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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107227/structural-level-differences-in-the-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-rate-in-south-africa-a-multilevel-assessment-of-individual-health-facility-and-provincial-level-predictors-of-infant-hiv-transmission
#1
S Woldesenbet, D J Jackson, C J Lombard, T H Dinh, V Ramokolo, T Doherty, G G Sherman, Y Pillay, A E Goga
OBJECTIVES: In 2010, South Africa reported an early mother to child transmission (MTCT) rate of 3.5% at 4-8 weeks postpartum. Provincial early MTCT rates ranged from 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.1-3.4%) to 5.9% (95% CI: 3.8-8.0%). We sought to determine reasons for these geographic differences in MTCT rates. METHODS: This study employed multilevel modelling using 2010 South African PMTCT evaluation (SAPMTCTE) data from 530 facilities. Interview data and infant blood samples were collected from 3085 mother-infant pairs at 4-8 weeks postpartum...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073406/-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#2
H Zhuang
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is a major mode of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission, especially in high endemic areas. Administration of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and hepatitis B vaccine to infants at birth, followed by completion of the vaccine series, prevented approximately 95% of HBV transmission from HBsAg-positive mothers to their infants. However, immunoprophylaxis failure was still observed in 5~10% infants born to mothers with high levels of viremia. It was demonstrated that antiviral nucleot(s)ide analogues (NUCs) provided to pregnant women with high viral loads in late pregnancy further reduced MTCT...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064549/mother-to-child-transmission-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-among-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-on-highly-active-anti-retroviral-therapy-with-premature-rupture-of-membranes-at-term
#3
George Uchenna Eleje, Emeka Stephen Edokwe, Joseph Ifeanyichukwu Ikechebelu, Chinyere Ukamaka Onubogu, Ebele Francesca Ugochukwu, Princeston Chukwuemeka Okam, Adaobi Maryann Ibekwe
PURPOSE: To determine mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rate and associated risk factors of human immune-deficiency virus (HIV) among HIV-infected pregnant women with term premature rupture of membranes (PROM) in comparison with those without PROM at term. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All optimally managed HIV-positive pregnant women of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) who had PROM at term were enrolled. Maternal HIV-1 viral load was not assessed...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903364/-a-meta-analysis-of-hiv-seroprevalence-in-pregnant-women-with-syphilis-and-the-impact-of-syphilis-infection-on-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission
#4
T T Wang, Y Xu, Z Z Li, L Z Chen
Objective: To estimate HIV seroprevalence among pregnant women with syphilis and evaluate the influence of syphilis infection on mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of HIV by meta-analysis. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search for 1 678 articles related to maternal syphilis and HIV infection published until October 1(st) 2015 using the PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wanfang, Weipu, and SinoMed databases and evaluated the quality of each papers using the STROBE checklist, and the keywords were " pregnant women/maternal/pregnancy" , "syphilis/AIDS" , "HIV/human immunodeficiency virus" , "mother- to-child transimission/vertical transmission" ...
November 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872760/factors-associated-with-pmtct-cascade-completion-in-four-african-countries
#5
Jodie Dionne-Odom, Thomas K Welty, Andrew O Westfall, Benjamin H Chi, Didier Koumavi Ekouevi, Margaret Kasaro, Pius M Tih, Alan T N Tita
Background. Many countries are working to reduce or eliminate mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. Prevention efforts have been conceptualized as steps in a cascade but cascade completion rates during and after pregnancy are low. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was performed across 26 communities in Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. Women who reported a pregnancy within two years were enrolled. Participant responses were used to construct the PMTCT cascade with all of the following steps required for completion: at least one antenatal visit, HIV testing performed, HIV testing result received, initiation of maternal prophylaxis, and initiation of infant prophylaxis...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852658/indications-for-antiviral-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-pregnant-mothers
#6
Eric Raeyoon Yoo, Ryan Babu Perumpail, George Cholankeril, Aijaz Ahmed
The use of antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the setting of pregnancy needs to be individualised based on limited data. We report a case of a 34-year-old Korean-American woman with a history of pregnancy with emergent caesarean section due to prolonged labour in the setting of HBV e-antigen (HBeAg) positive chronic HBV with a pretreatment baseline HBV DNA level of 110000 000 million copies per mL. Her first delivery was complicated by mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HBV infection to her daughter despite standard active and passive immunoprophylaxis...
November 15, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780535/etravirine-inhibits-abcg2-drug-transporter-and-affects-transplacental-passage-of-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate
#7
Josef Reznicek, Martina Ceckova, Lenka Tupova, Frantisek Staud
INTRODUCTION: All HIV positive pregnant women should receive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of the virus. It has recently been shown that fetal exposure of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and abacavir is decreased by placental ABC transporters p-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and BCRP (ABCG2). The aim of this study was to evaluate transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDI) between etravirine (TMC125), a novel non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in cART, and the NRTIs and to assess the relevance of such DDI for transplacental pharmacokinetics of TDF and abacavir...
November 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768731/predictors-of-patient-dissatisfaction-with-services-for-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#8
Helga Naburi, Phares Mujinja, Charles Kilewo, Till Bärnighausen, Nicola Orsini, Karim Manji, Gunnel Biberfeld, David Sando, Pascal Geldsetzer, Guerino Chalamila, Anna Mia Ekström
BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV remains a major source of new HIV infections in children. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) using lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART) for all pregnant and breastfeeding women living with HIV (Option B+) is the major strategy for eliminating paediatric HIV. Ensuring that patients are satisfied with PMTCT services is important for optimizing uptake, adherence and retention in treatment. METHODS: We conducted a facility based quantitative cross-sectional survey in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, between March and April 2014, when the country was transitioning to the implementation of PMTCT Option B+...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749662/perinatal-antiretroviral-exposure-and-prevented-mother-to-child-hiv-infections-in-the-era-of-antiretroviral-prophylaxis-in-the-united-states-1994-2010
#9
Kristen M Little, Allan W Taylor, Craig B Borkowf, Maria C B Mendoza, Margaret A Lampe, Paul J Weidle, Steven R Nesheim
OBJECTIVES: Using published, nationally-representative estimates, we calculated the total number of perinatally HIV-exposed and HIV-infected infants born during 1978-2010, the number of perinatal HIV cases prevented by interventions designed for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), and the number of infants exposed to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs during the prenatal and intrapartum periods. DESIGN: We calculated the number of infants exposed to ARV drugs since 1994, and the number of cases of mother-to-child HIV transmission prevented from 1994 to 2010 using published data...
January 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749537/telbivudine-treatment-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infected-pregnant-women-at-different-gestational-stages-for-the-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-outcomes-of-telbivudine-treatment-during-pregnancy
#10
Zhangmin Tan, Yuzhu Yin, Jin Zhou, Lingling Wu, Chengfang Xu, Hongying Hou
This prospective study evaluated the viability of telbivudine for blocking mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.Pregnant women positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen began telbivudine treatment before 14 weeks of gestation (i.e., early), between 14 and 28 weeks of gestation (late), or not at all (control). In the late-treatment group, 55 women terminated telbivudine therapy within puerperium. All neonates underwent routine hepatitis B immunoglobulin plus vaccination...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734167/understanding-the-adolescent-gap-in-hiv-testing-among-clients-of-antenatal-care-services-in-west-and-central-african-countries
#11
Stephane Helleringer
New HIV infections among children have declined significantly more slowly in West and central African countries (WCA) than in eastern and southern African countries between 2009 and 2015. Since adolescent fertility is particularly high in WCA countries, frequent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV may in part be due to low coverage of HIV testing among adolescents during antenatal care (ANC). We investigated this adolescent gap in HIV testing using survey data from the demographic and health surveys and multiple indicators cluster surveys collected in 21 WCA countries since 2009...
October 12, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698999/population-level-effectiveness-of-pmtct-option-a-on-early-mother-to-child-mtct-transmission-of-hiv-in-south-africa-implications-for-eliminating-mtct
#12
Ameena E Goga, Thu-Ha Dinh, Debra J Jackson, Carl J Lombard, Adrian Puren, Gayle Sherman, Vundli Ramokolo, Selamawit Woldesenbet, Tanya Doherty, Nobuntu Noveve, Vuyolwethu Magasana, Yagespari Singh, Trisha Ramraj, Sanjana Bhardwaj, Yogan Pillay
BACKGROUND: Eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV (EMTCT), defined as ≤50 infant HIV infections per 100 000 live births, is a global priority. Since 2011 policies to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) shifted from maternal antiretroviral (ARV) treatment or prophylaxis contingent on CD4 cell count to lifelong maternal ARV treatment (cART). We sought to measure progress with early (4-8 weeks postpartum) MTCT prevention and elimination, 2011-2013, at national and sub-national levels in South Africa, a high antenatal HIV prevalence setting ( ≈ 29%), where early MTCT was 3...
December 2016: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651578/kap-study-on-hiv-aids-among-antenatal-women-attending-central-referral-hospital-of-north-east-india
#13
Pesona Grace Lucksom, Rekha Upadhya, Latha Kharka, Swati Dubey, Nishi Choudhary, Ruby Yadav
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to determine whether antenatal mothers in Sikkim have adequate knowledge about awareness, attitude, and preventive practices regarding HIV infection. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using structured questionnaire. 220 Antenatal mothers attending the outpatient department of Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim were taken for the study for a period of 1 year from April 2011 to April 2012. Questionnaire form filled by pregnant women during their first antenatal visit was the source of data for this study...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621968/individual-and-community-perspectives-attitudes-and-practices-to-mother-to-child-transmission-and-infant-feeding-among-hiv-positive-mothers-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-literature-review
#14
Alexander Suuk Laar, Veloshnee Govender
OBJECTIVES: International guidelines on infant feeding for HIV- positive mothers promote Exclusive Replacement Feeding (ERF) (infant formula or animal milk) or exclusive breastfeeding (with no supplements of any kind). A mixed feeding pattern, where breastfeeding is combined with other milks, liquid foods or solids, has been shown to increase the risk of transmission of HIV and is strongly discouraged. However, little is known about the ability of women to adhere to recommended feeding strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV from breast milk...
2013: International Journal of MCH and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609632/-pregnancy-as-an-opportunity-to-diagnose-human-immunodeficiency-virus-immigrant-women-in-catalonia
#15
Antoni Soriano-Arandes, Antoni Noguera-Julian, Mónica López-Lacort, Pere Soler-Palacín, Antonio Mur, María Méndez, Lluís Mayol, Teresa Vallmanya, Jesús Almeda, Dolors Carnicer-Pont, Jordi Casabona, Claudia Fortuny
INTRODUCTION: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is relevant in the global epidemiology of human-immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as it represents the main route of infection in children. The study objectives were to determine the rate of HIV-MTCT and its epidemiological trend between the Spanish-born and immigrant population in Catalonia in the period 2000-2014. METHODS: A prospective observational study of mother-child pairs exposed to HIV, treated in 12 hospitals in Catalonia in the period 2000-2014...
September 5, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571541/-i-definitely-want-grandbabies-caregivers-of-adolescents-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-reflect-on-dating-and-childbearing
#16
Cynthia D Fair, Jamie N Albright, Devon M Clark, Bethany Houpt
INTRODUCTION: Parents and caregivers of typically developing teens are often a source of information about sexual health and relationships. However, little is known about the information offered to adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV (APHIV) by caregivers who may provide support and guidance to their teen as they explore sexuality and childbearing. METHOD: This qualitative exploratory study involved the in-depth interviews of 18 caregivers (17 females), including biological mothers (9), relatives (5), and adoptive/foster mothers (4), who care for APHIV...
December 2016: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506549/prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus-a-phase-iii-placebo-controlled-double-blind-randomized-clinical-trial-to-assess-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-a-short-course-of-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-in-women-with-hepatitis-b-virus-e-antigen
#17
Gonzague Jourdain, Nicole Ngo-Giang-Huong, Tim R Cressey, Lei Hua, Linda Harrison, Camlin Tierney, Nicolas Salvadori, Luc Decker, Patrinee Traisathit, Wasna Sirirungsi, Woottichai Khamduang, Chureeratana Bowonwatanuwong, Thanyawee Puthanakit, George K Siberry, Diane Heather Watts, Trudy V Murphy, Jullapong Achalapong, Suchat Hongsiriwon, Virat Klinbuayaem, Satawat Thongsawat, Raymond T Chung, Stanislas Pol, Nantasak Chotivanich
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is complicated by cirrhosis and liver cancer. In Thailand, 6-7 % of adults are chronically infected with HBV. The risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HBV has been estimated to be about 12 % when mothers have a high hepatitis B viral load, even if infants receive passive-active prophylaxis with HBV immunoglobulin (HBIg) and initiate the hepatitis B vaccine series at birth. We designed a study to assess the efficacy and safety of a short course of maternal tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) among women with a marker of high viral load for the prevention of MTCT of HBV...
August 9, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482446/human-breast-milk-is-it-the-best-milk-to-prevent-hiv-transmission
#18
Paolo Palma
A significant proportion of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV still occurs during breastfeeding in settings where replacement feeding is unsafe and impractical. However, very few babies born to HIV-infected women and breastfed during the first 6 months of life become infected postnatally. The fact that the majority of babies who are breastfed by HIV-infected mothers remain uninfected even after several months of breastfeeding constitutes one of the major enigmas of HIV transmission via breast milk.
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482435/vertical-transmission-of-hepatitis-c-towards-universal-antenatal-screening-in-the-era-of-new-direct-acting-antivirals-daas-short-review-and-analysis-of-the-situation-in-switzerland
#19
REVIEW
Karoline Aebi-Popp, Andrea Duppenthaler, Andri Rauch, Andrea De Gottardi, Christian Kahlert
At present, routine antenatal hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening is not recommended in pregnant women who do not have known risk factors for infection. The main reason for this attitude has been the lack of effective treatment options to avoid mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) during pregnancy or delivery. Hitherto available treatment regimens based on interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) were associated with sometimes long-lasting and severe side-effects and thus their indication had to be carefully evaluated...
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482423/higher-risks-of-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-in-countries-with-lower-hiv-prevalence-unaids-2013-results-for-32-countries-with-generalised-epidemics
#20
Andrew Hill, Thomas Dauncey, Jake Levi, Katherine Heath, Carmen Pérez Casas
OBJECTIVES: Diagnosis and treatment of HIV-infected mothers significantly lower rates of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. Early infant diagnosis (EID) is required to monitor success of prevention of MTCT (pMTCT) programmes. Our aim was to compare rates of MTCT, EID and pMTCT in countries with generalised epidemics. METHODS: The UNAIDSinfo database includes country-level information on epidemic size, prevalence of HIV infection, EID rates and pMTCT coverage...
2015: Journal of Virus Eradication
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