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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107156/mandatory-reporting-of-human-trafficking-potential-benefits-and-risks-of-harm
#1
Abigail English
Human trafficking, including both sex and labor trafficking, has profound consequences for the safety, health, and well-being of victims and survivors. Efforts to address human trafficking through prevention, protection, and prosecution are growing but remain insufficient. Mandatory reporting has the potential to bring victims and survivors to the attention of social service and law enforcement agencies but may discourage trafficked persons from seeking help, thereby limiting the ability of health care professionals to establish trust and provide needed care...
January 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086975/a-qualitative-study-of-women-s-and-health-providers-attitudes-and-acceptability-of-mistreatment-during-childbirth-in-health-facilities-in-guinea
#2
Mamadou Diouldé Balde, Abou Bangoura, Boubacar Alpha Diallo, Oumar Sall, Habibata Balde, Aïssatou Sona Niakate, Joshua P Vogel, Meghan A Bohren
BACKGROUND: Reducing maternal morbidity and mortality remains a key health challenge in Guinea. Anecdotal evidence suggests that women in Guinea are subjected to mistreatment during childbirth in health facilities, but limited research exists on this topic. This study was conducted to better understand the social norms and the acceptability of four scenarios of mistreatment during childbirth, from the perspectives of women and service providers. METHODS: This study used qualitative methods including in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) with women of reproductive age, midwives, nurses and doctors...
January 13, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076587/-interventions-to-improve-access-to-health-services-by-indigenous-peoples-in-the-americas
#3
Miguel Araujo, Cecilia Moraga, Evelina Chapman, Jorge Barreto, Eduardo Illanes
Objective: Synthesize evidence on effectiveness of interventions designed to improve access to health services by indigenous populations. Methods: Review of systematic reviews published as of July 2015, selecting and analyzing only studies in the Region of the Americas. The bibliographic search encompassed MEDLINE, Lilacs, SciELO, EMBASE, DARE, HTA, The Cochrane Library, and organization websites. Two independent reviewers selected studies and analyzed their methodological quality...
November 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073295/the-frequency-and-predictors-of-poly-victimisation-of-south-african-children-and-the-role-of-schools-in-its-prevention
#4
Lezanne Leoschut, Zuhayr Kafaar
Violence has become a characteristic feature of South African society, with women and children often bearing the brunt of this. Contemporary research suggests that the key to stemming the tide of child victimisation is understanding the complete inventory of victimisations that may co-occur during childhood. There is growing recognition that children in South Africa typically experience abuse in the context of other forms of maltreatment and victimisation. This article draws on the empirical data collected for a national prevalence and incidence study on child sexual abuse and maltreatment in South Africa and draws attention to the frequency of poly-victimisation amongst South African children and highlights why some children experience multiple co-occurring forms of victimisations while others do not...
January 10, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067012/venous-thromboembolism-in-pediatric-trauma-patients-ten-year-experience-and-long-term-follow-up-in-a-tertiary-care-center
#5
Christine M Leeper, Madhav Vissa, James D Cooper, Lynn M Malec, Barbara A Gaines
BACKGROUND: Pediatric trauma patients are at high risk for development of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Our objective is to describe incidence, risk factors, and timing of development of VTE, anticoagulation complications, and long-term VTE outcomes in a critically injured pediatric population. PROCEDURE: We did a retrospective review of pediatric (0-17 years) trauma admissions to intensive care unit from 2005 to 2014. Our center employs VTE screening and prevention protocols for high-risk patients based on hypercoagulable history, age, injuries, and medical interventions...
January 9, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053363/global-research-priorities-for-interpersonal-violence-prevention-a-modified-delphi-study
#6
Christopher R Mikton, Masako Tanaka, Mark Tomlinson, David L Streiner, Lil Tonmyr, Bandy X Lee, Jane Fisher, Kathy Hegadoren, Joam Evans Pim, Shr-Jie Sharlenna Wang, Harriet L MacMillan
OBJECTIVE: To establish global research priorities for interpersonal violence prevention using a systematic approach. METHODS: Research priorities were identified in a three-round process involving two surveys. In round 1, 95 global experts in violence prevention proposed research questions to be ranked in round 2. Questions were collated and organized according to the four-step public health approach to violence prevention. In round 2, 280 international experts ranked the importance of research in the four steps, and the various substeps, of the public health approach...
January 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051972/characteristics-classification-and-prevention-of-child-maltreatment-fatalities
#7
James E McCarroll, Joscelyn E Fisher, Stephen J Cozza, Renè J Robichaux, Carol S Fullerton
BACKGROUND: Preventing child maltreatment fatalities is a critical goal of the U.S. society and the military services. Fatality review boards further this goal through the analysis of circumstances of child deaths, making recommendations for improvements in practices and policies, and promoting increased cooperation among the many systems that serve families. The purpose of this article is to review types of child maltreatment death, proposed classification models, risk and protective factors, and prevention strategies...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028654/potential-mediators-in-parenting-and-family-intervention-quality-of-mediation-analyses
#8
REVIEW
Chandni C Patel, Amanda J Fairchild, Ronald J Prinz
Parenting and family interventions have repeatedly shown effectiveness in preventing and treating a range of youth outcomes. Accordingly, investigators in this area have conducted a number of studies using statistical mediation to examine some of the potential mechanisms of action by which these interventions work. This review examined from a methodological perspective in what ways and how well the family-based intervention studies tested statistical mediation. A systematic search identified 73 published outcome studies that tested mediation for family-based interventions across a wide range of child and adolescent outcomes (i...
December 27, 2016: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027464/risk-factors-for-child-maltreatment-in-an-australian-population-based-birth-cohort
#9
James C Doidge, Daryl J Higgins, Paul Delfabbro, Leonie Segal
Child maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences adversely influence population health and socioeconomic outcomes. Knowledge of the risk factors for child maltreatment can be used to identify children at risk and may represent opportunities for prevention. We examined a range of possible child, parent and family risk factors for child maltreatment in a prospective 27-year population-based birth cohort of 2443 Australians. Physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect and witnessing of domestic violence were recorded retrospectively in early adulthood...
December 25, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997240/lifetime-prevalence-of-investigating-child-maltreatment-among-us-children
#10
Hyunil Kim, Christopher Wildeman, Melissa Jonson-Reid, Brett Drake
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the lifetime prevalence of official investigations for child maltreatment among children in the United States. METHODS: We used the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Child Files (2003-2014) and Census data to develop synthetic cohort life tables to estimate the cumulative prevalence of reported childhood maltreatment. We extend previous work, which explored only confirmed rates of maltreatment, and we add new estimations of maltreatment by subtype, age, and ethnicity...
February 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995627/exposure-to-violence-a-risk-for-suicide-in-youths-and-young-adults-a-meta-analysis-of-longitudinal-studies
#11
P Castellví, A Miranda-Mendizábal, O Parés-Badell, J Almenara, I Alonso, M J Blasco, A Cebrià, A Gabilondo, M Gili, C Lagares, J A Piqueras, M Roca, J Rodríguez-Marín, T Rodríguez-Jimenez, V Soto-Sanz, J Alonso
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association and magnitude of the effect of early exposure to different types of interpersonal violence (IPV) with suicide attempt and suicide death in youths and young adults. METHOD: We searched six databases until June 2015. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) assessment of any type of IPV as risk factor of suicide attempt or suicide: (i) child maltreatment [childhood physical, sexual, emotional abuse, neglect], (ii) bullying, (iii) dating violence, and (iv) community violence; (2) population-based case-control or cohort studies; and (3) subjects aged 12-26 years...
December 20, 2016: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992830/what-prevents-chinese-parents-from-reporting-possible-cases-of-child-sexual-abuse-to-authority-a-holistic-interactionistic-approach
#12
Qian Wen Xie, Xiaoyue Sun, Mengtong Chen, Dong Ping Qiao, Ko Ling Chan
The reporting of suspected CSA cases to authorities in a timely manner is important in preventing continued abuse and protecting abused children at early ages. The current study seeks to explore parents' intentions of reporting their own children's CSA experiences to authorities as well as their reporting willingness when they become aware of possible CSA cases happening to children in other families. Two rounds of semi-structured interviews were conducted among a sample of 26 parents in Beijing; these parents were purposefully selected so as to be diverse in terms of gender, age, and socioeconomic status...
December 16, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940606/childhood-abuse-and-current-intimate-partner-violence-a-population-study-in-hong-kong
#13
Elsie Yan, Thanos Karatzias
Previous studies have established that childhood violence victimization is associated with current experience of intimate partner violence (IPV). Existing literature, however, focused exclusively on female survivors and physical IPV and relied on non-representative samples. The present study examined the associations between life adversities and IPV using a representative sample of 1,239 men and women aged between 18 and 97. Participants provided information on their demographic characteristics, lifetime history of adverse life events, and past year IPV...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919242/reducing-child-abuse-amongst-adolescents-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-pre-post-trial-in-south-africa
#14
Lucie Cluver, Franziska Meinck, Alexa Yakubovich, Jenny Doubt, Alice Redfern, Catherine Ward, Nasteha Salah, Sachin De Stone, Tshiamo Petersen, Phelisa Mpimpilashe, Rocio Herrero Romero, Lulu Ncobo, Jamie Lachman, Sibongile Tsoanyane, Yulia Shenderovich, Heidi Loening, Jasmina Byrne, Lorraine Sherr, Lauren Kaplan, Frances Gardner
BACKGROUND: No known studies have tested the effectiveness of child abuse prevention programmes for adolescents in low- or middle-income countries. 'Parenting for Lifelong Health' ( http://tiny.cc/whoPLH ) is a collaborative project to develop and rigorously test abuse-prevention parenting programmes for free use in low-resource contexts. Research aims of this first pre-post trial in South Africa were: i) to identify indicative effects of the programme on child abuse and related outcomes; ii) to investigate programme safety for testing in a future randomised trial, and iii) to identify potential adaptations...
July 13, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893581/the-effect-of-socioeconomic-status-and-parental-demographics-on-activation-of-department-of-child-and-family-services-in-pediatric-burn-injury
#15
Jessica K Campos, Yee M Wong, Brittany N Hasty, Kelly A McElligott, Michael J Mosier
Burns resulting from child maltreatment are tragic causes of significant morbidity and mortality, most commonly affecting children under 3 years of age. More than one third of nonaccidental burns occur in single-parent homes or have parents with history of mental illness, substance abuse, incarceration, or Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS) involvement. The authors sought to profile pediatric burn injuries associated with DCFS investigations. They performed a retrospective chart review of pediatric burn patients, admitted between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2014...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890344/community-level-moderators-of-a-school-based-childhood-sexual-assault-prevention-program
#16
Matthew C Morris, Chrystyna D Kouros, Kim Janecek, Rachel Freeman, Alyssa Mielock, Judy Garber
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is highly prevalent and associated with a wide variety of negative mental and physical health outcomes. School-based CSA education and prevention programs have shown promise, but it is unclear to what extent community-level characteristics are related to their effectiveness. The present cluster randomized controlled trial evaluated community-level moderators of the Safe@Lastprogramcomparedtoawaitlistcontrolcondition.(*) Knowledge gains from pre- to post-intervention were assessed in 5 domains: safe versus unsafe people; safe choices; problem-solving; clear disclosure; and assertiveness...
January 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889563/parent-and-peer-pathways-linking-childhood-experiences-of-abuse-with-marijuana-use-in-adolescence-and-adulthood
#17
W Alex Mason, M Jean Russo, Mary B Chmelka, Roy C Herrenkohl, Todd I Herrenkohl
INTRODUCTION: The social developmental processes by which child maltreatment increases risk for marijuana use are understudied. This study examined hypothesized parent and peer pathways linking preschool abuse and sexual abuse with adolescent and adult marijuana use. METHODS: Analyses used data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study. Measures included child abuse (physical abuse, emotional abuse, domestic violence, and neglect) in preschool, sexual abuse up to age 18, adolescent (average age=18years) parental attachment and peer marijuana approval/use, as well as adolescent and adult (average age=36years) marijuana use...
March 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878826/a-multifaceted-risk-analysis-of-fathers-self-reported-physical-violence-toward-their-children
#18
Noora Ellonen, Kirsi Peltonen, Tarja Pösö, Staffan Janson
Existing research has shown that child maltreatment is carried out by both mothers and fathers. There is also an extensive body of literature analyzing reasons for mothers' violent behavior. Among fathers, reasons are less well studied, resulting in the lack of a comprehensive picture of paternal child abuse. In this study, 20 child-, parent-, and family-related factors have been included in a combined analysis to assess which of these may pose a risk for fathers' severe violent behavior toward their children...
November 23, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874728/child-sexual-abuse-in-zimbabwe
#19
Fennie Mantula, Haroon Saloojee
Although child sexual abuse is a significant public health problem globally, its incidence, prevention, and management is less well described in resource-poor settings. In poorer settings prevention initiatives assume even more importance since resources for managing abused children are severely limited. This article examines the current status of policy and practice related to the prevention of child sexual abuse in Zimbabwe. It identifies implementation challenges and highlights opportunities that could be embraced to reduce CSA in Zimbabwe, based on evidence synthesized from recent work...
November 2016: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874725/impact-of-perpetrator-type-on-attributions-of-mother-fault-in-child-sexual-abuse
#20
Jessica L Zagrodney, Jorden A Cummings
Blaming nonoffending mothers for child sexual abuse has substantial negative consequences for both the mother and child victim. Although perpetrator type has been shown to influence how much blame and responsibility is placed on nonoffending mothers in child sexual abuse cases, research to date has focused primarily on perpetrators who are strangers to the child or the child's biological father, ignoring the effect of other father-figure perpetrators. The current study examined how differences in perpetrator's relationship to the mother impacted blame, responsibility, cause, and prevention as separate constructs...
November 2016: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
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