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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642524/medical-and-legal-aspects-of-child-sexual-abuse-a-population-based-study-in-a-hungarian-county
#1
Andrea Enyedy, Panagiotis Tsikouras, Roland Csorba
BACKGROUND: Very few studies focus on childhood sexual abuse in middle European countries. AIM: The purpose of our study is to describe the medical and legal characteristics of children who experience sexual abuse and explore common features that may result in strategies for prevention. METHODS: Between 2000 and 2015, 400 girls and 26 boys under the age of 18, suspected of being sexually abused, visited one of the four hospitals in a Hungarian county...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625619/mapping-the-lack-of-public-initiative-against-female-genital-mutilation-in-denmark
#2
Gro Møller Christoffersen, Peter James Bruhn, Rosanna de Neergaard, Susanne Engel, Vibeke Naeser
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a harmful practice prevalent in 35 countries, mainly in Africa, as well as in some Middle Eastern countries and a few Asian countries. FGM comprises all procedures that involve partial or complete resection of, or other injury to, external female genitalia for non-medical reasons. The practice of FGM has spread to Western countries due to migration. The European Institute for Gender Equality recommend that FGM be combatted by nationally coordinated efforts through implementation of national action plans, guidelines for professionals as well as comprehensive research in the field...
April 7, 2018: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625377/clinical-characteristics-associated-with-paedophilia-and-child-sex-offending-differentiating-sexual-preference-from-offence-status
#3
Hannah Gerwinn, Simone Weiß, Gilian Tenbergen, Till Amelung, Carina Födisch, Alexander Pohl, Claudia Massau, Jonas Kneer, Sebastian Mohnke, Christian Kärgel, Matthias Wittfoth, Stefanie Jung, Krassimira Drumkova, Kolja Schiltz, Martin Walter, Klaus M Beier, Henrik Walter, Jorge Ponseti, Boris Schiffer, Tillmann H C Kruger
Contrary to public perception, child sex offending (CSO) and paedophilia are not the same. Only half of all cases of CSO are motivated by paedophilic preference, and a paedophilic preference does not necessarily lead to CSO. However, studies that investigated clinical factors accompanying and contributing to paedophilia so far mainly relied on paedophiles with a history of CSO. The aim of this study was to distinguish between factors associated with sexual preference (paedophile versus non-paedophile) and offender status (with versus without CSO)...
April 3, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625326/progression-maintenance-and-feedback-of-online-child-sexual-grooming-a-qualitative-analysis-of-online-predators
#4
Patricia de Santisteban, Joana Del Hoyo, Miguel Ángel Alcázar-Córcoles, Manuel Gámez-Guadix
The limited literature on online child grooming has focused mainly on studying the characteristics of perpetrators and victims that facilitate the sexual abuse of minors. Little attention has been given to the perceptions of the perpetrators about the abuse process and the strategies used to sustain it over time. In the present study, after identifying a sample of 12 men convicted of online grooming, we used qualitative grounded theory through in-depth interviews and comparisons with the proven facts of their convictions...
April 3, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617047/review-shows-that-icelandic-society-is-taking-firmer-steps-to-tackle-the-diverse-forms-of-child-abuse-and-neglect-that-its-children-are-exposed-to
#5
REVIEW
Geir Gunnlaugsson, Jónína Einarsdóttir
AIM: This review examined and summarised the research published on child abuse in Iceland, which was mainly in the country's native language, to make the findings more accessible to English speakers. It specifically focused on child rearing and the physical, emotional and sexual abuse, neglect and intra-familial conflicts suffered by children at the hands of their parents and other carers. METHOD: The review drew on published research, books and reports and compared the findings with Nordic research and global estimates of child abuse...
April 4, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599571/gender-inequity-associated-with-increased-child-physical-abuse-and-neglect-a-cross-country-analysis-of-population-based-surveys-and-country-level-statistics
#6
Joanne Klevens, Katie A Ports
Gender inequity is proposed as a societal-level risk factor for child maltreatment. However, most cross-national research examining this association is limited to developing countries and has used limited measures of gender inequity and child homicides as a proxy for child maltreatment. To examine the relationship between gender inequity and child maltreatment, we used caregivers' reported use of severe physical punishment (proxy for physical abuse) and children under 5 left alone or under the care of another child younger than 10 years of age (supervisory neglect) and three indices of gender inequity (the Social and Institutional Gender Index, the Gender Inequality Index, and the Gender Gap Index) from 57 countries, over half of which were developing countries...
November 2017: Journal of Family Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587198/do-emotion-regulation-difficulties-explain-the-association-between-executive-functions-and-child-physical-abuse-risk
#7
Julie L Crouch, Erin R McKay, Gabriela Lelakowska, Regina Hiraoka, Ericka Rutledge, David J Bridgett, Joel S Milner
This study examined the associations between executive functioning problems, emotion regulation difficulties, and risk for perpetrating child physical abuse (CPA). It was hypothesized that: (a) poor executive functions (i.e., working memory problems and inhibition/switching problems) would be associated with higher levels of emotion regulation difficulties and CPA risk; (b) emotion regulation difficulties would be positively associated with CPA risk; and (c) emotion regulation difficulties would partially explain the association between executive functions (i...
March 24, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571033/child-maltreatment-and-adult-depressive-symptoms-roles-of-self-compassion-and-gratitude
#8
Qinglu Wu, Peilian Chi, Xiuyun Lin, Hongfei Du
Child maltreatment, including abuse (physical, emotional, and sexual) and neglect (physical and emotional), is positively associated with depressive symptoms in adulthood. However, most studies have been conducted within a psychopathological framework and focused on underlying dysfunctional processes (e.g., insecure attachment styles, maladaptive schemas, and negative attribution styles). Protective factors that affect the relationship between child maltreatment and adult depressive symptoms are underexplored...
March 20, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563307/preventing-and-treating-trauma-building-resiliency-the-movement-toward-compassionate-schools-in-watauga-county-north-carolina
#9
Denise Presnell
Trauma affects the brain in many ways, including impairing one's ability to learn, creating psychological and emotional issues, and contributing to poorer health outcomes. This is not only true for children but for adults as well, contributing to social issues such as erratic job performance, increase in homelessness rates, addiction rates, and higher rates of domestic violence and child abuse. We must be more effective at preventing and treating trauma and promoting resiliency in order to make the members of our societies as safe and productive as they can be...
March 2018: North Carolina Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562945/maternal-depression-in-the-intergenerational-transmission-of-childhood-maltreatment-and-its-sequelae-testing-postpartum-effects-in-a-longitudinal-birth-cohort
#10
Karmel W Choi, Renate Houts, Louise Arseneault, Carmine Pariante, Kathleen J Sikkema, Terrie E Moffitt
Mothers who have experienced childhood maltreatment are more likely to have children also exposed to maltreatment, a phenomenon known as intergenerational transmission. Factors in the perinatal period may contribute uniquely to this transmission, but timing effects have not been ascertained. Using structural equation modeling with 1,016 mothers and their 2,032 children in the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, we tested the mediating role of postpartum depression between maternal childhood maltreatment and a cascade of negative child outcomes, specifically child exposure to maltreatment, internalizing symptoms, and externalizing symptoms: (a) adjusting for later maternal depression, (b) comparing across sex differences, and (c) examining the relative role of maltreatment subtypes...
March 22, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558887/mental-ill-health-and-factors-associated-with-men-s-use-of-intimate-partner-violence-in-zimbabwe
#11
Mercilene Machisa, Simukai Shamu
BACKGROUND: Over the years, researchers have relied on data from women victims to understand the profile on male perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV studies with male participants in the general population are still emerging in Africa. The contribution of mental ill health to IPV perpetration in the general population that has been documented elsewhere is emergent. Notwithstanding, research with male perpetrators is essential to informing effective prevention programmes and interventions...
March 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558714/preventing-child-maltreatment-examination-of-an-established-statewide-home-visiting-program
#12
Barbara H Chaiyachati, Julie R Gaither, Marcia Hughes, Karen Foley-Schain, John M Leventhal
Although home visiting has been used in many populations in prevention efforts, the impact of scaled-up home-visiting programs on abuse and neglect remains unclear. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of voluntary participation in an established statewide home-visiting program for socially high-risk families on child maltreatment as identified by Child Protective Services (CPS). Propensity score matching was used to compare socially high-risk families with a child born between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2011 who participated in Connecticut's home-visiting program for first-time mothers and a comparison cohort of families who were eligible for the home-visiting program but did not participate...
March 16, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548761/psychotic-disorders-in-sexually-abused-youth-a-prospective-matched-cohort-study
#13
Catherine Bourgeois, Tania Lecomte, Isabelle Daigneault
Child sexual abuse has been identified as a potential risk factor for developing a psychotic disorder. However, little is known about the prevalence of psychotic disorders in youth who were sexually abused during adolescence and young adulthood. Gender differences also remain unclear. This study used administrative databases from a Child Protection Agency and a public health care system. It aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychotic disorders in sexually abused youth between the first substantiated report of sexual abuse and the beginning of adulthood...
March 13, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535182/reporting-suspected-abuse-or-neglect-in-research-involving-children
#14
David B Resnik, Duncan C Randall
In this article, we explore the ethical issues related to the reporting of suspected abuse or neglect in research involving children. Ethical dilemmas related to reporting child maltreatment are often complex because the rights of children and their adult caregivers may conflict and determinations of abuse or neglect are socially constructed judgments that depend on particular circumstances. We argue that when reporting is legally mandated, investigators must follow the law and report their suspicions to Child Protective Services...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533869/the-economic-burden-of-child-sexual-abuse-in-the-united-states
#15
Elizabeth J Letourneau, Derek S Brown, Xiangming Fang, Ahmed Hassan, James A Mercy
The present study provides an estimate of the U.S. economic impact of child sexual abuse (CSA). Costs of CSA were measured from the societal perspective and include health care costs, productivity losses, child welfare costs, violence/crime costs, special education costs, and suicide death costs. We separately estimated quality-adjusted life year (QALY) losses. For each category, we used the best available secondary data to develop cost per case estimates. All costs were estimated in U.S. dollars and adjusted to the reference year 2015...
March 10, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530424/sexual-violence-against-children-in-south-africa-a-nationally-representative-cross-sectional-study-of-prevalence-and-correlates
#16
Catherine L Ward, Lillian Artz, Lezanne Leoschut, Reshma Kassanjee, Patrick Burton
BACKGROUND: We aimed to complete a nationally representative study of sexual violence against children in South Africa, and its correlates, since we could identify no other such study. METHODS: For this nationally representative, cross-sectional study in South Africa, households were selected by use of a multistage sampling frame, stratified by province, urban or rural setting, and race group, and schools were selected on the basis that they were closest to the area in which households were selected...
April 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524762/urbanicity-matters-in-self-reported-child-maltreatment-prevalence-findings-from-a-nationally-representative-study
#17
Elizabeth D Beatriz, Carmel Salhi, John L Griffith, Beth E Molnar
Despite indications that there are differences in rates of child maltreatment (CM) cases in the child protection system between urban and rural areas, there are no published studies examining the differences in self-reported CM prevalence and its correlates by urbanicity. The present study aimed to: (1) identify the distribution of self-reported childhood experiences of maltreatment by urbanicity, (2) assess whether differences by urbanicity persist after adjusting for known risk factors, and (3) explore whether the associations between these risk factors and CM are modified by urban-rural designation...
March 7, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523358/injury-patterns-of-child-abuse-experience-of-two-level-1-pediatric-trauma-centers
#18
Yangyang R Yu, Annalyn S DeMello, Christopher S Greeley, Charles S Cox, Bindi J Naik-Mathuria, David E Wesson
PURPOSE: This study examines non-accidental trauma (NAT) fatalities as a percentage of all injury fatalities and identifies injury patterns in NAT admissions to two level 1 pediatric trauma centers. METHODS: We reviewed all children (<5years old) treated for NAT from 2011 to 2015. Patient demographics, injury sites, and survival were obtained from both institutional trauma registries. RESULTS: Of 4623 trauma admissions, 557 (12%) were due to NAT...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522384/applying-a-trauma-informed-perspective-to-loss-and-change-in-the-lives-of-older-adults
#19
Nancy Kusmaul, Keith Anderson
Traumatic events are widely acknowledged to have long-term impacts on individuals, yet only recently have health-care professionals begun to assess for and gain an understanding of trauma in the lives of older adults. For many older adults, trauma is often disenfranchised and overlooked as being either a distant past event (e.g., child abuse) or a normal part of aging (e.g., widowhood). Trauma-informed care, on the other hand, calls for health-care professionals to acknowledge that past and recent events may have been traumatic for older adults and to assess and care plan to reduce or prevent re-traumatization...
March 9, 2018: Social Work in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511791/early-vulnerabilities-for-psychiatric-disorders-in-elementary-schoolchildren-from-four-brazilian-regions
#20
Cristiane S Paula, Jair J Mari, Isabel Altenfelder Santos Bordin, Euripedes C Miguel, Isabela Fortes, Natalia Barroso, Luis Augusto Rohde, Evandro Silva Freire Coutinho
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to identify early vulnerabilities for psychiatric disorders among Brazilian elementary school children, controlling for familial and community adversities. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study examining the association between child psychiatric disorders and potential early vulnerabilities (disability, low intellectual quotient, and negative dimensions of the temperament trait self-directedness (low resourcefulness, low purposefulness, low enlightened second nature), controlling for the potential confounders: familial and community adversities...
March 6, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
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