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Exocytosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225130/systematic-investigation-on-the-intracellular-trafficking-network-of-polymeric-nanoparticles
#1
Jinxie Zhang, Danfeng Chang, Yao Yang, Xudong Zhang, Wei Tao, Lijuan Jiang, Xin Liang, Hsiangi Tsai, Laiqiang Huang, Lin Mei
Polymeric nanoparticles such as PLGA-based nanoparticles are emerging as promising carriers for controlled drug delivery. However, little is known about the intracellular trafficking network of polymeric nanoparticles. Here, more than 30 Rab proteins were used as markers of multiple trafficking vesicles in endocytosis, exocytosis and autophagy to investigate in detail the intracellular trafficking pathways of PLGA nanoparticles. We observed that coumarin-6-loaded PLGA nanoparticles were internalized by the cells mainly through caveolin and clathrin-dependent endocytosis and Rab34-mediated macropinocytosis...
February 22, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224124/the-mammalian-septin-interactome
#2
REVIEW
Katharina Neubauer, Barbara Zieger
Septins are GTP-binding and membrane-interacting proteins with a highly conserved domain structure involved in various cellular processes, including cytoskeleton organization, cytokinesis, and membrane dynamics. To date, 13 different septin genes have been identified in mammals (SEPT1 to SEPT12 and SEPT14), which can be classified into four distinct subgroups based on the sequence homology of their domain structure (SEPT2, SEPT3, SEPT6, and SEPT7 subgroup). The family members of these subgroups have a strong affinity for other septins and form apolar tri-, hexa-, or octameric complexes consisting of multiple septin polypeptides...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224002/secretion-and-endocytosis-in-pollen-tubes-models-of-tip-growth-in-the-spot-light
#3
REVIEW
Gleb Grebnev, Maria Ntefidou, Benedikt Kost
Pollen tube tip growth is a widely used model ideally suited to study cellular processes underlying polarized cell expansion. Local secretion supplying material for plasma membrane (PM) and cell wall extension is essential for this process. Cell wall biogenesis requires fusion of secretory vesicles with the PM at an about 10× higher rate than PM extension. Excess material is therefore incorporated into the PM, which needs to be reinternalized through endocytosis. The classical model of tip growth proposes that exocytosis occurs at the apex and that newly incorporated PM material is transported to adjacent lateral regions, where excess material is endocytically recycled...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220294/chromogranin-a-regulates-vesicle-storage-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-to-influence-insulin-secretion
#4
Joshua Wollam, Sumana Mahata, Matthew Riopel, Angelina Hernandez-Carretero, Angshuman Biswas, Gautam K Bandyopadhyay, Nai-Wen Chi, Lee E Eiden, Nitish R Mahapatra, Angelo Corti, Nicholas J G Webster, Sushil K Mahata
Chromogranin A (CgA) is a prohormone and a granulogenic factor that regulates secretory pathways in neuroendocrine tissues. In β-cells of the endocrine pancreas, CgA is a major cargo in insulin secretory vesicles. The impact of CgA deficiency on the formation and exocytosis of insulin vesicles is yet to be investigated. In addition, no literature exists on the impact of CgA on mitochondrial function in β-cells. Using three different antibodies, we demonstrate that CgA is processed to vasostatin- and catestatin-containing fragments in pancreatic islet cells...
February 20, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210227/commentary-atp-the-crucial-component-of-secretory-vesicles-accelerated-atp-insulin-exocytosis-and-prediabetes
#5
COMMENT
Chitharanjan Duvoor, Vijaya S Dendi, Asween Marco, Nawal S Shekhawat, Aditya Chada, Rahul Ravilla, Chaitanya K Musham, Wasique Mirza, Arun Chaudhury
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202712/ribeye-b-domain-binds-to-lipid-components-of-synaptic-vesicles-in-an-nad-h-dependent-redox-sensitive-manner
#6
Karin Schwarz, Frank Schmitz
Synaptic ribbons are needed for fast and continuous exocytosis in ribbon synapses. RIBEYE is a main protein component of synaptic ribbons and necessary to build the synaptic ribbon. RIBEYE consists of a unique A-domain and a carboxyterminal B-domain that binds NAD(H). Within the presynaptic terminal, the synaptic ribbons are in physical contact with large numbers of synaptic vesicles. How this physical contact between ribbons and vesicles is established at a molecular level is not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that the RIBEYE(B)-domain can directly interact with lipid components of synaptic vesicles using two different sedimentation assays with liposomes of defined chemical composition...
February 15, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197868/plasma-levels-of-immune-factors-and-sex-steroids-in-the-male-seahorse-hippocampus-erectus-during-a-breeding-cycle
#7
Tingting Lin, Xin Liu, Dongxue Xiao, Dong Zhang
To better understand the endocrine- and immune-response pattern during reproduction in a fish species having parental care behaviors and also to accumulate the endocrine- and immune-related data for future explanations of the low reproductive efficiency in seahorse species, the variations of immune factors and sex steroids in the plasma of the male lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus at different breeding stages, i.e., pre-pregnancy, pregnancy (early, middle, and late periods), and post-pregnancy, were investigated in the present study...
February 14, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196960/repair-of-a-bacterial-small-%C3%AE-barrel-toxin-pore-depends-on-channel-width
#8
Gisela von Hoven, Amable J Rivas, Claudia Neukirch, Martina Meyenburg, Qianqian Qin, Sapun Parekh, Nadja Hellmann, Matthias Husmann
Membrane repair emerges as an innate defense protecting target cells against bacterial pore-forming toxins. Here, we report the first paradigm of Ca(2+)-dependent repair following attack by a small β-pore-forming toxin, namely, plasmid-encoded phobalysin of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae In striking contrast, Vibrio cholerae cytolysin, the closest ortholog of phobalysin, subverted repair. Mutational analysis uncovered a role of channel width in toxicity and repair. Thus, the replacement of serine at phobalysin´s presumed channel narrow point with the bulkier tryptophan, the corresponding residue in Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (W318), modulated Ca(2+) influx, lysosomal exocytosis, and membrane repair...
February 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193842/experimental-arthritis-is-dependent-on-mouse-mast-cell-protease-5
#9
Richard L Stevens, H Patrick McNeil, Lislaine A Wensing, Kichul Shin, G William Wong, Philip M Hansbro, Steven A Krilis
The constitutive heparin+ (HP) mast cells (MCs) in mice express mouse MC protease (mMCP)-5 and carboxypeptidase A (mMC CPA). The amino acid sequence of mMCP-5 is most similar to that of human chymase-1, as is the nucleotide sequences of their genes and transcripts. Using a homologous recombination approach, a C57BL/6 mouse line was created that possessed a disrupted mMCP-5 gene. The resulting mice were fertile and had no obvious developmental abnormality. Lack of mMCP-5 protein did not alter the granulation of the IL-3/IL-9-dependent mMCP 2+ MCs in the jejunal mucosa of Trichinella spiralis-infected mice...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193694/different-cav1-3-channel-isoforms-control-distinct-components-of-the-synaptic-vesicle-cycle-in-auditory-inner-hair-cells
#10
Philippe Fy Vincent, Yohan Bouleau, Gilles Charpentier, Alice Emptoz, Saaid Safieddine, Christine Petit, Didier Dulon
The mechanisms orchestrating transient and sustained exocytosis in auditory inner hair cells (IHCs) remain largely unknown. These exocytotic responses are believed to mobilize sequentially a readily releasable pool of vesicles (RRP) underneath the synaptic ribbons and a slowly releasable pool of vesicles (SRP) at farther distance from them. They are both governed by Cav1.3 channels and require otoferlin as Ca(2+) sensor but whether they use the same Cav1.3 isoforms is still unknown. Using whole cell patch clamp recordings in post-hearing mice, we show that only a proportion (∼25 %) of the total Ca(2+) current in IHCs, displaying fast inactivation and resistance to 20 μM nifedipine, a L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, is sufficient to trigger RRP but not SRP exocytosis...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193235/dynamic-presenilin-1-and-synaptotagmin-1-interaction-modulates-exocytosis-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-production
#11
Katarzyna Marta Zoltowska, Masato Maesako, Iryna Lushnikova, Shuko Takeda, Laura J Keller, Galina Skibo, Bradley T Hyman, Oksana Berezovska
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD)-linked protein, presenilin 1 (PS1), is present at the synapse, and the knock-out of presenilin in mice leads to synaptic dysfunction. On the other hand, synaptic activity was shown to influence PS1-dependent generation of distinct amyloid β (Aβ) species. However, the precise nature of these regulations remains unclear. The current study reveals novel role of PS1 at the synapse, and deciphers how PS1 and synaptic vesicle-associated protein, synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) modulate each other functions in neurons via direct activity-triggered interaction...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192972/surface-plasmon-resonance-for-measuring-exocytosis-from-populations-of-pc12-cells-mechanisms-of-signal-formation-and-assessment-of-analytical-capabilities
#12
Beatriz Moreira, Jani Tuoriniemi, Naghmeh Kouchak Pour, Lýdia Mihalčíková, Gulnara Safina
Because of cell to cell variation, it is difficult to obtain statistically significant data on the frequency of exocytosis events (Rexocytosis, t(-1) m(-2)) with traditional single cell electrophysiological or fluorescence microscopy based methods. Here we take the first steps toward a rapid cost-effective surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based method for measuring the Rexocytosis for populations of PC12 cells. The conditions for culturing confluent monolayers on the sensor slides were optimized, and neurotransmitter exocytosis was evoked by injecting solutions with elevated [K(+)]...
February 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192730/inducible-turnover-of-optineurin-regulates-t-cell-activation
#13
Angela Montecalvo, Simon C Watkins, Jordan Orange, Lawrence P Kane
Optineurin (Optn) is an adaptor protein with homology to NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), the regulatory subunit of the IκB kinase (IKK) complex. Dysregulation of Optn has been linked to neurodegenerative, autoimmune and bone diseases. Optn shares a high degree of homology with NEMO, but is not part of the same high-molecular weight complex containing IKKα and IKKβ. Despite its homology with NEMO and the fact that it has been the subject of extensive study in several cell types, there are no published studies addressing the role of Optn during T cell activation...
February 10, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188823/hepatic-stellate-cell-interferes-with-nk-cell-regulation-of-fibrogenesis-via-curcumin-induced-senescence-of-hepatic-stellate-cell
#14
Huanhuan Jin, Yan Jia, Zhen Yao, Jingjing Huang, Meng Hao, Shunyu Yao, Naqi Lian, Feng Zhang, Chenxi Zhang, Xingran Chen, Mianli Bian, Jiangjuan Shao, Li Wu, Anping Chen, Shizhong Zheng
Hepatic fibrosis, a common scarring response to various forms of chronic liver injury, is a precursor to cirrhosis and liver cancer. During liver fibrosis, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) initially activate and proliferate, which are responsible for the secretion of extracellular matrix components. However, these cells eventually senesce and are cleared by natural killer (NK) cells. Our previous researches have shown that the natural product curcumin could promote the senescence of activated HSC. In this study, we investigated how NK cells target senescent HSC and assessed the effect of this process on liver fibrosis...
February 7, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187461/lysosomal-accumulation-of-anticancer-drugs-triggers-lysosomal-exocytosis
#15
Benny Zhitomirsky, Yehuda G Assaraf
We have recently shown that hydrophobic weak base anticancer drugs are highly sequestered in acidic lysosomes, inducing TFEB-mediated lysosomal biogenesis and markedly increased lysosome numbers per cell. This enhanced lysosomal sequestration of chemotherapeutics, away from their intracellular targets, provoked cancer multidrug resistance. However, little is known regarding the fate of lysosome-sequestered drugs. While we suggested that sequestered drugs might be expelled from cancer cells via lysosomal exocytosis, no actual drug-induced lysosomal exocytosis was demonstrated...
February 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179460/vamp-7-dependent-secretion-at-the-immune-synapse-regulates-antigen-extraction-and-presentation-in-b-lymphocytes
#16
Dorian Obino, Jheimmy Diaz, Juan José Sáez, Jorge Ibañez-Vega, Pablo J Sáez, Martina Alamo, Danielle Lankar, Maria-Isabel Yuseff
Recognition of surface-tethered antigens (Ag) by B cells leads to the formation of an immune synapse that promotes Ag uptake for presentation onto MHC-II molecules. Extraction of immobilized antigens at the immune synapse of B cells relies on the local secretion of lysosomes, which are recruited to the antigen contact site by polarization of their microtubule network. Although conserved polarity proteins have been implicated in coordinating cytoskeleton remodeling with lysosome trafficking, the cellular machinery associated with lysosomal vesicles that regulates their docking and secretion at the synaptic interface has not been defined...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176444/an-intact-acrosome-is-required-for-the-chemotactic-response-to-progesterone-in-mouse-spermatozoa
#17
H A Guidobaldi, N Hirohashi, M Cubilla, M G Buffone, L C Giojalas
Mammalian sperm become fertilization-competent in the oviduct, during a process known as capacitation that involves the acquisition of the ability to exocytose the acrosome but also the chemotactic responses - both of which contribute to successful fertilization. Chemotaxis is used by spermatozoa to orient and to locate the egg; the acrosome reaction facilitates sperm binding to and fusing with the egg membrane. Mammalian spermatozoa are able to sense picomolar concentrations of progesterone, which drives chemotactic behavior...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174296/ncs1-regulates-ca2-dependent-focal-exocytosis-of-golgi-derived-vesicles-to-help-phagocytic-uptake-in-macrophages
#18
Nimi Vashi, Syed Bilal Ahmad Andrabi, Swapnil Ghanwat, Mrutyunjay Suar, Dhiraj Kumar
During phagocytic uptake by macrophages, role of Golgi apparatus was previously ruled out. Notably all such reports were limited to Fcγ-receptor mediated phagocytosis. Here we unravel a highly devolved mechanism for recruitment of Golgi-derived secretory vesicles during phagosome biogenesis, which was important for uptake of most cargos except IgG-coated ones. We report recruitment of Mannosidase-II positive Golgi-derived vesicles during uptake of diverse targets including latex beads, E. coli, Salmonella Typhimurium and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human and mouse macrophages...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174279/a-cytoplasmic-role-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-transcriptional-cofactors-bcl9-bcl9l-and-pygopus-in-tooth-enamel-formation
#19
Claudio Cantù, Pierfrancesco Pagella, Tania D Shajiei, Dario Zimmerli, Tomas Valenta, George Hausmann, Konrad Basler, Thimios A Mitsiadis
Wnt-stimulated β-catenin transcriptional regulation is necessary for the development of most organs, including teeth. Bcl9 and Bcl9l are tissue-specific transcriptional cofactors that cooperate with β-catenin. In the nucleus, Bcl9 and Bcl9l simultaneously bind β-catenin and the transcriptional activator Pygo2 to promote the transcription of a subset of Wnt target genes. We showed that Bcl9 and Bcl9l function in the cytoplasm during tooth enamel formation in a manner that is independent of Wnt-stimulated β-catenin-dependent transcription...
February 7, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168732/two-modes-of-enteric-gliotransmission-differentially-affect-gut-physiology
#20
Vladimir Grubišić, Vladimir Parpura
Enteric glia (EG) in the enteric nervous system can modulate neuronally regulated gut functions. Using molecular genetics, we assessed the effects that molecular entities expressed in EG and otherwise mediating two distinct mechanisms of gliotransmitter release, connexin 43 (Cx43) hemichannel vs. Ca(2+) -dependent exocytosis, have on gut function. The expression of mutated Cx43(G138R) (which favors hemichannel, as opposed to gap-junctional activity) in EG increased gut motility in vivo, while a knock-down of Cx43 in EG resulted in the reduction of gut motility...
February 7, 2017: Glia
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