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Exocytosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327603/first-evidence-for-temporary-and-permanent-adhesive-systems-in-the-stalked-barnacle-cyprid-octolasmis-angulata
#1
Fook Choy Yap, Wey-Lim Wong, Aaron G Maule, Gerard P Brennan, Ving Ching Chong, Lee Hong Susan Lim
Although there have been extensive studies on the larval adhesion of acorn barnacles over the past few decades, little is known about stalked barnacles. For the first time, we describe the larval adhesive systems in the stalked barnacle, Octolasmis angulata and the findings differ from previous reports of the temporary (antennulary) and cement glands in thoracican barnacles. We have found that the temporary adhesives of cyprid are produced by the clustered temporary adhesive glands located within the mantle, instead of the specialised hypodermal glands in the second antennular segment as reported in the acorn barnacles...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325894/sumoylation-and-calcium-control-syntaxin-1a-and-secretagogin-sequestration-by-tomosyn-to-regulate-insulin-exocytosis-in-human-%C3%A3-cells
#2
Mourad Ferdaoussi, Jianyang Fu, Xiaoqing Dai, Jocelyn E Manning Fox, Kunimasa Suzuki, Nancy Smith, Gregory Plummer, Patrick E MacDonald
Insulin secretion from pancreatic ß cells is a multistep process that requires the coordination of exocytotic proteins that integrate diverse signals. These include signals derived from metabolic control of post-translational SUMOylation and depolarization-induced rises in intracellular Ca(2+). Here we show that tomosyn, which suppresses insulin exocytosis by binding syntaxin1A, does so in a manner which requires its SUMOylation. Glucose-dependent de-SUMOylation of tomosyn1 at K298 releases syntaxin1A and controls the amplification of exocytosis in concert with a recently-identified tomosyn1-interacting partner; the Ca(2+)-binding protein secretagogin, which dissociates from tomosyn1 in response to Ca(2+)-raising stimuli and is required for insulin granule trafficking and exocytosis downstream of Ca(2+) influx...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325500/mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-are-involved-in-chemoattractant-induced-oxidative-burst-and-degranulation-of-human-neutrophils-in-vitro
#3
Nina Vorobjeva, Anastasia Prikhodko, Ivan Galkin, Olga Pletjushkina, Roman Zinovkin, Galina Sud'ina, Boris Chernyak, Boris Pinegin
Activation of neutrophils is accompanied by the oxidative burst, exocytosis of various granule types (degranulation) and a delay in spontaneous apoptosis. The major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human neutrophils is NADPH oxidase (NOX2), however, other sources of ROS also exist. Although the function of ROS is mainly defensive, they can also play a regulatory role in cell signaling. However, the contribution of various sources of ROS in these processes is not clear. We investigated a possible role of mitochondria-derived ROS (mtROS) in the regulation of neutrophil activation induced by chemoattractant fMLP in vitro...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324608/two-color-total-internal-reflection-fluorescence-microscopy-of-exocytosis-in-endocrine-cells
#4
Adam J Trexler, Justin W Taraska
We describe a comprehensive method for imaging and analysis of local protein dynamics at single sites of exocytosis in living cultured endocrine cells. This method is well suited to quantitatively map the complex dynamics of individual molecules at single sites of vesicle fusion in live cells.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322932/disruption-of-the-epithelial-barrier-during-intestinal-inflammation-quest-for-new-molecules-and-mechanisms
#5
REVIEW
Susana Lechuga, Andrei I Ivanov
The intestinal epithelium forms a key protective barrier that separates internal organs from the harmful environment of the gut lumen. Increased permeability of the gut barrier is a common manifestation of different inflammatory disorders contributing to the severity of disease. Barrier permeability is controlled by epithelial adherens junctions and tight junctions. Junctional assembly and integrity depend on fundamental homeostatic processes such as cell differentiation, rearrangements of the cytoskeleton, and vesicle trafficking...
March 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322841/electrophysiological-properties-and-augmented-catecholamine-release-from-chromaffin-cells-of-wky-and-shr-rats-contributing-to-the-hypertension-development-elicited-by-chronic-etoh-consumption
#6
Guilherme Henrique Souza Bomfim, Iago Méndez-López, José Carlos Fernández-Morales, Juan Fernando Padín, Aron Jurkiewicz, Neide Hyppolito Jurkiewicz, Antonio García García
It is known that chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption leads to hypertension development and has been associated with deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system. Whether this condition alters calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling and exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells (CCs) as the case is for genetic hypertension, is unknown. We explored this question in four randomized experimental groups, male Wistar Kyoto (WKY/EtOH) and Spontaneously Hypertensive (SHR/EtOH) rats were subjected to the intake of increasing EtOH concentrations (5-20%, for 30 days) and their respective controls (WKY/Control and SHR/Control) received water...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319311/zinc-regulates-chemical-transmitter-storage-in-nanometer-vesicles-and-exocytosis-dynamics-as-measured-by-amperometry
#7
Lin Ren, Masoumeh Dowlatshahi Pour, Soodabeh Majdi, Xianchan Li, Per Malmberg, Andrew G Ewing
We applied electrochemical techniques with nano-tip electrodes to show that micromolar concentrations of zinc not only trigger changes in the dynamics of exocytosis, but also vesicle content in a model cell line. The vesicle catecholamine content in PC12 cells is significantly decreased after 100 μm zinc treatment, but, catecholamine release during exocytosis remains nearly the same. This contrasts with the number of molecules stored in the exocytosis vesicles, which decreases, and we find that the amount of catecholamine released from zinc-treated cells reaches nearly 100 % content expelled...
March 20, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314963/mir-124a-expression-contributes-to-the-monophasic-pattern-of-insulin-secretion-in-islets-from-pregnant-rats-submitted-to-a-low-protein-diet
#8
Kariny Cassia de Siqueira, Faena Moura de Lima, Fernanda Souza Lima, Marina Satie Taki, Clarissa Felfili da Cunha, Sílvia Regina de Lima Reis, Rafael Ludemann Camargo, Thiago Martins Batista, Emerielle Cristine Vanzela, Tarlliza Romanna Nardelli, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro, Silvana Bordin, Letícia Martins Ignácio-Souza, Márcia Queiroz Latorraca
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of miR-124a in the regulation of genes involved in insulin exocytosis and its effects on the kinetics of insulin secretion in pancreatic islets from pregnant rats submitted to a low-protein diet. METHODS: Adult control non-pregnant (CNP) and control pregnant (CP) rats were fed a normal protein diet (17%), whereas low-protein non-pregnant (LPNP) and low-protein pregnant (LPP) rats were fed a low-protein diet (6%) from days 1 to 15 of pregnancy...
March 17, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302911/real-time-insights-into-regulated-exocytosis
#9
REVIEW
Duy T Tran, Kelly G Ten Hagen
Real-time imaging of regulated exocytosis in secreting organs can provide unprecedented temporal and spatial detail. Here, we highlight recent advances in 3D time-lapse imaging in Drosophila salivary glands at single-granule resolution. Using fluorescently labeled proteins expressed in the fly, it is now possible to image the dynamics of vesicle biogenesis and the cytoskeletal factors involved in secretion. 3D imaging over time allows one to visualize and define the temporal sequence of events, including clearance of cortical actin, fusion pore formation, mixing of the vesicular and plasma membranes and recruitment of components of the cytoskeleton...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302709/acute-impact-of-conventional-and-eccentric-cycling-on-platelet-and-vascular-function-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure
#10
Andrew Haynes, Matthew D Linden, Lauren C Chasland, Kazunori Nosaka, Andrew J Maiorana, Ellen Adele Dawson, Lawrence Dembo, Louise H Naylor, Daniel J Green
Evidence-based guidelines recommend exercise therapy for patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Such patients have increased atherothrombotic risk. Exercise can transiently increase platelet activation and reactivity and decrease vascular function in healthy participants, although data in CHF is scant. Eccentric (ECC) cycling is a novel exercise modality which may be particularly suited to patients with CHF, but the acute impacts of ECC on platelet and vascular function are currently unknown. Our null hypothesis was that ECC and concentric (CON) cycling, performed at matched external workloads, would not induce changes in platelet or vascular function in patients with CHF...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301940/engineering-synthetic-proteins-to-generate-ca-2-signals-in-mammalian-cells
#11
Anam Qudrat, Kevin Truong
The versatility of Ca(2+) signals allows it to regulate diverse cellular processes such as migration, apoptosis, motility and exocytosis. In some receptors (e.g., VEGFR2), Ca(2+) signals are generated upon binding their ligand(s) (e.g., VEGF-A). Here, we employed a design strategy to engineer proteins that generate a Ca(2+) signal upon binding various extracellular stimuli by creating fusions of protein domains that oligomerize to the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail of the VEGFR2. To test the strategy, we created chimeric proteins that generate Ca(2+) signals upon stimulation with various extracellular stimuli (e...
March 17, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300755/vitamin-d-impacts-the-expression-of-runx2-target-genes-and-modulates-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-membrane-vesicle-biogenesis-gene-networks-in-143b-osteosarcoma-cells
#12
Rama Garimella, Priyanka Tadikonda, Ossama Tawfik, Sumedha Gunewardena, Peter Rowe, Peter Van Veldhuizen
Osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive malignancy of bone affecting children, adolescents and young adults. Understanding vitamin D metabolism and vitamin D regulated genes in OS is an important aspect of vitamin D/cancer paradigm, and in evaluating vitamin D as adjuvant therapy for human OS. Vitamin D treatment of 143B OS cells induced significant and novel changes in the expression of genes that regulate: (a) inflammation and immunity; (b) formation of reactive oxygen species, metabolism of cyclic nucleotides, sterols, vitamins and mineral (calcium), quantity of gap junctions and skeletogenesis; (c) bone mineral density; and (d) cell viability of skeletal cells, aggregation of bone cancer cells and exocytosis of secretory vesicles...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300073/actin-binding-protein-coronin-1a-controls-osteoclastic-bone-resorption-by-regulating-lysosomal-secretion-of-cathepsin-k
#13
Saori Ohmae, Naruto Noma, Masayasu Toyomoto, Masahiro Shinohara, Masatoshi Takeiri, Hiroaki Fuji, Kenji Takemoto, Keiko Iwaisako, Tomoko Fujita, Norihiko Takeda, Makoto Kawatani, Mineyoshi Aoyama, Masatoshi Hagiwara, Yasushi Ishihama, Masataka Asagiri
Osteoclasts degrade bone matrix proteins via the secretion of lysosomal enzymes. However, the precise mechanisms by which lysosomal components are transported and fused to the bone-apposed plasma membrane, termed ruffled border membrane, remain elusive. Here, we identified coronin 1A as a negative regulator of exocytotic release of cathepsin K, one of the most important bone-degrading enzymes in osteoclasts. The modulation of coronin 1A expression did not alter osteoclast differentiation and extracellular acidification, but strongly affected the secretion of cathepsin K and osteoclast bone-resorption activity, suggesting the coronin 1A-mediated regulation of lysosomal trafficking and protease exocytosis...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299521/dynamic-of-contribution-of-ubpy-sorted-cargo-to-acrosome-biogenesis-effects-of-its-derailment-in-a-mouse-model-of-globozoospermia-the-infertile-vps54-l967q-mutant
#14
Mariarosa Gioria, Maria Enrica Pasini, Giovanna Berruti
The sperm acrosome is a specialized vacuole, a member of the family of cell-specific lysosome-related organelles. Its exocytosis, the acrosome reaction, is a crucial event during fertilization. The released acrosomal contents promote sperm penetration through the investments of the oocyte, whereas the membranous components of the acrosome are involved in sperm-oocyte interaction/fusion and oocyte activation. The way that these functionally distinct acrosomal costituents reach the vacuole during its biogenesis remains poorly understood...
March 15, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294967/single-lipid-molecule-dynamics-on-supported-lipid-bilayers-with-membrane-curvature
#15
Philip P Cheney, Alan W Weisgerber, Alec M Feuerbach, Michelle K Knowles
The plasma membrane is a highly compartmentalized, dynamic material and this organization is essential for a wide variety of cellular processes. Nanoscale domains allow proteins to organize for cell signaling, endo- and exocytosis, and other essential processes. Even in the absence of proteins, lipids have the ability to organize into domains as a result of a variety of chemical and physical interactions. One feature of membranes that affects lipid domain formation is membrane curvature. To directly test the role of curvature in lipid sorting, we measured the accumulation of two similar lipids, 1,2-Dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DHPE) and hexadecanoic acid (HDA), using a supported lipid bilayer that was assembled over a nanopatterned surface to obtain regions of membrane curvature...
March 15, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292887/orai-and-trpc-channel-characterization-in-fc%C3%AE%C2%B5ri-mediated-calcium-signaling-and-mediator-secretion-in-human-mast-cells
#16
Hannah E Wajdner, Jasmine Farrington, Claire Barnard, Peter T Peachell, Christine G Schnackenberg, Joseph P Marino, Xiaoping Xu, Karen Affleck, Malcolm Begg, Elizabeth P Seward
Inappropriate activation of mast cells via the FcεRI receptor leads to the release of inflammatory mediators and symptoms of allergic disease. Calcium influx is a critical regulator of mast cell signaling and is required for exocytosis of preformed mediators and for synthesis of eicosanoids, cytokines and chemokines. Studies in rodent and human mast cells have identified Orai calcium channels as key contributors to FcεRI-initiated mediator release. However, until now the role of TRPC calcium channels in FcεRI-mediated human mast cell signaling has not been published...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289043/exocytosis-mediated-urinary-full-length-megalin-excretion-is-linked-with-the-pathogenesis-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#17
Shankhajit De, Shoji Kuwahara, Michihiro Hosojima, Tomomi Ishikawa, Ryohei Kaseda, Piyali Sarkar, Yusuke Yoshioka, Hideyuki Kabasawa, Tomomichi Iida, Sawako Goto, Koji Toba, Yuki Higuchi, Yoshiki Suzuki, Masanori Hara, Hiroyuki Kurosawa, Ichiei Narita, Yoshiaki Hirayama, Takahiro Ochiya, Akihiko Saito
Efficient biomarkers for diabetic nephropathy (DN) have not been established. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found previously that urinary levels of full-length megalin (C-megalin), a multiligand endocytic receptor in proximal tubules, was positively correlated with DN progression in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, we found that urinary extracellular vesicle (UEV) excretion and C-megalin content in UEVs or in their exosomal fraction increased along with the progression of the albuminuric stages in T2DM patients...
March 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288129/endoplasmic-reticulum-mediated-microtubule-alignment-governs-cytoplasmic-streaming
#18
Kenji Kimura, Alexandre Mamane, Tohru Sasaki, Kohta Sato, Jun Takagi, Ritsuya Niwayama, Lars Hufnagel, Yuta Shimamoto, Jean-François Joanny, Seiichi Uchida, Akatsuki Kimura
Cytoplasmic streaming refers to a collective movement of cytoplasm observed in many cell types. The mechanism of meiotic cytoplasmic streaming (MeiCS) in Caenorhabditis elegans zygotes is puzzling as the direction of the flow is not predefined by cell polarity and occasionally reverses. Here, we demonstrate that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network structure is required for the collective flow. Using a combination of RNAi, microscopy and image processing of C. elegans zygotes, we devise a theoretical model, which reproduces and predicts the emergence and reversal of the flow...
March 13, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288128/%C3%AE-synuclein-promotes-dilation-of-the-exocytotic-fusion-pore
#19
Todd Logan, Jacob Bendor, Chantal Toupin, Kurt Thorn, Robert H Edwards
The protein α-synuclein has a central role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Like that of other proteins that accumulate in neurodegenerative disease, however, the function of α-synuclein remains unknown. Localization to the nerve terminal suggests a role in neurotransmitter release, and overexpression inhibits regulated exocytosis, but previous work has failed to identify a clear physiological defect in mice lacking all three synuclein isoforms. Using adrenal chromaffin cells and neurons, we now find that both overexpressed and endogenous synuclein accelerate the kinetics of individual exocytotic events, promoting cargo discharge and reducing pore closure ('kiss-and-run')...
March 13, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286748/the-importance-of-rest-for-development-and-function-of-beta-cells
#20
REVIEW
David Martin, Anne Grapin-Botton
Beta cells are defined by the genes they express, many of which are specific to this cell type, and ensure a specific set of functions. Beta cells are also defined by a set of genes they should not express (in order to function properly), and these genes have been called forbidden genes. Among these, the transcriptional repressor RE-1 Silencing Transcription factor (REST) is expressed in most cells of the body, excluding most populations of neurons, as well as pancreatic beta and alpha cells. In the cell types where it is expressed, REST represses the expression of hundreds of genes that are crucial for both neuronal and pancreatic endocrine function, through the recruitment of multiple transcriptional and epigenetic co-regulators...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
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