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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127615/fungal-and-parasitic-cns-infections
#1
Pratibha Singhi, Arushi Gahlot Saini
Central nervous system fungal infections can be broadly divided into those that infect a healthy host such as Cryptococcus, Coccidioides, Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Sporothrix spp., and those that cause opportunistic infections in an immunocompromised host such as Candida, Aspergillus, Zygomycetes, Trichosporon spp. The clinical manifestations of central nervous system fungal infections commonly seen in children in clinical practice include a chronic meningitis or meningoencephalitis syndrome, brain abscess, rhino-cerebral syndrome and rarely, a fungal ventriculitis...
November 11, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764615/cerebral-tuberculosis-in-a-patient-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-following-cyclophosphamide-treatment-a-case-report
#2
S Cooray, H Zhang, R Breen, G Carr-White, R Howard, M Cuadrado, D D'Cruz, G Sanna
Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis (TB) is a rare but catastrophic event in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here we report a case of cerebral TB in a patient with lupus myocarditis and nephritis, following cyclophosphamide immunosuppression. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of cerebral TB in SLE in a non-endemic country. A 31-year-old female with SLE and a history of regular travel to Kenya presented to our centre with clinical features of acute heart failure. She was diagnosed with severe lupus myocarditis, and a renal biopsy also confirmed lupus nephritis...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603239/-cerebrospinal-fluid-shunt-associated-meningitis-caused-by-gordonia-sputi-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Daniel Martín, Ana Barrios, Diego Domingo, Pedro Sánchez, Marta Sánchez, Ana Ruiz-Dassy, Ana Miqueleiz, Jesús Sanz
We report the first known case of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt-associated meningitis caused by Gordonia sputi and review published cases of Gordonia CNS infections.
June 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377254/the-association-between-ventriculo-peritoneal-shunt-and-acute-appendicitis-in-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury-a-14-year-population-based-study
#4
Sher-Wei Lim, Kam-Hou Ao, Chung-Han Ho, Chien-Jen Tseng, Jhi-Joung Wang, Chung-Ching Chio, Jinn-Rung Kuo
OBJECTIVE: The association between preexisting ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt and the risk of new-onset acute appendicitis in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not well established. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationships between VP shunt and acute appendicitis in patients with TBI. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study matched by a propensity score in patients with TBI with (4781 patients) or without (9562 patients) VP shunt was conducted using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan between January 1993 and December 2013...
July 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303832/coagulase-negative-staphylococci-emerging-pathogen-in-central-nervous-system-shunt-infection
#5
Preeti Lata Bhatia, Sunil Lilani, Ritesh Shirpurkar, Chhaya Chande, Shrikant Joshi, Abhay Chowdhary
Central nervous system (CNS) shunts are commonly used to treat patients with hydrocephalus. Its placement is associated with increased risk of infection. The study was intended to evaluate infection rate associated with CNS shunt surgeries and identify risk factors for shunt infection. The frequency and characterisation of aetiological agents along with their antibiotic resistance pattern were also studied. A prospective study of 86 patients who underwent 97 surgeries over a period of 18 months was conducted...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239499/a-dual-case-of-peritonitis-and-central-nervous-system-infection-caused-by-nutritionally-variant-streptococcal-species
#6
Sussi Vivar, Jennifer E Girotto, Thomas S Murray
Nutritional variant streptococci (NVS) are difficult to identify bacteria that can cause invasive infections such as endocarditis and meningitis. NVS as a cause of peritonitis has not been routinely described. This case of NVS as the etiology of peritonitis associated with previous neurosurgery and ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt revision demonstrates its potential role as a significant pathogen in patients with peritonitis and VP shunts. Therapy consists of vancomycin plus a second agent but since there are no standards for susceptibility testing, clinical response remains the standard for determining the efficacy of treatment...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186476/risk-factors-for-surgical-site-infection-following-nonshunt-pediatric-neurosurgery-a-review-of-9296-procedures-from-a-national-database-and-comparison-with-a-single-center-experience
#7
Brandon A Sherrod, Anastasia A Arynchyna, James M Johnston, Curtis J Rozzelle, Jeffrey P Blount, W Jerry Oakes, Brandon G Rocque
OBJECTIVE Surgical site infection (SSI) following CSF shunt operations has been well studied, yet risk factors for nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery are less well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine SSI rates and risk factors following nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery using a nationwide patient cohort and an institutional data set specifically for better understanding SSI. METHODS The authors reviewed the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric (ACS NSQIP-P) database for the years 2012-2014, including all neurosurgical procedures performed on pediatric patients except CSF shunts and hematoma evacuations...
April 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826086/the-rate-of-complications-after-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-surgery
#8
Alexander E Merkler, Judy Ch'ang, Whitney E Parker, Santosh B Murthy, Hooman Kamel
BACKGROUND: Although ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) surgery is the most frequent surgical treatment for patients with hydrocephalus, modern rates of complications in adults are uncertain. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult patients hospitalized at the time of their first recorded procedure code for VPS surgery between 2005 and 2012 at nonfederal acute care hospitals in California, Florida, and New York. We excluded patients who during the index hospitalization for VPS surgery had concomitant codes for VPS revision, central nervous system (CNS) infection, or died during the index hospitalization...
February 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737696/il-10-plays-an-important-role-in-the-control-of-inflammation-but-not-in-the-bacterial-burden-in-s-epidermidis-cns-catheter-infection
#9
Yenis M Gutierrez-Murgas, Gwenn Skar, Danielle Ramirez, Matthew Beaver, Jessica N Snowden
BACKGROUND: Shunt infection is a frequent and serious complication in the surgical treatment in hydrocephalus. Previous studies have shown an attenuated immune response to these biofilm-mediated infections. We proposed that IL-10 reduces the inflammatory response to Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) CNS catheter infection. METHODS: In this study, a murine model of catheter-associated S. epidermidis biofilm infection in the CNS was generated based on a well-established similar model for S...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686676/central-nervous-system-device-infections
#10
REVIEW
Rodrigo Hasbun
Nosocomial meningitis can occur in association with central nervous system (CNS) devices such as cerebrospinal shunts or drains, intrathecal pumps, and deep brain stimulators and carry substantial morbidity and mortality. Diagnosing and treating these infections may be challenging to physicians as cerebrospinal fluid cultures may be negative due to previous antibiotic therapy and cerebrospinal abnormalities may be secondary to the primary neurosurgical issue that prompted the placement of the CNS device (e...
November 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27043949/systematic-review-of-efficacy-pharmacokinetics-and-administration-of-intraventricular-aminoglycosides-in-adults
#11
REVIEW
Marlys LeBras, Ivy Chow, Vincent H Mabasa, Mary H H Ensom
Due to increasing prevalence of intracranial device use and multidrug-resistant and nosocomial organisms, central nervous system (CNS) infections requiring treatment with intraventricular (IVT) aminoglycosides are becoming increasingly common. This article systematically reviews IVT aminoglycoside literature in adults and integrates available evidence to serve as a practical reference for clinicians. Medline (1946 to December 2015), Embase (1974 to December 2015), PubMed (1966 to December 2015), Google, and Google Scholar were searched using the term aminoglycoside combined individually with the terms IVT, meningitis, shunt infection, ventriculitis, and cerebral spinal fluid...
December 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26753898/short-term-prognostic-factors-in-myelomeningocele-patients
#12
Andre Broggin Dutra Rodrigues, Vera Lucia Jornada Krebs, Hamilton Matushita, Werther Brunow de Carvalho
PURPOSE: Patients with myelomeningocele have a high mortality and neurological disabilities that are correlated with the anatomical characteristics of the defect and with the development of acquired complications. The challenge in the postnatal management of myelomeningocele (MMC) is the early recognition of cases at risk for complications in order to establish individualized treatment strategies. This study aims to identify short-term prognostic markers for newborns with MMC. Anatomical characteristics of the spinal defect and technical aspects of the neurosurgical correction were analyzed for this purpose...
April 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26618013/first-report-of-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-infection-due-to-cyberlindnera-fabianii
#13
Jonathan Baghdadi, Peera Hemarajata, Romney Humphries, Theodoros Kelesidis
Fungal infections in the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with significant morbidity and death. Transient fungemia in immunocompetent patients without any other risk factors for fungemia has been suggested as a possible mechanism that may lead to serious fungal ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt infections, but evidence is lacking. The clinical spectrum, diagnosis, and optimal therapy of Cyberlindnera fabianii infections remain to be determined. We describe the first case of CNS infection due to C. fabianii that occurred in an immunocompetent adult with a VP shunt...
2015: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26394787/vp-shunt-dysfunction-caused-by-malaria-cns-infection
#14
Michael Karl Fehrenbach, Matthias Bernhard, Manuela Siekmeyer, Norman Lippmann, Wieland Kiess, Ulf Nestler, Jürgen Meixensberger, Matthias Preuss
INTRODUCTION: Malaria is a widespread mosquito-borne infectious disease with over 300 million cases and roughly 900 thousand deaths in 2013. Cerebral involvement of malaria causes 50 % of all infection-associated deaths, especially in children below the age of 5 years. Hydrocephalus is a medical condition with abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in physiological cavities and ventricles. Standard treatment is the implantation of a cerebrospinal fluid shunt device. A common problem associated with shunt treatment especially in pediatric patients is infection and consecutive shunt dysfunction caused by bacteriae or high protein levels clogging the valve...
April 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26148928/mycobacterium-abscessus-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-infection-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
REVIEW
Jose A Montero, Sally F Alrabaa, Todd S Wills
A 30-year-old man with history of neonatal hydrocephalus requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement presented with Mycobacterium abscessus shunt infection despite no shunt manipulation over 10 years prior to presentation. Cure was not achieved until complete removal of all CNS shunt foreign body was performed despite initial adequate antimicrobial therapy.
April 2016: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25276446/a-case-of-recurrent-cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis-in-an-immunocompetent-female
#16
Negin Niknam, Negar Niknam, Kola Dushaj, Erfidia Restrepo
Cryptococcus neoformans is commonly associated with meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients and occasionally in apparently healthy individuals. Duration and regimen of antifungal treatment vary depending on the nature of the host and extent of disease and CNS shunts are placed in persistently elevated intracranial pressures. Recurrence of infection after initial treatment is not uncommon in HIV positive patients, Kaya et al. (2012) and Illnait-zaragozí et al. (2010). We describe a 39-year-old immunocompetent female that presented with neurologic deficits and increased intracranial pressure (ICP) due to cryptococcal meningoencephalitis that had a complicated course with drug induced hepatitis and persistently increased ICP that ultimately required shunt placement and presented again with relapse of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis after completion of antifungal treatment...
2014: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25225619/use-of-a-stop-flow-programmable-shunt-valve-to-maximize-cns-chemotherapy-delivery-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#17
Sheri K Palejwala, David A Stidd, Jesse M Skoch, Puja Gupta, G Michael Lemole, Martin E Weinand
BACKGROUND: The requirement for frequent intraventricular drug delivery in the setting of shunt dependence is particularly challenging in the treatment of central nervous system infection, neoplastic disease, and hemorrhage. This is especially relevant in the pediatric population where both hematogenous malignancy requiring intrathecal drug delivery and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus are more prevalent. Intrathecal and intraventricular chemotherapy agents can be prematurely diverted in these shunt-dependent patients...
2014: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25217065/central-nervous-system-involvement-in-adult-patients-with-invasive-infection-caused-by-streptococcus-agalactiae
#18
B Oyanguren, L Esteban, M Guillán, A de Felipe, A Alonso Cánovas, E Navas, C Quereda, I Corral
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus agalactiae is frequently an asymptomatic coloniser and a cause of neonatal and puerperal sepsis. Infections in nonpregnant adults are uncommon. The frequency of neurological complications caused by invasive infection with this microorganism in adults remains unknown. Here, we study the frequency and characteristics of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in adults with invasive S. agalactiae infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Review of all adults with invasive S...
April 2015: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25156073/ventricular-shunt-infections-immunopathogenesis-and-clinical-management
#19
REVIEW
Yenis Gutierrez-Murgas, Jessica N Snowden
Ventricular shunts are the most common neurosurgical procedure performed in the United States. This hydrocephalus treatment is often complicated by infection of the device with biofilm-forming bacteria. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis of shunt infection, as well as the implications of the biofilm formation on treatment and prevention of these infections. Many questions remain, including the contribution of glia and the impact of inflammation on developmental outcomes following infection. Immune responses within the CNS must be carefully regulated to contain infection while minimizing bystander damage; further study is needed to design optimal treatment strategies for these patients...
November 15, 2014: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24876738/donor-transmitted-and-de-novo-cancer-after-liver-transplantation
#20
REVIEW
Rajeev Desai, James Neuberger
Cancers in solid organ recipients may be classified as donor transmitted, donor derived, de novo or recurrent. The risk of donor-transmitted cancer is very low and can be reduced by careful screening of the donor but cannot be abolished and, in the United Kingdom series is less than 0.03%. For donors with a known history of cancer, the risks will depend on the nature of the cancer, the interventions given and the interval between diagnosis and organ donation. The risks of cancer transmission must be balanced against the risks of death awaiting a new graft and strict adherence to current guidelines may result increased patient death...
May 28, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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