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Child abuse prevention

Nehal Eldeeb, Samia Halileh, Khalid A Alyafei, Rula Ghandour, Soha Dargham, Rita Giacaman, Madeeha Kamal, Sawsan Imseeh, Mona Korayem, Shiraz Nasr, Ziyad Mahfoud, Niveen Abu-Rmeileh, Mohamed H Mahmoud, Hassan Tawfik, Margaret A Lynch, Marcellina Mian
To compare the nature and determinants of child discipline in Qatar and Palestine among young adults through retrospective survey to develop legislation, policies and interventions for effective prevention of child maltreatment, and educational materials to promote positive discipline among parents and caregivers. Cross-sectional random household surveys were conducted in each country (Qataris N=697, Palestinians N=2064) using ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Retrospective (ICAST-R) for young adults (18-24 years), to investigate child discipline methods into the maltreatment range...
October 16, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Larry Applewhite, Derrick Arincorayan, Barry Adams
This exploratory study examines the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in soldiers who sought behavioral health support during a combat deployment. We conducted a secondary analysis of data extracted from two studies on the basis of retrospective reviews of behavioral health records of soldiers deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Of 162 clinical samples, 135 (83%) reported at least one type of childhood adversity. ACE scores ranged from 0 to 9 with a mean of 3 (standard deviation = 2.4) and mode of 0...
October 2016: Military Medicine
Christine Weirich Paine, Oludolapo Fakeye, Cindy W Christian, Joanne N Wood
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate the prevalence of abuse in young children presenting with rib fractures and to identify demographic, injury, and presentation-related characteristics that affect the probability that rib fractures are secondary to abuse. METHODS: We searched PubMed/MEDLINE and CINAHL databases for articles published in English between January 1, 1990, and June 30, 2014 on rib fracture etiology in children 5 years or younger. Two reviewers independently extracted predefined data elements and assigned quality ratings to included studies...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Zeynep Sofuoğlu, Görkem Sarıyer, M Gökalp Ataman
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Child maltreatment, i.e. abuse and neglect, is a significant problem worldwide and can cause impaired physical and mental health throughout life. The true extent still remains unknown in all countries, including Turkey. The aim of this study was to apply the two versions of the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) Child Abuse Screening Tool of ICAST-C and ICAST-P, which are used to assess child and parent feedback and to compare reports given by children and those given by parents...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Naixue Cui, Jianghong Liu
BACKGROUND: It has been well established that child physical abuse is a risk factor for cognitive deficits and behavioral problems. However, the possible link between cognitive deficits and behavioral problems placing children at a higher risk of physical abuse has been overlooked. Using a prospective design, the present study aims to examine whether previously measured cognition indicated by intelligence quotient (IQ), including performance IQ (PIQ) and verbal IQ (VIQ), and behavioral problems reported by multiple informants (i...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Shinya Fujikawa, Shuntaro Ando, Shinji Shimodera, Shinsuke Koike, Satoshi Usami, Rie Toriyama, Sho Kanata, Tsukasa Sasaki, Kiyoto Kasai, Yuji Okazaki, Atsushi Nishida
Although several studies have reported that child physical abuse increased the risk for bullying involvement, the effect of current violence from adult family members (CVA) on bullying involvement and suicidal feelings among adolescents has not been sufficiently examined. This study investigated the association of CVA with adolescent bullying involvement and the interaction effect of CVA and bullying involvement on suicidal feelings. This cross-sectional study used data from a school-based survey with a general population of adolescents (grades 7 to 12)...
2016: PloS One
Todd I Herrenkohl, Hyunzee Jung
BACKGROUND: Children's exposure to violence increases their risk for later victimisation and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV). However, the relative influence of child abuse, adolescent violence, peer approval of violence and pro-violence attitudes on later IPV is not well established. AIMS: Analyses focus on the prediction of adult IPV from variables measured in childhood and adolescence to establish the unique influence of earlier victimisation and perpetration of violence, as well as other variables grounded in theory and empirical findings...
October 2016: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
Abigail Arons, Corneliu Bolbocean, Nicole R Bush, Frances A Tylavsky, Kaja Z LeWinn
Socioemotional development in early childhood has long-term impacts on health status and social outcomes, and racial and socioeconomic disparities in socioemotional skills emerge early in life. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is an early childhood nutrition intervention with the potential to ameliorate these disparities. Our objective was to assess the impact of WIC on early socioemotional development in a longitudinal study. We examined the association between WIC participation and scores on the Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) in 327 predominantly African American mother-child dyads who were participants in the longitudinal Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development in Early Life (CANDLE) Study (Memphis, TN)...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
María A Ramos-Olazagasti, Héctor R Bird, Glorisa J Canino, Cristiane S Duarte
Early alcohol use is associated with multiple negative outcomes later in life, including substance use disorders. Identification of factors related to this very early risk indicator can help inform early prevention efforts. This study prospectively examined the relationship between childhood adversities and early initiation of alcohol use (by age 14) among Puerto Rican youth, the Latino subgroup at highest risk for alcohol use disorders in adulthood. The data come from the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of Puerto Rican youth in two sites (South Bronx, New York, and the standard metropolitan area of San Juan, Puerto Rico)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Martine Hébert, Rachel Langevin, Elisa Guidi, Anne Claude Bernard-Bonnin, Claire Allard-Dansereau
OBJECTIVE: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a host of deleterious impacts, yet little is known on the short-term correlates in children. This study aimed to investigate the association between dissociation and sleep problems in a sample of preschool-aged sexual abuse victims, while controlling for potentially confounding variables, including gender, age, polytrauma, CSA characteristics and parental distress. METHOD: The sample consisted of 179 children (ages 3-6 years) and their non-offending parent...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Megan M Letson, Jennifer N Cooper, Katherine J Deans, Philip V Scribano, Kathi L Makoroff, Kenneth W Feldman, Rachel P Berger
Infants with minor abusive injuries are at risk for more serious abusive injury, including abusive head trauma (AHT). Our study objective was to determine if children with AHT had prior opportunities to detect abuse and to describe the opportunities. All AHT cases from 7/1/2009 to 12/31/2011 at four tertiary care children's hospitals were included. A prior opportunity was defined as prior evaluation by either a medical or child protective services (CPS) professional when the symptoms and/or referral could be consistent with abuse but the diagnosis was not made and/or an alternate explanation was given and accepted...
September 25, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Eleonora C V Costa, Sara Guimarães, Domingos Ferreira, M Graça Pereira
This study examined if abuse during childhood, rape in adulthood, and loss of resources predict a woman's probability of reporting symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and whether resource loss moderates the association between reporting childhood abuse and PTSD symptoms. The sample included 767 women and was collected in publicly funded primary-care settings. Women who reported having been abused during childhood also reported more resource loss, more acute PTSD symptoms, and having suffered more adult rape than those who reported no childhood abuse...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Jeanne A Teresi, David Burnes, Elizabeth A Skowron, Mary Ann Dutton, Laura Mosqueda, Mark S Lachs, Karl Pillemer
The goal of this review is to discuss the state-of-the-science in elder abuse prevention. Findings from evidence-based programs to reduce elder abuse are discussed, drawing from findings and insights from evidence-based programs for child maltreatment and domestic/intimate partner violence. A conceptual measurement model for the study of elder abuse is presented, and linked to possible measures of risk factors and outcomes. Advances in neuroscience in child maltreatment and novel measurement strategies for outcome assessment are presented...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect
Robert Zant, Michael Melter, Christian Doerfler, Felix Schlachetzki, Ernst-Michael Jung, Stefan Schilling, Juergen Kunkel
Internal carotid artery (ICA) dissections with associated stroke are rare events in infants. The usual pathomechanisms include direct trauma to the artery, blunt intraoral trauma, or child abuse. We describe the case of a 4-month-old male patient with ICA dissection and associated middle cerebral artery territory infarction associated with hyperextension/hyperrotation after a minor head injury. Upon treatment with anticoagulants, the patient showed significant improvement of the left-sided hemiparesis. Hemorrhagic transformation that presented shortly after middle cerebral artery infarction did not further increase under heparin treatment and prevented further embolism...
September 23, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Andrea L Wirtz, Carmen Alvarez, Alessandra C Guedes, Luisa Brumana, Cecilie Modvar, Nancy Glass
BACKGROUND: Violence against children (VAC) remains a global problem. The health sector has an opportunity and responsibility to be part of the multi-sector collaboration to prevent and respond to VAC. This review aimed to assess the health sector's response to VAC among Latin American & Caribbean (LAC) countries, particularly as it relates to physical violence, sexual violence, and neglect. METHOD: National protocols for the identification and provision of health care to child survivors of violence, abuse and neglect were solicited in partnership with UNICEF and PAHO/WHO country offices within the LAC region...
2016: BMC Public Health
Eva Tedgård, Maria Råstam
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether women raised in a family with substance abuse constitute a particularly vulnerable group of patients in an infant psychiatry setting and to identify the risk factors of suspected parental malfunctioning in women referred to treatment in an infant and toddler intervention program. BACKGROUND: A history of family substance abuse can severely disrupt the caretaking abilities of parents in ways that can have far-reaching consequences, and children growing up with insufficient parental care may incorporate this deficiency into their own parental behavior...
2016: SpringerPlus
Katherine Witte Saylor
On October 30, 2015, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) convened a workshop "Multiple Approaches to Understanding and Preventing Elder Abuse" in Bethesda, Maryland. The workshop brought together experts from across disciplines to discuss research challenges, opportunities, and lessons learned from other fields. Participants included experts in elder abuse, child abuse, intimate partner violence (IPV), emergency medicine, and neuroscience. In this special issue of the Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, participants address topics explored before, during, and after the day-long workshop...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect
Michael P Lasher, Jill D Stinson
Adults with pedophilic interests are often viewed by the public as a homogenous subgroup based on what we know from those who sexually offend against children. The stigma associated with child sexual abuse may serve to deter such behaviors but may also interfere with the person's stability and willingness to seek assistance in managing pedophilic interests. This article contrasts the sex offender response and prevention efforts typically employed in the U.S. (i.e., containment, registration, and notification policies and public education programs) with treatment programs aimed at preventing child sexual abuse in Germany, Belgium, and Canada...
September 12, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Yelena Bird, Mark Lemstra, Marla Rogers, John Moraros
The transmission and prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among those employed as sex trade workers (STW) is a major public health concern. The present study describes the self-reported responses of 340 STW, at-risk for contracting HIV. The participants were recruited by selective targeting between 2009 and 2010 from within the Saskatoon Health Region (SHR), Saskatchewan, Canada. As of 2012, the SHR has the highest incidence rate of positive test reports for HIV in Canada, at more than three times the national average (17...
December 2016: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
Erin K Martin, Peter H Silverstone
Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA), called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behavior of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes toward it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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