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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399356/understanding-the-influence-of-socioeconomic-environment-on-paediatric-anti-retroviral-treatment-coverage-towards-closing-treatment-gaps-in-sub-saharan-africa
#1
Daniel A Adeyinka, Meirion R Evans, Chamberline E Ozigbu, Hugo van Woerden, Esther F Adeyinka, Olanrewaju Oladimeji, Chris Aimakhu, Deborah Odoh, Dick Chamla
OBJECTIVE: Many sub-Saharan African countries have massively scaled-up their antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes, but many national programmes still show large gaps in paediatric ART coverage making it challenging to reduce AIDS-related deaths among HIV-infected children. We sought to identify enablers of paediatric ART coverage in Africa by examining the relationship between paediatric ART coverage and socioeconomic parameters measured at the population level so as to accelerate reaching the 90-90-90 targets...
March 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398096/advances-in-therapy-for-the-prevention-of-hiv-transmission-from-mother-to-child
#2
Marcela A Moretton, Facundo Bertera, Eduardo Lagomarsino, Jennifer Riedel, Diego A Chiappetta, Christian Höcht
Actually, ~17.8 million women and 1.8 million children (<15 years) are currently infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Particularly, the majority of pediatric infections (>90%) resulted from "HIV mother-to-child transmission" (MTCT), both in pregnancy, labour, delivery and later by breastfeeding. Due to its high pediatric incidence, MTCT represents a public health concern. Areas covered: In this review, we focus on available treatments and antiretroviral drugs recommended by the World Health Organization, and the main clinical investigations in antiretroviral pharmacotherapy to prevent the MTCT...
April 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374653/mother-to-child-hiv-transmissions-in-israel-1985-2011
#3
Z Mor, R Sheffer, D Chemtob
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is the leading cause of paediatric HIV-infection in Israel. This study aimed to assess MTCT rates and analyse temporal changes in relation to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) introduction in 1996. This historical prospective study included all HIV-infected women who delivered in Israel between 1988 and 2011. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and therapy characteristics were compared between HIV-infected newborns with all others, and between infants born before and after 1996...
April 4, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353321/breastfeeding-from-mothers-carrying-hbv-would-not-increase-the-risk-of-hbv-infection-in-infants-after-proper-immunoprophylaxis
#4
Feifan Xiao, Aihua Lan, Wentao Mo
BACKGROUND: Previously meta-analysis had different conclusions about the role of breastfeeding in mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV). We aimed to carry out an updated meta-analysis based on current published evidence to explore whether breastfeeding increase the risk of HBV infection from mothers carrying HBV after proper immunoprophylaxis in the infants or not. METHODS: Databases searched from January 1st,2000 to August 1st,2016 included PubMed searching engine, Cochrane Library, Embase database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Chinese database, and Wanfang Chinese database...
March 27, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350554/high-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-the-cepheid-xpert%C3%A2-hiv-1-qualitative-point-of-care-test-among-newborns-in-botswana
#5
Maryanne Ibrahim, Sikhulile Moyo, Terence Mohammed, Lucy Mupfumi, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Kenneth Maswabi, Gbolahan Ajibola, Rebecca Gelman, Oganne Batlang, Maureen Sakoi, Chloe Auletta-Young, Joseph Makhema, Shahin Lockman, Roger L Shapiro
BACKGROUND: HIV point-of-care (POC) testing allows for early infant HIV diagnosis and treatment, but POC accuracy at birth and in the setting of antiretroviral prophylaxis for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the Cepheid Xpert® HIV-1 Qual POC test against the Roche Taqman HIV-1 PCR platform using dried blood spots from 15 HIV-infected and 75 HIV-exposed uninfected newborns. These infants were screened for HIV at <96 hours of life at 5 hospital maternity wards in Botswana; all infants received post-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis (PEP) and most mothers received 3-drug antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy and at delivery...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325171/pregnancy-and-neonatal-outcomes-among-a-cohort-of-hiv-infected-women-in-a-large-italian-teaching-hospital-a-30-year-retrospective-study
#6
S Grignolo, R Agnello, D Gerbaldo, C Gotta, C Alicino, F Del Puente, L Taramasso, B Bruzzone, C Gustavino, S Trasino, A DE Maria, G Icardi, C Viscoli, A DI Biagio
The primary study objective was to investigate three decades from 1985 to 2014 of changes in pregnancies among HIV-infected women. The secondary objective was to assess risk factors associated with preterm delivery and severe small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants in HIV-infected women. A retrospective review of deliveries among pregnant HIV-infected women at the University of Genoa and IRCCS San Martino-IST in Genoa between 1985 and 2014 was performed. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to study the variables associated with neonatal outcomes...
March 22, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325130/antiretroviral-adherence-perspectives-of-pregnant-and-postpartum-women-in-guyana
#7
Deborah Vitalis, Zelee Hill
The Caribbean region has the second highest HIV prevalence after Sub-Saharan Africa. Guyana's adult HIV prevalence is 1.9% among pregnant women, with women accounting for an estimated 58% of all persons living with HIV. However, there are few studies on ART adherence in the Caribbean, none from Guyana, and none focusing on adherence in pregnancy and the postpartum period. The objective of this study was to explore the perspectives of HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women and healthcare providers in Guyana about barriers and facilitators to ART adherence...
March 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252818/economic-impact-of-routine-opt-out-antenatal-hiv-screening-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
E Ibekwe, C Haigh, F Duncan, F Fatoye
OBJECTIVES:  To evaluate the economic impact of routine testing of HIV in antenatal (ANC) settings. BACKGROUND: Many children are being infected with HIV through mother to child transmission (MTCT) of the virus. Most of these infections are preventable if the mothers' HIV status are identified in a timely manner and appropriate interventions put in place. Routine HIV testing is widely acclaimed as a strategy for universal access to HIV testing and is being adopted by developed and developing poor income countries without recourse to the economic impact...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225833/influence-of-hla-class-i-hla-class-ii-and-kirs-on-vertical-transmission-and-chronicity-of-hepatitis-c-virus-in-children
#9
A Ruiz-Extremera, E J Pavón-Castillero, M Florido, P Muñoz de Rueda, J A Muñoz-Gámez, J Casado, A Carazo, R Quiles, S M Jiménez-Ruiz, A Gila, J D Luna, J León, J Salmerón
BACKGROUND & AIM: There is evidence that maternal viral load of HCV during delivery influences the risk for Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), but this does not explain all cases. We study the role of the immunogenetic profile (HLA, KIRs and KIR-ligand binding) of mothers and children in HCV-MTCT and in chronicity in the children. METHODOLOGY: 79 HCV-RNA (+) mothers and their 98 children were included. 24 children were infected, becoming chronic in 8 cases and clearing in 16...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212307/antiretroviral-treatment-in-hiv-1-positive-mothers-neurological-implications-in-virus-free-children
#10
REVIEW
Antonio Victor Campos Coelho, Paola Maura Tricarico, Fulvio Celsi, Sergio Crovella
Since the worldwide introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1, HIV-1-positive mothers, together with HIV-1 testing prior to pregnancy, caesarian birth and breastfeeding cessation with replacement feeding, a reduction of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) has been observed in the last few years. As such, an increasing number of children are being exposed in utero to ART. Several questions have arisen concerning the neurological effects of ART exposure in utero, considering the potential effect of antiretroviral drugs on the central nervous system, a structure which is in continuous development in the fetus and characterized by great plasticity...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202762/maternal-binding-and-neutralizing-igg-responses-targeting-the-c-terminal-region-of-the-v3-loop-are-predictive-of-reduced-peripartum-hiv-1-transmission-risk
#11
David R Martinez, Nathan Vandergrift, Ayooluwa O Douglas, Erin McGuire, John Bainbridge, Nathan I Nicely, David C Montefiori, Georgia D Tomaras, Genevieve G Fouda, Sallie R Permar
The development of an effective maternal HIV-1 vaccine that could synergize with antiretroviral therapy (ART) to eliminate pediatric HIV-1 infection will require the characterization of maternal immune responses capable of blocking transmission of autologous HIV viruses to the infant. We previously identified that maternal plasma antibody binding to linear epitopes within the variable loop 3 (V3) region of HIV envelope (Env) and neutralizing responses against easy to neutralize tier 1 viruses were associated with reduced risk of peripartum HIV infection in the historic U...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199772/a-retrospective-study-of-hepatitis-b-mother-to-child-transmission-prevention-and-post-vaccination-serological-test-results-of-infants-at-risk-of-perinatal-transmission-in-two-counties-of-middle-china
#12
Guo Yonghao, Dong Pumei, Yang Jianhui, Xu Jin, Zhang Yanyang, Wang Zhe
Approximately 240 million people have chronic hepatitis B worldwide, with mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) accounting for most cases. Therefore, Henan Province, China launched a public health program to prevent MTCT. To determine the efficacy of this health program, a survey was carried out in Huixian and Xinan counties, which are located in northern and western Henan. All infants born in these two counties between January 1, 2013 and March 31, 2014 to a mother positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), were surveyed; in total, there were 438 mother-infant pairs...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199373/prevalence-of-maternal-hiv-infection-and-knowledge-on-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-and-its-prevention-among-antenatal-care-attendees-in-a-rural-area-in-northwest-cameroon
#13
Carlson-Babila Sama, Vitalis F Feteh, Maxime Tindong, John T Tanyi, Nestor Mbinkar Bihle, Fru F Angwafo
BACKGROUND: In 2010, an estimated 141 new HIV infections occurred per day in Cameroon and reports suggest an upsurge of these rates by 2020 if current trends continue. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV is a major public health challenge, and maternal knowledge on HIV transmission during pregnancy and its prevention is important in curtailing paediatric HIV acquisition. OBJECTIVES: We aimed at establishing the prevalence of maternal HIV infection as well as assessing knowledge on HIV, MTCT and prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) of HIV among pregnant women in a rural area of Cameroon...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188612/hepatitis-b-immunoglobulin-during-pregnancy-for-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#14
REVIEW
Ahizechukwu C Eke, George U Eleje, Uzoamaka A Eke, Yun Xia, Jiao Liu
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis is a viral infection of the liver. It is mainly transmitted between people through contact with infected blood, frequently from mother to baby in-utero. Hepatitis B poses significant risk to the fetus and up to 85% of infants infected by their mothers at birth develop chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) is a purified solution of human immunoglobulin that could be administered to the mother, newborn, or both. HBIG offers protection against HBV infection when administered to pregnant women who test positive for hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) or hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), or both...
February 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184998/natural-history-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-children-in-japan-a-comparison-of-mother-to-child-transmission-with-horizontal-transmission
#15
Tomoko Takano, Hitoshi Tajiri, Satoyo Hosono, Ayano Inui, Jun Murakami, Kosuke Ushijima, Yoko Miyoshi, Yuri Etani, Daiki Abukawa, Mitsuyoshi Suzuki, Stephen Brooks
BACKGROUND: It is necessary to evaluate the natural history of children with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in each country to consider their long-term management. METHODS: A multi-center observational study of children with chronic HBV infection who were diagnosed at age ≤15 years was carried out in 18 hospitals in Japan. RESULTS: We reviewed children with HBV infection including 381 with mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and 154 with horizontal transmission, genotype C being the most prevalent virus genotype (83%)...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181860/factors-associated-with-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-despite-overall-low-transmission-rates-in-hiv-exposed-infants-in-rural-kenya
#16
Nicollate A Okoko, Kevin O Owuor, Jayne L Kulzer, George O Owino, Irene A Ogolla, Ronald W Wandera, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Lisa L Abuogi
Despite the availability of efficacious prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions and improved access to preventive services in many developing countries, vertical HIV transmission persists. A matched case-control study of HIV-exposed infants between January and June 2012 was conducted at 20 clinics in Kenya. Cases were HIV-infected infants and controls were exposed, uninfected infants. Conditional logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine characteristics associated with HIV infection...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173741/elimination-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-lessons-learned-from-success-in-thailand
#17
REVIEW
Usa Thisyakorn
In 1988, the generalised HIV/AIDS epidemic in Thailand began and in the same year the first HIV-exposed infant in Thailand was born at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok. From the early to mid-1990s, an epidemic wave of HIV-infected women and infants occurred. Heterosexual HIV transmission, as described in the Asian Epidemic Model, was the major mode of spread in Thailand, causing an increasing number of HIV-infected pregnant women. The early and concerted multi-sectoral response of Thai society reduced the prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women from 2% in the mid-1990s to 0...
May 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150581/a-novel-mother-to-child-htlv-1-transmission-model-for-investigating-the-role-of-maternal-anti-htlv-1-antibodies-using-orally-infected-mother-rats
#18
Yuji Murakami, Atsuhiko Hasegawa, Satomi Ando, Reiko Tanaka, Takao Masuda, Yuetsu Tanaka, Mari Kannagi
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human retrovirus that is a causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and mainly transmitted from an infected mother to her child via breastfeeding. Such an HTLV-1 infection during childhood is believed to be a risk factor for ATL development. Although it has been suggested that an increased proviral load (PVL), a higher titer of antibody (Ab) in the infected mother, and prolonged breastfeeding are associated with an increased risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), the mechanisms underlying MTCT of HTLV-1 remain largely unknown...
February 1, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125026/time-to-consider-moving-beyond-exclusive-breastfeeding-in-southern-africa
#19
Janet M Wojcicki
While there have been considerable advances in the reduction of mother to child transmission of HIV (MTCT) in sub-Saharan Africa with the advance of anti-retroviral therapies (ART), there remain challenges in the late postpartum period.  Structural issues including food insecurity and stigma make better maternal ART adherence and exclusive breastfeeding unreachable for some women. There are no other scientifically researched feeding options as there have been few studies on different types of mixed feeding practices and risk of HIV infection...
January 24, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110176/the-management-of-hiv-in-pregnancy-a-10-year-experience
#20
Sonia F Raffe, Charlotte Savage, Louisa A Perry, Amie Patel, Tricia Keith, Richard Howell, Robert Bradley, Rob Bomont, Katy Fidler, Yvonne Gilleece
OBJECTIVE: The package of care to reduce HIV mother to child transmission (MTCT) has evolved significantly since trials of ante and intrapartum antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1994. In the UK MTCT rate has fallen from 25.6% in the 1990s to 0.46%. We review the management of HIV in pregnancy in Brighton in the context of evolving guidelines. STUDY DESIGN: HIV, obstetric and neonatal notes of all HIV positive women, pregnant between 2003 and 2014, were reviewed. RESULTS: 97 pregnancies in 75 women were identified, resulting in 79 live births...
January 3, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
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