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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774634/study-of-hyperpigmentation-in-human-skin-disorder-using-different-electron-microscopy-techniques
#1
Seulgi Noh, Hyosun Choi, Ji Soo Kim, Il-Hwan Kim, Ji Young Mun
There is a global trend of increase in the demand for three-dimensional electron microscopy with high resolution. The ultrastructural change and related functional studies are necessary to investigate biological phenomena. In this study, currently available 3D reconstruction techniques of electron microscopes (serial block-face scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy) were used to investigate hyperpigmentary disorders in human skin. In the basal layer of the epidermis in the human skin, there are melanocytes that produce melanin and keratinocytes that act as a barrier against environmental damage...
May 18, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773871/the-somatostatin-secreting-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-in-health-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Patrik Rorsman, Mark O Huising
The somatostatin-secreting δ-cells comprise ~5% of the cells of the pancreatic islets. The δ-cells have complex morphology and might interact with many more islet cells than suggested by their low numbers. δ-Cells contain ATP-sensitive potassium channels, which open at low levels of glucose but close when glucose is elevated. This closure initiates membrane depolarization and electrical activity and increased somatostatin secretion. Factors released by neighbouring α-cells or β-cells amplify the glucose-induced effects on somatostatin secretion from δ-cells, which act locally within the islets as paracrine or autocrine inhibitors of insulin, glucagon and somatostatin secretion...
May 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773801/lrrc8-vrac-anion-channels-enhance-%C3%AE-cell-glucose-sensing-and-insulin-secretion
#3
Till Stuhlmann, Rosa Planells-Cases, Thomas J Jentsch
Glucose homeostasis depends critically on insulin that is secreted by pancreatic β-cells. Serum glucose, which is directly sensed by β-cells, stimulates depolarization- and Ca2+ -dependent exocytosis of insulin granules. Here we show that pancreatic islets prominently express LRRC8A and LRRC8D, subunits of volume-regulated VRAC anion channels. Hypotonicity- or glucose-induced β-cell swelling elicits canonical LRRC8A-dependent VRAC currents that depolarize β-cells to an extent that causes electrical excitation...
May 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773177/participation-of-selenoproteins-localized-in-the-er-in-the-processes-occurring-in-this-organelle-and-in-the-regulation-of-carcinogenesis-associated-processes
#4
REVIEW
Elena Gennadyevna Varlamova
The functions performed by the ER are diverse: synthesis of steroid hormones, synthesis of proteins for the plasma membrane, lysosomes, as well as proteins meant for exocytosis, protein folding, formation of disulfide bonds, N-linked glycosylation, etc. Selenoproteins localized in this organelle are definitely involved in the processes occurring in it, and the most common of them include participation in protein degradation, regulation of ER stress and redox metabolism. ER stress has been registered in many types of cancer cells...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770576/the-extracellular-zn-2-concentration-surrounding-excited-neurons-is-high-enough-to-bind-amyloid-%C3%AE-revealed-by-a-nanowire-transistor
#5
Ankur Anand, Chih-Hung Chi, Subhasree Banerjee, Ming-Yi Chou, Fan-Gang Tseng, Chien-Yuan Pan, Yit-Tsong Chen
The Zn2+ stored in the secretory vesicles of glutamatergic neurons is coreleased with glutamate upon stimulation, resulting in the elevation of extracellular Zn2+ concentration (CZn2+ex). This elevation of CZn2+ex regulates the neurotransmission and facilitates the fibrilization of amyloid-β (Aβ). However, the exact CZn2+ex surrounding neurons under (patho)physiological conditions is not clear and the connection between CZn2+ex and the Aβ fibrilization remains obscure. Here, a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW-FET) with the Zn2+ -sensitive fluorophore, FluoZin-3 (FZ-3), to quantify the CZn2+ex in real time is modified...
May 16, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767240/munc13%C3%A2-4-mediates-human-neutrophil-elastase%C3%A2-induced-airway-mucin5ac-hypersecretion-by-interacting-with-syntaxin2
#6
Rui Xu, Jia Zhou, Xiang-Dong Zhou, Qi Li, Juliy M Perelman, Victor P Kolosov
The overexpression and hypersecretion of mucus is a hallmark of chronic pulmonary inflammatory disease. Mucin5AC (MUC5AC) is a major component of airway gel‑forming mucin. Members of the Unc13 (Munc13) protein family act as important activators of granule exocytosis from various types of mammalian cells. The present study aimed to determine the role of Munc13 family proteins in MUC5AC secretion via an in vitro study with BEAS‑2B and Calu‑3 cell lines. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting indicated that stimulation of the cells with 100 nM human neutrophil elastase (hNE) for 1 h did not affect the expression of either unc13 homolog B (Munc13‑2) or unc13 homolog D (Munc13‑4), but immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that hNE treatment was associated with the recruitment of Munc13‑4 to the plasma membrane...
May 14, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766811/p2x7-receptor-associated-programmed-cell-death-in-the-pathophysiology-of-hemorrhagic-stroke
#7
Hengli Zhao, Yujie Chen, Hua Feng
Hemorrhagic stroke is a life-threatening disease characterized by a sudden rupture of cerebral blood vessels, and cell death is widely believed to occur after exposure to blood metabolites or subsequently damaged cells. Recently, programmed cell death, such as apoptosis, autophagy, necroptosis, pyroptosis, and ferroptosis, has been demonstrated to play crucial roles in the pathophysiology of stroke. However, the detailed mechanisms of these novel kinds of cell death are still unclear. The P2X7 receptor, previously known for its cytotoxic activity, is an ATP-gated, non-selective cation channel that belongs to the family of ionotropic P2X receptors...
May 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760698/mechanisms-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-mediated-host-damage
#8
REVIEW
Arturo Casadevall, Carolina Coelho, Alexandre Alanio
Cryptococcus neoformans is not usually considered a cytotoxic fungal pathogen but there is considerable evidence that this microbe can damage host cells and tissues. In this essay, we review the evidence that C. neoformans damages host cells and note that the mechanisms involved are diverse. We consider C. neoformans -mediated host damage at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organism level. Direct mechanisms of cytotoxicity include lytic exocytosis, organelle dysfunction, phagolysosomal membrane damage, and cytoskeletal alterations...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759816/actin-remodeling-in-regulated-exocytosis-toward-a-mesoscopic-view
#9
REVIEW
Pin Li, Adekunle T Bademosi, Jincai Luo, Frederic A Meunier
Cellular communication relies on fusion of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane, following dynamic events that change the micro- and nanoscale environment of the approaching vesicles in the vicinity of docking sites. Visualization of fine cortical actin network structures and their interactions with vesicle and plasma membrane has recently been facilitated by the development of new imaging technologies. Consequently, a greater understanding is emerging of the role of the cortical actin network on controlling secretory vesicles as they undergo docking, priming, and fusion in exocytic hot spots...
May 11, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757220/annexins-coordinators-of-cholesterol-homeostasis-in-endocytic-pathways
#10
REVIEW
Carles Rentero, Patricia Blanco-Muñoz, Elsa Meneses-Salas, Thomas Grewal, Carlos Enrich
The spatiotemporal regulation of calcium (Ca2+ ) storage in late endosomes (LE) and lysosomes (Lys) is increasingly recognized to influence a variety of membrane trafficking events, including endocytosis, exocytosis, and autophagy. Alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis within the LE/Lys compartment are implicated in human diseases, ranging from lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) to neurodegeneration and cancer, and they correlate with changes in the membrane binding behaviour of Ca2+ -binding proteins. This also includes Annexins (AnxA), which is a family of Ca2+ -binding proteins participating in membrane traffic and tethering, microdomain organization, cytoskeleton interactions, Ca2+ signalling, and LE/Lys positioning...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752624/g%C3%AE-%C3%AE-snare-interactions-and-their-behavioral-effects
#11
Simon Alford, Heidi Hamm, Shelagh Rodriguez, Zack Zurawski
Presynaptic terminals possess interlocking molecular mechanisms that control exocytosis. An example of such complexity is the modulation of release by presynaptic G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs). GPCR ubiquity at synapses-GPCRs are present at every studied presynaptic terminal-underlies their critical importance in synaptic function. GPCRs mediate presynaptic modulation by mechanisms including via classical Gα effectors, but membrane-delimited actions of Gβγ can also alter probability of release by altering presynaptic ionic conductances...
May 11, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750752/serum-exosomal-micrornas-as-potent-circulating-biomarkers-for-melanoma
#12
Li Tengda, Long Shuping, Gu Mingli, Guo Jie, Liu Yun, Zhang Weiwei, Deng Anmei
Exosomes are small homogenous membrane vesicles that derive from the exocytosis process of cells and can contain DNA, microRNAs (miRNAs), and/or proteins. Characterization of the content profile of exosomes may reflect the state of the cells that release them, and this could be predictive of disease. In this study, to explore the potential biomarkers for melanoma, we isolated serous exosomes from 30 patients with melanoma and 30 healthy individuals using the ultracentrifugation method. Five miRNAs were subsequently detected in each sample by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR: miRNA-532-5p, miRNA-106b, miRNA-200c, miRNA-199a-5p, and miRNA-210...
May 10, 2018: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749611/proteomic-definition-of-human-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-determines-their-unique-molecular-effector-phenotype
#13
Björn Bulitta, Werner Zuschratter, Isabel Bernal, Dunja Bruder, Frank Klawonn, Martin von Bergen, Henrikus Stephanus Paulus Garritsen, Lothar Jänsch
Mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT) constitute the most abundant anti-bacterial CD8+ T cell population in humans. MR1/TCR-activated MAIT cells were reported to organize cytotoxic and innate-like responses but knowledge about their molecular effector phenotype is still fragmentary. Here, we have examined the functional inventory of human MAIT cells (CD3+Vα7.2+CD161+) in comparison with those from conventional non-MAIT CD8+ T cells (cCD8+ ) and NK cells. Quantitative mass spectrometry characterized 5500 proteins of primary MAIT cells and identified 160 and 135 proteins that discriminate them from cCD8+ T cells and NK cells donor-independently...
May 11, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746899/ncs-1-is-a-regulator-of-calcium-signaling-in-health-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
Göran R Boeckel, Barbara E Ehrlich
Neuronal Calcium Sensor-1 (NCS-1) is a highly conserved calcium binding protein which contributes to the maintenance of intracellular calcium homeostasis and regulation of calcium-dependent signaling pathways. It is involved in a variety of physiological cell functions, including exocytosis, regulation of calcium permeable channels, neuroplasticity and response to neuronal damage. Over the past 30 years, continuing investigation of cellular functions of NCS-1 and associated disease states have highlighted its function in the pathophysiology of several disorders and as a therapeutic target...
May 7, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742321/altered-exocytosis-in-chromaffin-cells-from-mouse-models-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Antonio M G de Diego, Antonio G García
Chromaffin cells from the adrenal gland (CCs) have extensively been used to explore the molecular structure and function of the exocytotic machinery, neurotransmitter release and synaptic transmission. The CC is integrated in the sympathoadrenal axis that helps the body maintain homeostasis during both routine life and in acute stress conditions. This function is exquisitely controlled by the cerebral cortex and the hypothalamus. We propose the hypothesis that damage undergone by the brain during neurodegenerative diseases is also affecting the neurosecretory function of adrenal medullary CCs...
May 9, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741927/transcellular-transport-of-cobalamin-in-aortic-endothelial-cells
#16
Luciana Hannibal, Keerthana Bolisetty, Armend Axhemi, Patricia M DiBello, Edward V Quadros, Sergey Fedosov, Donald W Jacobsen
Cobalamin [Cbl (or B12 )] deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia and a variety of neuropathies. However, homeostatic mechanisms of cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) and other Cbls by vascular endothelial cells are poorly understood. Herein, we describe our investigation into whether cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) perform transcytosis of B12 , namely, the complex formed between serum transcobalamin and B12 , designated as holo-transcobalamin (holo-TC). We show that cultured BAECs endocytose [57 Co]-CNCbl-TC (source material) via the CD320 receptor...
May 9, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738095/toxoplasma-gondii-tfp1-is-an-essential-transporter-family-protein-critical-for-microneme-maturation-and-exocytosis
#17
Pierre-Mehdi Hammoudi, Bohumil Maco, Sunil Kumar Dogga, Karine Frénal, Dominique Soldati-Favre
Invasion and egress are two key steps in the lytic cycle of Apicomplexa that are governed by the sequential discharge of proteins from two apical secretory organelles called micronemes and rhoptries. In Toxoplasma gondii, the biogenesis of these specialized organelles depends on the post Golgi trafficking machinery, forming an endosomal-like compartment (ELC) resembling endomembrane systems found in eukaryotes. In this study, we have characterized four phylogenetically related Transporter Facilitator Proteins (TFPs) conserved among the apicomplexans...
May 8, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736914/sinus-like-dilatations-of-the-mammary-milk-ducts-ki67-expression-and-cd3-positive-t-lymphocyte-infiltration-in-the-mammary-gland-of-wild-european-rabbits-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#18
Katherine Hughes, Christine J Watson
Sinus-like dilatations of the mammary duct are recognisable in the mammary gland of pregnant and lactating wild European rabbits. These dilatations exhibit a bilaminar epithelial lining, with luminal epithelial cells expressing basal and lateral E-cadherin. Occasional binucleated mammary epithelial cells are present in the luminal layer. Underlying the luminal epithelial cells is a basal layer of cytokeratin 14-positive cells, supported by a thin layer of fibrous tissue. Multi-segmental epithelial proliferation, as indicated by Ki67 expression, is apparent in the luminal epithelial cells, suggesting a capacity for division during pregnancy and lactation...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734145/the-role-of-caveolae-on-albumin-passage-through-glomerular-endothelial-and-epithelial-cells-the-new-etiology-of-urinary-albumin-excretion
#19
Takahito Moriyama, Kazunori Karasawa, Kosaku Nitta
BACKGROUND: In the traditional theory of albuminuria, small amounts of albumin pass through the fenestrae in glomerular endothelial cells, then through the slit membrane in the gaps between foot processes of glomerular epithelial cells. In the novel theory, large amounts of albumin pass through glomerular capillaries and are taken up by megalin and cubilin receptors on tubular epithelial cells. These etiologies of urinary albumin excretion are still controversial, and the details of albumin passage through the three layers of glomerular capillaries (glomerular endothelial cells, basement membrane, and epithelial cells) have never been entirely elucidated...
2018: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726076/synergistic-gating-of-electro-iono-photoactive-2d-chalcogenide-neuristors-coexistence-of-hebbian-and-homeostatic-synaptic-metaplasticity
#20
Rohit Abraham John, Fucai Liu, Nguyen Anh Chien, Mohit R Kulkarni, Chao Zhu, Qundong Fu, Arindam Basu, Zheng Liu, Nripan Mathews
Emulation of brain-like signal processing with thin-film devices can lay the foundation for building artificially intelligent learning circuitry in future. Encompassing higher functionalities into single artificial neural elements will allow the development of robust neuromorphic circuitry emulating biological adaptation mechanisms with drastically lesser neural elements, mitigating strict process challenges and high circuit density requirements necessary to match the computational complexity of the human brain...
May 4, 2018: Advanced Materials
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