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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649980/patterns-of-caesarean-section-in-hiv-infected-and-non-infected-women-in-malawi-is-caesarean-section-used-for-pmtct
#1
Lyson Tenthani, Joep J van Oosterhout, Andreas D Haas, Malango Msukwa, Nozgechi Phiri, Frank Chimbwandira, Kali Tal, Karoline Aebi-Popp, Janne Estill, Olivia Keiser
BACKGROUND: Caesarean section (CS) is not recommended for PMTCT in Malawi HIV Guidelines, contrary to most high-income countries where CS is indicated if viral suppression is sub-optimal pre-delivery. We describe patterns of CS in HIV-infected and uninfected women in Malawi and explored if insight into the use of Elective CS (ECS) for PMTCT could be obtained. METHODS: We used routinely collected data from individual medical records from 17 large health facilities in the central and southern regions of Malawi, from January 2010 to December 2013...
April 12, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629683/near-real-time-tracking-of-gaps-in-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-in-three-districts-of-kwazulu-natal-province-south-africa
#2
F Moyo, A Haeri Mazanderani, S Bhardwaj, O B Mhlongo, T Kufa, K Ng'oma, B A Smith, G G Sherman
BACKGROUND: Identifying and addressing gaps in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) is required if South Africa (SA) is to achieve targets for eliminating MTCT (eMTCT). Potential PMTCT gaps that increase MTCT risk include late maternal HIV diagnosis, lack of or delayed antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy and breastfeeding, and lack of effective prophylaxis for HIV-exposed infants. OBJECTIVES: To investigate, in near real time, PMTCT gaps among HIV-infected infants in three districts of KwaZulu-Natal Province, SA...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629654/reproductive-decision-making-among-postpartum-hiv-infected-women-in-rural-south-africa
#3
Deborah L Jones, Violeta J Rodriguez, Suat Babayigit, Antonio Chahine, Stephen M Weiss, Karl Peltzer
Despite pregnancy spacing recommendations to optimize health outcomes among mothers and neonates, unplanned pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa is common among women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (WLHIV). This study examined factors associated with reproductive decision-making among WLHIV to inform pregnancy-planning interventions. WLHIV in rural South Africa (n = 165) were assessed at 12 months postpartum. The relative importance of factors associated with reproductive decision-making was estimated...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624952/an-audit-of-perineal-trauma-and-vertical-transmisson-of-hiv
#4
Amaka N Ocheke, Ephraim Samuels, Isaac E Ocheke, Patricia A Agaba, Clement Ekere, James Bitrus, Emmanuel I Agaba, Atiene S Sagay
Restrictive episiotomy is recommended for the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV. The study compared the frequency of episiotomy use and the occurrence of perineal tears; and related factors in HIV positive and HIV negative women and to assess their effect on Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. A total of 110 HIV positive and 134 HIV negative parturients were enrolled in the study. The incidence of episiotomy was more in the HIV negative group (p=0.0000) while that of perineal tear was not affected by HIV status (p=0...
December 2017: African Journal of Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595094/paediatric-hiv-1-infection-updated-strategies-of-prevention-mother-to-child-transmission
#5
Alessandra Lumaca, Luisa Galli, Maurizio de Martino, Elena Chiappini
INTRODUCTION: HIV-1 epidemiology is changing and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) strategies have been continuously optimized over time. However, the correct management of infected women during pregnancy is crucial for PMTCT and cases of vertical transmission continue to occur. OBJECTIVE: To review the most recent evidence regarding the prevention of MTCT in resource-rich and resource-limited settings, focalizing on new possible approaches. RESULTS: New issues regard the optimal antiretroviral therapy regimen for pregnant women with good immunological control, the use of intrapartum zidovudine (ZDV) in pregnant women with low viral load, the optimization of prophylaxis in the settings where breastfeeding is recommended and use of combined neonatal prophylaxis (CNP) in infants at high-risk for MTCT...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576942/spatial-temporal-trend-for-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-up-to-infancy-and-during-pre-option-b-in-western-kenya-2007-13
#6
Anthony Waruru, Thomas N O Achia, Hellen Muttai, Lucy Ng'ang'a, Emily Zielinski-Gutierrez, Boniface Ochanda, Abraham Katana, Peter W Young, James L Tobias, Peter Juma, Kevin M De Cock, Thorkild Tylleskär
Introduction: Using spatial-temporal analyses to understand coverage and trends in elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (e-MTCT) efforts may be helpful in ensuring timely services are delivered to the right place. We present spatial-temporal analysis of seven years of HIV early infant diagnosis (EID) data collected from 12 districts in western Kenya from January 2007 to November 2013, during pre-Option B+ use. Methods: We included in the analysis infants up to one year old...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560291/prevention-of-congenital-syphilis-through-antenatal-screenings-in-lusaka-zambia-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Faisal Akhtar, Sabah Rehman
Congenital syphilis is one of the preventable diseases caused by the gram-negative bacteria Treponema pallidum; yet, it imposes a serious global health and economic burden, with more than half of the cases resulting in serious adverse outcomes, including infant mortality. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of syphilis is estimated at 3.6 million adjusted life years (DALYs) and around $309 million in medical costs. In 2006, an estimated 9.7 million children of age less than five years died in developing countries; almost four million were neonatal deaths...
January 16, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560290/a-public-health-analysis-on-gaps-in-disease-monitoring-and-opportunities-for-improved-care-for-the-management-of-hepatitis-b-and-c
#8
REVIEW
Faisal Akhtar, Sabah Rehman
Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C have been major disease-causing agents among humans since they were discovered in the 1960s. Both cause jaundice-like symptoms initially but their prognosis and treatment are somehow different and depend upon many demographic details, such as the age and susceptibility of the patients and any other comorbid conditions. They clinically present primarily with hepatitis and can have many adverse effects or even be life-threatening at times, if not treated properly. However, their epidemiological background and findings in terms of morbidity, mortality, and case fatality rates are different...
January 16, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551137/the-role-of-immune-responses-in-hiv-mother-to-child-transmission
#9
Caitlin Milligan, Jennifer A Slyker, Julie Overbaugh
HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) represents a success story in the HIV/AIDS field given the significant reduction in number of transmission events with the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment and other prevention methods. Nevertheless, MTCT still occurs and better understanding of the basic biology and immunology of transmission will aid in future prevention and treatment efforts. MTCT is a unique setting given that the transmission pair is known and the infant receives passively transferred HIV-specific antibodies from the mother while in utero...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526132/pregnancy-outcomes-of-women-with-hiv-in-a-district-general-hospital-in-the-uk
#10
L Carey, C Desouza, A Moorcroft, A Elgalib
The aim of this study was to describe the obstetrical and virological outcomes in HIV-infected pregnant women who delivered at a district general hospital in south London in the period from 2008 to 2014. Our review identified 137 pregnancies; most (60%, 63/105) of them were unplanned. The commonest mode of delivery was spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) (42%, 48/114) followed by emergency Caesarean section (32%, 36/114). Gestational age at delivery was ≥37 weeks in most (84%, 91/106) of the cases. Maternal HIV VL at or closest to delivery was undetectable (<40 copies/mL), <400 copies/mL and >1000 copies/mL in 73% (94/129), 90% (116/129) and 6% (8/129) of the pregnancies, respectively...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506422/defb1-polymorphisms-and-hiv-1-mother-to-child-transmission-in-zambian-population
#11
Luisa Zupin, Vania Polesello, Ludovica Segat, Anselmo Jiro Kamada, Louise Kuhn, Sergio Crovella
INTRODUCTION: Human Beta Defensin-1 (hBD-1) is a component of the innate immune system, the first line of defence against pathogens, already reported as involved in the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) in different populations. We investigated the role of DEFB1 gene (encoding for hBD-1) functional polymorphisms in the susceptibility to HIV-1 MTCT in a population from Zambia. METHODS: Four selected polymorphisms within DEFB1 gene, three at the 5' untranslated region (UTR), namely - 52G>A ( RS1799946 ), -44C>G ( RS1800972 ) and -20G>A ( RS11362 ) and one in the 3'UTR, c...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491151/unique-phenotypic-characteristics-of-recently-transmitted-hiv-1-subtype-c-envelope-glycoprotein-gp120-use-of-cxcr6-co-receptor-by-transmitted-founder-viruses
#12
Manickam Ashokkumar, Shambhu G Aralaguppe, Srikanth P Tripathy, Luke Elizabeth Hanna, Ujjwal Neogi
Adequate information on the precise molecular and biological composition of the viral strains that establish HIV-infection in the human host will provide effective means of immunization against HIV-infection. In an attempt to identify and differentiate the biological properties and infectious potential of the transmitted founder (TF) virus from the population of the early transmitted virus, patient-derived 250 envelope glycoprotein, gp120 were cloned in pMN-K7-Luc-IRESs-NefΔgp120 to obtain chimeric viruses...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473269/maternal-viral-load-and-hepatitis-b-virus-mother-to-child-transmission-risk-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Hong-Lin Chen, Man-Li Zha, Ji-Yu Cai, Gang Qin
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal viral load and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) risk in HBeAg-positive mothers. METHODS: PubMed and Web of Science were systematically searched. We compared MTCT incidence between maternal hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA positive and negative group. We also examined the dose-response effect of this relationship. RESULTS: 21 studies with 10,142 mother-child pairs included in the studies...
February 23, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470782/treatment-of-hepatitis-c-during-pregnancy-weighing-the-risks-and-benefits-in-contrast-to-hiv
#14
REVIEW
A Sidney Barritt, Ravi Jhaveri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing hepatitis C virus (HCV) cases over the past decade have raised concerns about subsequent increased cases in infants due to mother to child transmission (MTCT). Many are reminded of the early days of HIV and the rationale for using antiretroviral agents during pregnancy. RECENT FINDINGS: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) that are highly potent, all-oral, short-duration regimens that cure HCV have led many to consider what it would entail to use DAAs for pregnant women...
February 22, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468056/implementation-of-universal-rapid-human-immunodeficiency-virus-screening-on-labor-and-delivery
#15
Stacia Crochet, Chun-Chih Huang, Melissa Fries, Rachel K Scott
Background: A case of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV at a medical center in Washington, DC, resulted in the implementation of universal opt-out rapid testing of patients admitted for delivery. This article evaluates the policy's efficacy and implementation. Methods: We evaluated the implementation using the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. Results: We could not evaluate decrease in MTCT rate secondary to low sample size ( n  = 3324) and no true-positive results...
March 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458337/hiv-1-transmission-and-survival-according-to-feeding-options-in-infants-born-to-hiv-infected-women-in-yaound%C3%A3-cameroon
#16
Anne Esther Njom Nlend, Annie Carole Nga Motaze, Arsene Sandie, Joseph Fokam
BACKGROUND: Evidence of 24-months survival in the frame of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) cascade-care is scare from routine programs in sub-Saharan African (SSA) settings. Specifically, data on infant outcomes according to feeding options remain largely unknown by month-24, thus limiting its breath for public-health recommendations toward eliminating new pediatric HIV-1 infections and improving care. We sought to evaluate HIV-1 vertical transmission and infant survival rates according to feeding options...
February 19, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438439/mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-in-brazil-data-from-the-birth-in-brazil-study-a-national-hospital-based-study
#17
Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues, Valeria Saraceni, Maria do Carmo Leal
AIMS: to estimate the mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV among infected pregnant women identified in the "Birth in Brazil" study and to evaluate care practices provided in order to identify missed opportunities at preventing the MTCT of HIV infection in the country. METHODS: Descriptive study using data obtained from the consultation of different databases: the "Birth in Brazil" study database and the Brazilian National Information Systems (NIS) databases...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427490/how-to-control-highly-endemic-hepatitis-b-in-asia
#18
REVIEW
Shan Shan, Fuqian Cui, Jidong Jia
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an enormous economic and social burden. Asian countries such as Vietnam, Mongolia, Laos, China, the Philippines, South Korea, Singapore and Cambodia have high or high-intermediate HBsAg prevalence. Most of the chronic HBV carriers in this region acquire their infection during early childhood or through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Asia has been highly successful in controlling HBV in the last 2 decades. For example, China has adopted a comprehensive strategy to control HBV and has offered universal HBV vaccination to infants since 1992...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401270/impact-of-timing-of-antiretroviral-treatment-and-birth-weight-on-mother-to-child-human-immunodeficiency-virus-transmission-findings-from-an-18-month-prospective-cohort-of-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-mother-infant-pairs-during-the-transition-from-option
#19
Thu-Ha Dinh, Angela Mushavi, Ray W Shiraishi, Beth Tippett Barr, Shirish Balachandra, Gerald Shambira, Justice Nyakura, Sekesai Zinyowera, Mufuta Tshimanga, Owen Mugurungi, Peter H Kilmarx
Background: Preventing mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus transmission (MTCT) depends on early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We report the 18-month MTCT risk during the transition from Option A to Option B+ in Zimbabwe, and assess whether ART preconception could eliminate MTCT in breastfeeding populations. Methods: In 2013, we consecutively recruited a nationally representative sample of 6051 infants aged 4-12 weeks and their mothers from 151 immunization clinics using a multistage stratified cluster sampling method...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363407/prophylaxis-and-treatment-of-hiv-1-infection-in-pregnancy-swedish-recommendations-2017
#20
Lars Navér, Jan Albert, Christina Carlander, Leo Flamholc, Magnus Gisslén, Olof Karlström, Veronica Svedhem-Johansson, Anders Sönnerborg, Katarina Westling, Aylin Yilmaz, Karin Pettersson
Prophylaxis and treatment with antiretroviral drugs have resulted in a very low rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV during recent years. Registration of new antiretroviral drugs, modification of clinical praxis, updated general treatment guidelines and increasing knowledge about MTCT have necessitated regular revisions of the recommendations for 'Prophylaxis and treatment of HIV-1 infection in pregnancy'. The Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy (RAV) has updated the recommendations from 2013 at an expert meeting 19 September 2017...
January 24, 2018: Infectious Diseases
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