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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348652/intensification-of-ice-nucleation-observed-in-ocean-ship-emissions
#1
E S Thomson, D Weber, H G Bingemer, J Tuomi, M Ebert, J B C Pettersson
Shipping contributes primary and secondary emission products to the atmospheric aerosol burden that have implications for climate, clouds, and air quality from regional to global scales. In this study we exam the potential impact of ship emissions with regards to ice nucleating particles. Particles that nucleate ice are known to directly affect precipitation and cloud microphysical properties. We have collected and analyzed particles for their ice nucleating capacity from a shipping channel outside a large Scandinavia port...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347146/calculating-the-rotational-friction-coefficient-of-fractal-aerosol-particles-in-the-transition-regime-using-extended-kirkwood-riseman-theory
#2
James Corson, George W Mulholland, Michael R Zachariah
We apply our extended Kirkwood-Riseman theory to compute the translation, rotation, and coupling friction tensors and the scalar rotational friction coefficient for an aerosol fractal aggregate in the transition flow regime. The method can be used for particles consisting of spheres in contact. Our approach considers only the linear velocity of the primary spheres in a rotating aggregate and ignores rotational and coupling interactions between spheres. We show that this simplified approach is within approximately 40% of the true value for any particle for Knudsen numbers between 0...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346902/transport-diffusion-and-energy-studies-in-the-arnold-beltrami-childress-map
#3
Swetamber Das, Neelima Gupte
We study the transport and diffusion properties of passive inertial particles described by a six-dimensional dissipative bailout embedding map. The base map chosen for the study is the three-dimensional incompressible Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) map chosen as a representation of volume preserving flows. There are two distinct cases: the two-action and the one-action cases, depending on whether two or one of the parameters (A,B,C) exceed 1. The embedded map dynamics is governed by two parameters (α,γ), which quantify the mass density ratio and dissipation, respectively...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339022/exposure-assessments-for-a-cross-sectional-epidemiologic-study-of-us-carbon-nanotube-and-nanofiber-workers
#4
Matthew M Dahm, Mary K Schubauer-Berigan, Douglas E Evans, M Eileen Birch, Stephen Bertke, John D Beard, Aaron Erdely, Joseph E Fernback, Robert R Mercer, Sergey A Grinshpun
BACKGROUND: Recent animal studies have suggested the potential for wide-ranging health effects resulting from exposure to carbon nanotubes and nanofibers (CNT/F). To date, no studies in the US have directly examined the relationship between occupational exposure and potential human health effects. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to measure CNT/F exposures among US workers with representative job types, from non-exposed to highly exposed, for an epidemiologic study relating exposure to early biologic effects...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337916/real-time-cascade-impactor-based-on-surface-acoustic-wave-delay-lines-for-pm10-and-pm2-5-mass-concentration-measurement
#5
Lyes Djoumi, Meddy Vanotti, Virginie Blondeau-Patissier
In this research, Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors are combined with a cascade impactor to perform real time PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration measurements. The SAW sensors consist of 125 MHz delay lines based on Love waves propagating on an AT-cut quartz substrate. The Love waves are guided on the substrate's surface using a silica layer. SAW sensors themselves are not capable to discriminate particles by their size, therefore, particle separation based on aerodynamic diameter is achieved using a 3 Lpm dedicated cascade impactor...
January 16, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336571/atmospheric-processing-and-iron-mobilization-of-ilmenite-an-iron-containing-ternary-oxide-in-mineral-dust-aerosol
#6
Eshani Hettiarachchi, Omar Hurab, Gayan Rubasinghege
Over the last several decades, iron has been identified as a limiting nutrient in about half of the world's oceans. Its most significant source is identified as deposited iron-containing mineral dust that has been processed during atmospheric transportation. The current work focuses on chemical and photochemical processing of iron-containing mineral dust particles in the presence of nitric acid, and an organic pollutant dimethyl sulfide under atmospherically relevant conditions. More importantly, ilmenite (FeTiO3) is evaluated as a proxy for the iron-containing mineral dust...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332388/immersion-and-contact-efflorescence-induced-by-mineral-dust-particles
#7
Shuichi B Ushijima, Ryan D Davis, Margaret A Tolbert
The phase state of inorganic salt aerosols impacts their properties including the ability to undergo hygroscopic growth, catalyze heterogeneous reactions, and act as cloud condensation nuclei. Here, we report the first observation of contact efflorescence by mineral dust aerosol. The efflorescence of aqueous ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) and sodium chloride (NaCl) droplets by contact with three types of mineral dust particles (illite, montmorillonite, and NX Illite), were examined using an optical levitation chamber...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332278/exposure-to-nanoscale-and-microscale-particulate-air-pollution-prior-to-mining-development-near-a-northern-indigenous-community-in-qu%C3%A3-bec-canada
#8
Avik J Ghoshdastidar, Zhenzhong Hu, Yevgen Nazarenko, Parisa A Ariya
This study serves as a baseline characterization of indoor and outdoor air quality in a remote northern indigenous community prior to the start of a major nearby mining operation, including measurements of nanoparticles, which has never been performed in this context before. We performed aerosol sample collection and real-time aerosol measurements at six different locations at the Cree First Nation of Waswanipi and the Montviel campsite, located 45 km west of the Cree First Nation of Waswanipi, in the south of the Nord-du-Québec region...
January 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327190/chemical-characterization-and-quantitativ-e-assessment-of-source-specific-health-risk-of-trace-metals-in-pm1-0-at-a-road-site-of-delhi-india
#9
Jai Prakash, Tarachand Lohia, Anil K Mandariya, Gazala Habib, Tarun Gupta, Sanjay K Gupta
This study presents the concentration of submicron aerosol (PM1.0) collected during November, 2009 to March, 2010 at two road sites near the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi campus. In winter, PM1.0 composed 83% of PM2.5 indicating the dominance of combustion activity-generated particles. Principal component analysis (PCA) proved secondary aerosol formation as a dominant process in enhancing aerosol concentration at a receptor site along with biomass burning, vehicle exhaust, road dust, engine and tire tear wear, and secondary ammonia...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323216/characterization-of-isoprene-derived-secondary-organic-aerosols-at-a-rural-site-in-north-china-plain-with-implications-for-anthropogenic-pollution-effects
#10
Jianjun Li, Gehui Wang, Can Wu, Cong Cao, Yanqin Ren, Jiayuan Wang, Jin Li, Junji Cao, Limin Zeng, Tong Zhu
Isoprene is the most abundant non-methane volatile organic compound (VOC) and the largest contributor to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) burden on a global scale. In order to examine the influence of high concentrations of anthropogenic pollutants on isoprene-derived SOA (SOA i ) formation, summertime PM2.5 filter samples were collected with a three-hour sampling interval at a rural site in the North China Plain (NCP), and determined for SOA i tracers and other chemical species. RO2+NO pathway derived 2-methylglyceric acid presented a relatively higher contribution to the SOA i due to the high-NOx (~20 ppb) conditions in the NCP that suppressed the reactive uptake of RO2+HO2 reaction derived isoprene epoxydiols...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317750/exhaled-air-dispersion-during-bag-mask-ventilation-and-sputum-suctioning-implications-for-infection-control
#11
Matthew T V Chan, Benny K Chow, Thomas Lo, Fanny W Ko, Susanna S Ng, Tony Gin, David S Hui
Mask ventilation and coughing during oro-tracheal suctioning produce aerosols that enhance nosocomial transmission of respiratory infections. We examined the extent of exhaled air dispersion from a human-patient-simulator during mask ventilation by different groups of healthcare workers and coughing bouts. The simulator was programmed to mimic varying severity of lung injury. Exhaled airflow was marked with tiny smoke particles, and highlighted by laser light-sheet. We determined the normalized exhaled air concentration in the leakage jet plume from the light scattered by smoke particles...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317668/hygroscopic-coating-of-sulfuric-acid-shields-oxidant-attack-on-the-atmospheric-pollutant-benzo-a-pyrene-bound-to-model-soot-particles
#12
Debajyoti Ray, Tara Shankar Bhattacharya, Abhijit Chatterjee, Achintya Singha, Sanjay K Ghosh, Sibaji Raha
Substantial impacts on climate have been documented for soot‒sulfuric acid (H2SO4) interactions in terms of optical and hygroscopic properties of soot aerosols. However, the influence of H2SO4 on heterogeneous chemistry on soot remains unexplored. Additionally, oxidation rate coefficients for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons intrinsic to the atmospheric particles evaluated in laboratory experiments seem to overestimate their degradation in ambient atmosphere, possibly due to matrix effects which are hitherto not mimicked in laboratory experiments...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315025/particulate-matter-emissions-of-different-brands-of-mentholated-cigarettes
#13
Julia Gerharz, Michael H K Bendels, Markus Braun, Doris Klingelhöfer, David A Groneberg, Ruth Mueller
Inhaling particulate matter (PM) in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) endangers the health of non-smokers. Menthol, an additive in cigarettes, attenuates respiratory irritation of tobacco smoke. It reduces perceptibility of smoke and therefore passive smokers may inhale ETS unnoticed. To investigate a possible effect of menthol on PM concentrations (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) ETS of four mentholated cigarette brands (Elixyr Menthol, Winston Menthol, Reyno Classic and Pall Mall Menthol Blast) with varying menthol content were analyzed...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313074/source-apportionment-of-total-suspended-particles-tsp-by-positive-matrix-factorization-pmf-and-chemical-mass-balance-cmb-modeling-in-ahvaz-iran
#14
Khosro Ashrafi, Reza Fallah, Mostafa Hadei, Marayam Yarahmadi, Abbas Shahsavani
There is a compelling need for apportionment of pollutants' sources to facilitate their reduction through proper management plans. The present study was designed to determine the contribution of each possible source of total suspended particles in Ahvaz's ambient air using positive matrix factorization (PMF), chemical mass balance (CMB), and the SPECIATE database. The sampling program undertaken followed EPA's guidelines and finally resulted in 74 samples. The concentration of 33 elemental and 10 ionic species were measured during a whole year...
January 8, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306835/a-versatile-generator-of-nanoparticle-aerosols-a-novel-tool-in-environmental-and-occupational-exposure-assessment
#15
Alberto Clemente, M Pilar Lobera, Francisco Balas, Jesus Santamaria
The increasing presence of nanotechnology on the market entails a growing probability of finding ENMs in the environment. Nanoparticles aerosols are a yet unknown risk for human and environmental exposure that may normally occur at any point during the nanomaterial lifecycle. There is a research gap in standardized methods to assess the exposure to airborne nanoparticles in different environments. The controllable generation of nanoparticle aerosols has long been a challenging objective for researchers and industries dealing with airborne nanoparticles...
January 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306164/long-term-observations-of-the-background-aerosol-at-cabauw-the-netherlands
#16
D Mamali, J Mikkilä, B Henzing, R Spoor, M Ehn, T Petäjä, H Russchenberg, G Biskos
Long-term measurements of PM2.5 mass concentrations and aerosol particle size distributions from 2008 to 2015, as well as hygroscopicity measurements conducted over one year (2008-2009) at Cabauw, The Netherlands, are compiled here in order to provide a comprehensive dataset for understanding the trends and annual variabilities of the atmospheric aerosol in the region. PM2.5 concentrations have a mean value of 14.4μgm-3 with standard deviation 2.1μgm-3, and exhibit an overall decreasing trend of -0.74μgm-3year-1...
January 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306158/pore-engineering-towards-highly-efficient-electrospun-nanofibrous-membranes-for-aerosol-particle-removal
#17
Riyadh Al-Attabi, Ludovic F Dumée, Jürg A Schütz, Yosry Morsi
Electrospun nanofibrous membranes were engineered for aerosol particle removal by controlling the fiber density and alignment across electrospun mats. Electrospun nanofiber membranes were deposited on both, rotatory drum and stationary collectors, to investigate the effect of fiber alignment on filtration performance. Poly(acrylonitrile)/dimethyl formamide (PAN/DMF) solutions were used to produce membranes for applications in air purification. The air filtration performance of as-produced and hot-compacted membranes were systematically evaluated with regard to penetration, pressure drop, and quality factor when subjected to potassium chloride (KCl) aerosol particles in the size-range of 300nm to 12μm...
January 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305806/wintertime-carbonaceous-aerosols-over-dhauladhar-region-of-north-western-himalayas
#18
Deepika Kaushal, Ajay Kumar, Shweta Yadav, Ankit Tandon, Arun K Attri
Carbonaceous aerosols play an important role in affecting human health, radiative forcing, hydrological cycle, and climate change. As our current understanding about the carbonaceous aerosols, the source(s) and process(es) associated with them in the ecologically sensitive North-Western Himalayas are limited; this systematic study was planned to understand inherent dynamics in the mass concentration and source contribution of carbonaceous aerosols in the Dhauladhar region. During four winter months (January 2015-April 2015), 24-h PM10 samples were collected every week simultaneously at the rural site of Pohara (32...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303585/effect-of-mixing-ammonia-and-alkylamines-on-sulfate-aerosol-formation
#19
Berhane Temelso, Elizabeth F Morrison, David L Speer, Bobby C Cao, Nana A Appiah-Padi, Grace Kim, George C Shields
Sulfate aerosols' cooling effect on the global climate has spurred research to understand their mechanisms of formation. Both theoretical and laboratory studies have shown that the formation of sulfate aerosols is enhanced by the presence of a base like ammonia. Stronger alkylamine bases such as monomethylamine (MMA), dimethylamine (DMA) and trimethylamine (TMA) further increase aerosol formation rates by many orders of magnitude relative to that of ammonia. However, recent lab measurements have found that presence of ammonia and alkylamines together increases nucleation rates by another 1-2 orders of magnitude relative to the stronger alkylamines alone...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303572/secondary-organic-aerosol-production-from-gasoline-vehicle-exhaust-effects-of-engine-technology-cold-start-and-emission-certification-standard
#20
Yunliang Zhao, Andrew T Lambe, Rawad Saleh, Georges Saliba, Allen L Robinson
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from dilute gasoline vehicle exhaust was investigated using a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) oxidation flow reactor during chassis dynamometer testing using the cold-start unified cycle (UC). The test fleet consisted of 16 vehicles, 10 equipped with gasoline direct injection engines (GDI vehicles) and 6 equipped with port fuel injection engines (PFI vehicles), certified to a wide range of emissions standards, from Federal Tier0 to California Super Ultra-Low Emission Vehicles (SULEV)...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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