and sodium nitrate. In-situ Raman analysis was used to quantify particle-phase Gly and a colored product, 2,2'-biimidazole (BI) as a function of uptake time...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772167/dynamic-oxidative-potential-of-atmospheric-organic-aerosol-under-ambient-sunlight
#8
Huanhuan Jiang, Myoseon Jang
The atmospheric process dynamically changes the chemical compositions of organic aerosol (OA), thereby complicating the interpretation of its health effects. In this study, the dynamic evolution of the oxidative potential of various OA was studied, including wood combustion particles and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) generated from different hydrocarbons (i.e. gasoline, toluene, isoprene and α-pinene). The oxidative potential of OA at different aging stages was subsequently measured by the dithiothreitol consumption (DTTm, mass normalized)...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768714/detection-of-an-avian-lineage-influenza-a-h7n2-virus-in-air-and-surface-samples-at-a-new-york-city-feline-quarantine-facility
#9
Francoise M Blachere, William G Lindsley, Angela M Weber, Donald H Beezhold, Robert E Thewlis, Kenneth R Mead, John D Noti
BACKGROUND: In December 2016, an outbreak of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N2) occurred in cats at a New York City animal shelter and quickly spread to other shelters in New York and Pennsylvania. The A(H7N2) virus also spread to an attending veterinarian. In response, 500 cats were transferred from these shelters to a temporary quarantine facility for continued monitoring and treatment. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study was to assess the occupational risk of A(H7N2) exposure among emergency response workers at the feline quarantine facility...
May 16, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766418/partitioning-of-particulate-matter-and-elements-of-suburban-continental-aerosols-between-fine-and-coarse-modes
#10
Jelena Đuričić-Milanković, Ivan Anđelković, Ana Pantelić, Srđan Petrović, Andrea Gambaro, Dušan Antonović, Dragana Đorđević
The results presented in this work demonstrate for the first time a distribution of elements in the spectral analysis of aerosols in the suburban continental Balkan Peninsula. Samples were collected in the suburban area of Belgrade (Serbia) in the period from March 2012 till December 2013. Results presented here are from long-term measurements of masses of size-segregated aerosols and macro- and microelements in the range of PM0.27-16 . The following elements were analyzed: Al, Ag, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, Tl, V, and Zn; levels of Be, Hg, and Se were under the detection limits in all samples...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765201/deposition-and-transport-of-linezolid-mediated-by-a-synthetic-surfactant-synsurf-%C3%A2-within-a-pressurized-metered-dose-inhaler-a-calu-3-model
#11
Lyné van Rensburg, Johann M van Zyl, Johan Smith
Background: Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that a synthetic peptide containing lung surfactant enhances the permeability of chemical compounds through bronchial epithelium. The purpose of this study was to test two formulations of Synsurf® combined with linezolid as respirable compounds using a pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI). Methods: Aerosolization efficiency of the surfactant-drug microparticles onto Calu-3 monolayers as an air interface culture was analyzed using a Next Generation Impactor™...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758895/chemical-speciation-including-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-and-toxicity-of-particles-emitted-from-meat-cooking-operations
#12
Nicholas Gysel, Poornima Dixit, Debra A Schmitz, Guenter Engling, Arthur K Cho, David R Cocker, Georgios Karavalakis
We assessed the chemical properties and oxidative stress of particulate matter (PM) emissions from underfired charbroiled meat operations with and without the use of aftertreatment control technologies. Cooking emissions concentrations showed a strong dependence on the control technology utilized, with all emission rates showing decreases with the control technologies compared to the baseline testing. The organic acids profile was dominated by the saturated nonanoic, myristic, palmitic, and stearic acids, and the unsaturated oleic, elaidic, and palmitoleic acids...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758867/stable-sulfur-isotope-ratios-and-chemical-compositions-of-fine-aerosols-pm-2-5-in-beijing-china
#13
Lianfang Wei, Siyao Yue, Wanyu Zhao, Wenyi Yang, Yingjie Zhang, Lujie Ren, Xiaokun Han, Qingjun Guo, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Pingqing Fu
Pervasive particulate pollution has been observed over large areas of the North China Plain. The high level of sulfate, a major component in fine particles, is pronounced during heavy pollution periods. Being different from source apportionments by atmospheric chemistry-transport model and receptor modeling methods, here we utilize sulfur isotopes to discern the potential emission sources. Sixty-five daily PM2.5 samples were collected at an urban site in Beijing between September 2013 and July 2014. Inorganic ions, organic/elemental carbon and stable sulfur isotopes of sulfate were analyzed...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755737/inactivation-of-pure-bacterial-biofilms-by-impaction-of-aerosolized-consumer-products-containing-nanoparticulate-metals
#14
Jennifer Therkorn, Leonardo Calderon, Benton Cartledge, Nirmala Thomas, Brian Majestic, Gediminas Mainelis
The ability of nanotechnology-enabled consumer sprays to inactivate bacteria has direct health implications. This research investigated the ability of six nanosilver-based consumer sprays to inactivate bacteria. We determined the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the products by an agar dilution method, collected particles released from sprays onto bacterial films using impactors, and determined metal concentrations in the products using ICPMS. Also, the size of silver nanoparticles in the products' suspensions was determined using single particle (sp)ICPMS...
February 1, 2018: Environmental Science. Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753250/levels-and-risk-assessment-of-hydrocarbons-and-organochlorines-in-aerosols-from-a-north-african-coastal-city-bizerte-tunisia
#15
Badreddine Barhoumi, Javier Castro-Jiménez, Catherine Guigue, Madeleine Goutx, Richard Sempéré, Abdelkader Derouiche, Amani Achour, Soufiane Touil, Mohamed Ridha Driss, Marc Tedetti
The aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the concentrations, sources, dry deposition and human health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in total suspended particle (TSP) samples collected in Bizerte city, Tunisia (North Africa), during one year (March 2015-January 2016). Concentrations of PAHs, AHs, PCBs and OCPs ranged 0.5-17.8 ng m-3 , 6.7-126.5 ng m-3 , 0.3-11 pg m-3 and 0...
May 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750194/thirdhand-smoke-uptake-to-aerosol-particles-in-the-indoor-environment
#16
Peter F DeCarlo, Anita M Avery, Michael S Waring
Aerosol composition measurements made in an indoor classroom indicate the uptake of thirdhand smoke (THS) species to indoor particles, a novel exposure route for THS to humans indoors. Chemical speciation of the organic aerosol fraction using mass spectrometric data and factor analysis identified a reduced nitrogen component, predominantly found in the indoor environment, contributing 29% of the indoor submicron aerosol mass. We identify this factor as THS compounds partitioning from interior surfaces to gas phase and then aerosol phase...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750188/temperature-effect-on-phase-state-and-reactivity-controls-atmospheric-multiphase-chemistry-and-transport-of-pahs
#17
Qing Mu, Manabu Shiraiwa, Mega Octaviani, Nan Ma, Aijun Ding, Hang Su, Gerhard Lammel, Ulrich Pöschl, Yafang Cheng
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like benzo( a )pyrene (BaP) in atmospheric particulate matter pose a threat to human health because of their high carcinogenicity. In the atmosphere, BaP is mainly degraded through a multiphase reaction with ozone, but the fate and atmospheric transport of BaP are poorly characterized. Earlier modeling studies used reaction rate coefficients determined in laboratory experiments at room temperature, which may overestimate/underestimate degradation rates when applied under atmospheric conditions...
March 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748814/chemical-characterization-of-pm-2-5-from-a-southern-coastal-city-of-china-applications-of-modeling-and-chemical-tracers-in-demonstration-of-regional-transport
#18
Jiamao Zhou, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Junji Cao, Zhuzi Zhao, Shuyu Zhao, Chongshu Zhu, Qiyuan Wang, Suixin Liu, Ting Zhang, Youzhi Zhao, Ping Wang, Xuexi Tie
An intensive sampling campaign of airborne fine particles (PM2.5 ) was conducted at Sanya, a coastal city in Southern China, from January to February 2012. Chemical analyses and mass reconstruction were used identify potential pollution sources and investigate atmospheric reaction mechanisms. A thermodynamic model indicated that low ammonia and high relative humidity caused the aerosols be acidic and that drove heterogeneous reactions which led to the formation of secondary inorganic aerosol. Relationships among neutralization ratios, free acidity, and air-mass trajectories suggest that the atmosphere at Sanya was impacted by both local and regional emissions...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747112/sources-and-atmospheric-processing-of-size-segregated-aerosol-particles-revealed-by-stable-carbon-isotope-ratios-and-chemical-speciation
#19
A Masalaite, R Holzinger, D Ceburnis, V Remeikis, V Ulevičius, T Röckmann, U Dusek
Size-segregated aerosol particles were collected during winter sampling campaigns at a coastal (55°37' N, 21°03'E) and an urban (54°64' N, 25°18' E) site. Organic compounds were thermally desorbed from the samples at different temperature steps ranging from 100 °C to 350 °C. The organic matter (OM) desorbed at each temperature step is analysed for stable carbon isotopes using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) and for individual organic compounds using a Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS)...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747109/characterization-of-airborne-particles-emitted-by-an-electrically-heated-tobacco-smoking-system
#20
A Pacitto, L Stabile, M Scungio, V Rizza, G Buonanno
Smoking activities were recognized as a main risk factor for population. Indeed, mainstream smoke aerosol is directly inhaled by smokers then delivering harmful compounds in the deepest regions of the lung. In order to reduce the potential risk of smoking, different nicotine delivery products have been recently developed. The latest device released is an electrically heated tobacco system (iQOS® , Philip Morris) which is able to warm the tobacco with no combustion. In the present paper a dimensional and volatility characterization of iQOS-generated particles was performed through particle number concentration and distribution measurements in the mainstream aerosol...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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