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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106089/release-activity-dependent-control-of-vesicle-endocytosis-by-the-synaptic-adhesion-molecule-n-cadherin
#1
Bernd van Stegen, Sushma Dagar, Kurt Gottmann
At synapses in the mammalian brain, continuous information transfer requires the long-term maintenance of homeostatic coupling between exo- and endocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Because classical endocytosis is orders of magnitude slower than the millisecond-range exocytosis of vesicles, high frequency vesicle fusion could potentially compromise structural stability of synapses. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the tight coupling of exo- and endocytosis are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the transsynaptic adhesion molecules N-cadherin and Neuroligin1 in regulating vesicle exo- and endocytosis by using activity-induced FM4-64 staining and by using synaptophysin-pHluorin fluorescence imaging...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100639/munc13-4-functions-as-a-ca2-sensor-for-homotypic-secretory-granule-fusion-to-generate-endosomal-exocytic-vacuoles
#2
Sang Su Woo, Declan J James, Thomas F J Martin
Munc13-4 is a Ca(2+)-dependent SNARE- and phospholipid-binding protein that localizes to and primes secretory granules (SGs) for Ca(2+)-evoked secretion in various secretory cells. Studies in mast cell-like RBL-2H3 cells provides direct evidence that Munc13-4 with its two Ca(2+)-binding C2 domains functions as a Ca(2+) sensor for SG exocytosis. Unexpectedly, Ca(2+) stimulation also generated large (>2.4 μm diameter) Munc13-4(+)/Rab7(+)/Rab11(+) endosomal vacuoles. Vacuole generation involved the homotypic fusion of Munc13-4(+)/Rab7(+) SGs followed by a merge with Rab11(+) endosomes, and depended on Ca(2+) binding to Munc13-4...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100346/-impact-of-cd137-cd137l-signaling-mediated-exocytosis-of-autophagosome-within-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-on-the-formation-of-atherosclerotic-calcification
#3
B Li, X Y Li, W Zhong, C Shao, Z Q Wang, W Yuan, J C Yan
Objective: To explore whether CD137-CD137L signaling mediated exocytosis of autophagosome within vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) could influence the formation of atherosclerotic calcification. Methods: Fifteen 8-week-old male ApoE(-/-)(C57BL/6J-KO) mice fed with high fat diet for 5 weeks were randomly divided into three groups by using stochastic indicator method as follows: control group, n=5; agonist-CD137 group: agonist-CD137 antibody 200 μg/2 weeks for 4 weeks, ip, n=5; anti-CD137 group: 200 μg anti-CD137 antibody+ 200 μg agonist-CD137 antibody/2 weeks for 4 weeks, ip, n=5...
January 25, 2017: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099850/synaptotagmin-2-is-the-fast-ca-2-sensor-at-a-central-inhibitory-synapse
#4
Chong Chen, Itaru Arai, Rachel Satterfield, Samuel M Young, Peter Jonas
GABAergic synapses in brain circuits generate inhibitory output signals with submillisecond latency and temporal precision. Whether the molecular identity of the release sensor contributes to these signaling properties remains unclear. Here, we examined the Ca(2+) sensor of exocytosis at GABAergic basket cell (BC) to Purkinje cell (PC) synapses in cerebellum. Immunolabeling suggested that BC terminals selectively expressed synaptotagmin 2 (Syt2), whereas synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) was enriched in excitatory terminals...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096297/frontline-science-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-stimulation-and-priming-of-human-neutrophil-granule-exocytosis
#5
Kenneth R McLeish, Michael L Merchant, T Michael Creed, Shweta Tandon, Michelle T Barati, Silvia M Uriarte, Richard A Ward
Neutrophil granule exocytosis plays an important role in innate and adaptive immune responses. The present study examined TNF-α stimulation or priming of exocytosis of the 4 neutrophil granule subsets. TNF-α stimulated exocytosis of secretory vesicles and gelatinase granules and primed specific and azurophilic granule exocytosis to fMLF stimulation. Both stimulation and priming of exocytosis by TNF-α were dependent on p38 MAPK activity. Bioinformatic analysis of 1115 neutrophil proteins identified by mass spectrometry as being phosphorylated by TNF-α exposure found that actin cytoskeleton regulation was a major biologic function...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093477/differential-presynaptic-atp-supply-for-basal-and-high-demand-transmission
#6
Courtney Sobieski, Michael J Fitzpatrick, Steven Mennerick
The relative contributions of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to neuronal presynaptic energy demands are unclear. In rat hippocampal neurons, ATP production by either glycolysis or oxidative phosphorylation alone sustained basal evoked synaptic transmission for up to 20 min. However, combined inhibition of both ATP sources abolished evoked transmission. Neither action potential propagation failure nor depressed Ca(2+)-influx explained loss of evoked synaptic transmission. Rather, inhibition of ATP synthesis caused massive spontaneous vesicle exocytosis, followed by arrested endocytosis, accounting for the disappearance of evoked postsynaptic currents (PSCs)...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092406/llfh1-mediated-interaction-between-actin-fringe-and-exocytic-vesicles-is-involved-in-pollen-tube-tip-growth
#7
Shanwei Li, Huaijian Dong, Weike Pei, Chaonan Liu, Sha Zhang, Tiantian Sun, Xiuhua Xue, Haiyun Ren
Pollen tube tip growth is an extreme form of polarized cell growth, which requires polarized exocytosis based on a dynamic actin cytoskeleton. However, the molecular basis for the connection between actin filaments and exocytic vesicles is unclear. Here, we identified a Lilium longiflorum pollen-specific formin (LlFH1) and found that it localized at the apical vesicles and plasma membrane (PM). Overexpression of LlFH1 induced excessive actin cables in the tube tip region, and downregulation of LlFH1 eliminated the actin fringe...
January 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091547/corydalis-edulis-maxim-promotes-insulin-secretion-via-the-activation-of-protein-kinase-cs-pkcs-in-mice-and-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#8
Jiao Zheng, Yunfang Zhao, Qixing Lun, Yuelin Song, Shepo Shi, Xiaopan Gu, Bo Pan, Changhai Qu, Jun Li, Pengfei Tu
Corydalis edulis Maxim., a widely grown plant in China, had been proposed for the treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we found that C. edulis extract (CE) is protective against diabetes in mice. The treatment of hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-/- mice with a high dose of CE reduced serum glucose by 28.84% and serum total cholesterol by 17.34% and increased insulin release. We also found that CE significantly enhanced insulin secretion in a glucose-independent manner in hamster pancreatic β cell (HIT-T15)...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089870/large-dense-core-vesicle-exocytosis-from-mouse-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-is-regulated-by-neuropeptide-y
#9
Anneka Bost, Ali H Shaib, Yvonne Schwarz, Barbara A Niemeyer, Ute Becherer
Peptidergic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons transmit sensory and nociceptive information from the periphery to the central nervous system. Their synaptic activity is profoundly affected by neuromodulatory peptides stored and released from large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs). However, the mechanism of peptide secretion from DRG neurons is poorly understood. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM), we visualized individual LDCVs loaded with fluorescent neuropeptide Y (NPY) and analyzed their stimulation-dependent release...
January 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089267/probes-for-monitoring-regulated-exocytosis
#10
REVIEW
Wen-Hong Li
Regulated secretion is a fundamental cellular process that serves diverse functions in neurobiology, endocrinology, immunology, and numerous other aspects of animal physiology. In response to environmental or biological cues, cells release contents of secretory granules into an extracellular medium to communicate with or impact neighboring or distant cells through paracrine or endocrine signaling. To investigate mechanisms governing stimulus-secretion coupling, to better understand how cells maintain or regulate their secretory activity, and to characterize secretion defects in human diseases, probes for tracking various exocytotic events at the cellular or sub-cellular level have been developed over the years...
January 9, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081565/leucine-rich-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-a-novel-neutrophil-granule-protein-and-modulator-of-myelopoiesis
#11
Lawrence J Druhan, Amanda Lance, Shimena Li, Andrea E Price, Jacob T Emerson, Sarah A Baxter, Jonathan M Gerber, Belinda R Avalos
Leucine-rich α2 glycoprotein (LRG1), a serum protein produced by hepatocytes, has been implicated in angiogenesis and tumor promotion. Our laboratory previously reported the expression of LRG1 in murine myeloid cell lines undergoing neutrophilic granulocyte differentiation. However, the presence of LRG1 in primary human neutrophils and a role for LRG1 in regulation of hematopoiesis have not been previously described. Here we show that LRG1 is packaged into the granule compartment of human neutrophils and secreted upon neutrophil activation to modulate the microenvironment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077244/the-catsper-channel-modulates-boar-sperm-motility-during-capacitation
#12
Alejandro Vicente-Carrillo, Manuel Álvarez-Rodríguez, Heriberto Rodríguez-Martínez
The cation channel of sperm (CatSper) comprises four transmembrane subunits specifically expressed in human, equine, murine and ovine spermatozoa, apparently implicated in capacitation, hyperactivation and acrosome exocytosis. Western blotting and immunocytochemistry showed hereby that CatSper subunits are also present in boar spermatozoa, primarily over the sperm neck, tail and cytoplasmic droplets; albeit CatSper -1 presented in addition some distribution over the membrane of the acrosome and CatSper -2 and -4 over the membrane of the post-acrosome...
January 8, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073421/-research-advances-in-the-role-of-sphingolipids-in-hcv-and-hbv-life-cycles
#13
J Y Zhang, Z P Duan, J L Zhang, S J Zheng
Sphingolipids and their metabolites are not only important structural molecules of the cell membrane, but also involved in all phases of viral life cycle, including cell adhesion, membrane fusion, viral replication, viral assembly, intracellular transport, protein sorting, and exocytosis. In recent years, sphingolipids have become one of the focuses of lipid research. This article reviews the role of sphingolipids in the life cycles of hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus with reference to recent research achievements in China and foreign countries...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071723/hcn1-channels-reduce-the-rate-of-exocytosis-from-a-subset-of-cortical-synaptic-terminals
#14
Zhuo Huang, Gengyu Li, Carolina Aguado, Rafael Lujan, Mala M Shah
The hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN1) channels are predominantly located in pyramidal cell dendrites within the cortex. Recent evidence suggests these channels also exist pre-synaptically in a subset of synaptic terminals within the mature entorhinal cortex (EC). Inhibition of pre-synaptic HCN channels enhances miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs) onto EC layer III pyramidal neurons, suggesting that these channels decrease the release of the neurotransmitter, glutamate...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057867/molecular-diversity-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-mrna-containing-neurons-in-the-hypothalamus
#15
Roman A Romanov, Alan Alpar, Tomas Hökfelt, Tibor Harkany
Hormonal responses to acute stress rely on the rapid induction of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) production in the mammalian hypothalamus, with subsequent instructive steps culminating in corticosterone release at the periphery. Hypothalamic CRH neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus are therefore considered "stress neurons". However, significant morphological and funtional diversity amongst neurons that can transiently produce CRH in other hypothalamic nuclei has been proposed, particularly since histochemical evidence associates CRH to both GABA and glutamate neurotransmission...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057568/localization-of-rab3a-binding-site-on-c2a-domain-of-synaptotagmin-i-to-reveal-its-regulatory-mechanism
#16
Xia Tang, Chunliang Xie, Ying Wang, Xianchun Wang
Synaptotagmin I (Syt I) functions in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and multiple other cellular processes through its C2 domain binding to other molecules. Our previous study demonstrated that Rab3A, a small GTP-binding protein, is a new interacting partner of Syt I and could bind to both of the C2 domains; the polylysine motif in C2B is a key site for Rab3A binding, but the binding site on C2A is not clear. In order to localize Rab3-binding site on C2A and reveal the relevant regulatory mechanism, in the present study we investigated the interaction between recombinant Rab3A and various C2A mutants...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041965/analysis-of-gene-expression-in-ca-2-dependent-activator-protein-for-secretion-2-cadps2-knockout-cerebellum-using-genechip-and-kegg-pathways
#17
Tetsushi Sadakata, Yo Shinoda, Yasuki Ishizaki, Teiichi Furuichi
In the mouse cerebellum, Ca(2+)-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CADPS2, CAPS2) is involved in regulated secretion from dense-core vesicles (DCVs), which contain neuropeptides including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). Capds2 knockout (KO) mice show impaired cerebellar development in addition to autistic-like behavioral phenotypes. To understand the molecular impact caused by loss of Capds2, we analyzed gene expression profiles in the Capds2 KO cerebellum using a GeneChip microarray and the KEGG Pathway database...
December 29, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039581/microrna-expression-profiles-of-human-ipscs-differentiation-into-insulin-producing-cells
#18
Guido Sebastiani, Marco Valentini, Giuseppina Emanuela Grieco, Giuliana Ventriglia, Laura Nigi, Francesca Mancarella, Silvia Pellegrini, Gianvito Martino, Valeria Sordi, Lorenzo Piemonti, Francesco Dotta
AIMS: MicroRNAs are a class of small noncoding RNAs, which control gene expression by inhibition of mRNA translation. MicroRNAs are involved in the control of biological processes including cell differentiation. Here, we aim at characterizing microRNA expression profiles during differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into insulin-producing cells. METHODS: We differentiated hiPSCs toward endocrine pancreatic lineage following a 18-day protocol...
December 30, 2016: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039498/the-p38-mapk-inhibitor-sb203580-inhibits-cell-invasion-by-neospora-caninum
#19
Xiaoxia Jin, Pengtao Gong, Guojiang Li, Xichen Zhang, Jianhua Li
The Apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular parasitic protozoan. It can cause severe diseases in a number of animals throughout the world. Infection with N. caninum leads to abortions in pregnant animals and neuromuscular disorders of newborns which cause great economic losses to animal husbandry. However, the mechanism of cell invasion by N. caninum is still unclear. This paper aims to investigate the impact of SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, on host cell invasion by N. caninum...
December 30, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034796/mechanics-and-regulation-of-cytokinesis-in-budding-yeast
#20
REVIEW
Yogini P Bhavsar-Jog, Erfei Bi
Cytokinesis is essential for the survival of all organisms. It requires concerted functions of cell signaling, force production, exocytosis, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Due to the conservation in core components and mechanisms between fungal and animal cells, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has served as an attractive model for studying this fundamental process. In this review, we discuss the mechanics and regulation of distinct events of cytokinesis in budding yeast, including the assembly, constriction, and disassembly of the actomyosin ring, septum formation, abscission, and their spatiotemporal coordination...
December 26, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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