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Child abuse prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821514/school-staff-perpetration-of-physical-violence-against-students-in-uganda-a-multilevel-analysis-of-risk-factors
#1
Katherine G Merrill, Louise Knight, Judith R Glynn, Elizabeth Allen, Dipak Naker, Karen M Devries
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a multilevel analysis of risk factors for physical violence perpetration by school staff against Ugandan students. DESIGN: Multilevel logistic regression analysis of cross-sectional survey data from 499 staff and 828 caregivers of students at 38 primary schools, collected in 2012 and 2014 during the Good Schools Study. SETTING: Luwero District, Uganda. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Past-week use of physical violence by school staff against students was measured using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect 'Child Abuse Screening Tool- Child International' and the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women...
August 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816617/the-norwegian-police-and-victims-of-elder-abuse-in-close-and-familial-relationships
#2
Geir Aas
Over recent decades domestic violence or family violence, violence against women and child abuse has received much attention in the media, in political discourse and in social research. However, abuse of older adults arouses limited interest. In government action against domestic violence and in police guidance manuals, the elderly receive little attention. The aim of this article is primarily to demonstrate how the police attempt to prevent elder abuse in close relationships, especially in parent-child relationships...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807480/opportunities-and-challenges-in-screening-for-childhood-sexual-abuse
#3
Deepa L Sekhar, Jennifer L Kraschnewski, Heather L Stuckey, Pamela D Witt, Erica B Francis, Ginger A Moore, Paul L Morgan, Jennie G Noll
Retrospective studies suggest 1 in 4 girls and 1 in 6 boys will experience sexual abuse before 18 years of age, resulting in future morbidity. Successful interventions exist, however, victims are reluctant to disclose. Screening for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may provide an opportunity to overcome this barrier, yet no current model for universal CSA screening exists. We sought to understand the perspective of key stakeholders on CSA screening through qualitative research. Eight focus groups of 7-10 participants each (n=62) were conducted from April-September 2016...
August 11, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806991/the-impact-of-an-educational-program-on-recognition-treatment-and-report-of-child-abuse
#4
Pietro Ferrara, Antonio Gatto, Nunzia Pia Manganelli, Francesca Ianniello, Maria Elisa Amodeo, Maria Amato, Ida Giardino, Antonio Chiaretti
BACKGROUND: Pediatricians play a crucial role in the identification and management of child abuse and neglect (CAN) but they often don't have a formal specialized training. METHODS: We analysed retrospectively data about patients, 0 - 18 years of age, victims of CAN between 1 April 2005 and 30 April 2015. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a multidisciplinary educational program, "CAN: prevention strategies, individuation and treatment", on the knowledge, case recognition, treatment and follow-up of physicians of Gemelli University Hospital in Rome, regarding physical, sexual abuse and neglect...
August 14, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789816/optimising-implementation-of-reforms-to-better-prevent-and-respond-to-child-sexual-abuse-in-institutions-insights-from-public-health-regulatory-theory-and-australia-s-royal-commission
#5
Ben Mathews
The Australian Royal Commission Into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse has identified multiple systemic failures to protect children in government and non-government organizations providing educational, religious, welfare, sporting, cultural, arts and recreational activities. Its recommendations for reform will aim to ensure organizations adopt more effective and ethical measures to prevent, identify and respond to child sexual abuse. However, apart from the question of what measures institutions should adopt, an under-explored question is how to implement and regulate those measures...
August 5, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781935/procedures-in-child-deaths-in-the-netherlands-a-comparison-with-child-death-review
#6
Sandra Gijzen, Jessica Petter, Monique P L'Hoir, Magda M Boere-Boonekamp, Ariana Need
AIM: Child Death Review (CDR) is a method in which every child death is systematically and multidisciplinary examined to (1) improve death statistics, (2) identify factors that give direction for prevention, (3) translate the results into possible interventions, and (4) support families. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent procedures of organizations involved in the (health) care for children in The Netherlands cover these four objectives of CDR. SUBJECT AND METHODS: Organizations in the Eastern part of The Netherlands and Dutch umbrella organizations involved in child (health) care were asked to provide their protocols, guidelines or other working agreements that describe their activities and responsibilities in case of a child's death...
2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771417/oral-and-dental-aspects-of-child-abuse-and-neglect
#7
Susan A Fisher-Owens, James L Lukefahr, Anupama Rao Tate
In all 50 states, health care providers (including dentists) are mandated to report suspected cases of abuse and neglect to social service or law enforcement agencies. The purpose of this report is to review the oral and dental aspects of physical and sexual abuse and dental neglect in children and the role of pediatric care providers and dental providers in evaluating such conditions. This report addresses the evaluation of bite marks as well as perioral and intraoral injuries, infections, and diseases that may raise suspicion for child abuse or neglect...
August 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770443/how-to-proceed-with-examination-of-a-child
#8
REVIEW
Sonia Makhija, Poornima Tiwari
The assessment of a child is quite different from that of adults and requires knowledge of normal variations in anatomy and physiology with growth and development. An important part of initial assessment includes triage and recognizing children with emergency signs so that they can be managed at the earliest to prevent death and referred timely to the specialist. After ruling out emergency signs, the children with priority signs require prompt assessment, management and referral to the specialist. In addition to normal history as in adults, prenatal and birth history, developmental history, immunization history, feeding history and social history are important for complete assessment of the child...
August 3, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762279/family-factors-in-adolescent-problematic-internet-gaming-a-systematic-review
#9
Luke A Schneider, Daniel L King, Paul H Delfabbro
Background and aims Familial influences are known to affect the likelihood of an adolescent becoming a problem gamer. This systematic review examined some of the key findings in empirical research on family factors related to adolescent problem gaming. Methods A total of 14 studies in the past decade were evaluated. Family-related variables included: (a) parent status (e.g., socioeconomic status and mental health), (b) parent-child relationship (e.g., warmth, conflict, and abuse), (c) parental influence on gaming (e...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756353/a-birth-cohort-study-of-asian-and-pacific-islander-children-reported-for-abuse-or-neglect-by-maternal-nativity-and-ethnic-origin
#10
Megan Finno-Velasquez, Lindsey Palmer, John Prindle, Christina C Tam, Emily Putnam-Hornstein
Research identifying racial and ethnic disparities in child protective services (CPS) involvement in the U.S. has focused on the overrepresentation of Black children and the growing Latino child population. Little attention has been paid to children of Asian origin, the most underrepresented group of children in the U.S. CPS system. The objective of this analysis was to examine subgroup patterns of CPS involvement in California for Asian and Pacific Islander (API) children prospectively based on maternal nativity and ethnic origin...
July 27, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753119/advocacy-journey-promoting-child-sexual-abuse-prevention-in-hong-kong
#11
Monit Cheung, Carol A Leung, Elaine Suk-Ching Liu
In a country without a mandatory child abuse reporting system, advocacy for child welfare law can be a tedious and difficult process. This article documents a 10-year advocacy journey based on the capacity-building concept in social sustainability theory which aims to: raise public awareness of child sexual abuse, provide an idea for branding an inquiry column, and connect advocacy efforts to law reforms. Over the past decade in Hong Kong, a total of 336 public inquiries were anonymously sent to Wu Miu Column and published in three local major newspapers...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752249/-treatment-structures-for-men-with-pedosexual-problems
#12
REVIEW
Georg Stolpmann, Peer Briken, Jürgen L Müller
Pedophilia is defined as a persistent or dominating sexual preference for prepubescent children characterized by persistent thoughts, fantasies, urges, sexual arousal and behavior. Less than 50% of all child abusers fulfill the diagnostic criteria and an even smaller part exclusively has a preference for children. Following psychiatric classification systems, pedophilia must be distinguished from child sexual abuse. Outpatient treatment and treatment in forensic psychiatry clinics, sociotherapeutic facilities and in correction facilities are different aspects of prevention...
July 27, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743493/dimensions-of-physical-punishment-and-their-associations-with-children-s-cognitive-performance-and-school-adjustment
#13
Sarah A Font, Jamie Cage
This study examined how a range of physical punishment measures, ranging from mild corporal punishment to physical abuse, are associated with cognitive performance, school engagement, and peer isolation over a 3- year span among 658 children initially observed between the ages of 8 and 14. Physical punishment was captured in three groups: mild corporal punishment, harsh corporal punishment, and physical abuse, and both caregiver- and child-reported punishment measures were considered. After accounting for socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, only Ninitial exposure to physical abuse was significantly associated with declines in cognitive performance...
July 22, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742308/nonaccidental-injury-in-pediatric-patients-detection-evaluation-and-treatment-digest
#14
Gunjan Tiyyagura, Meghan Beucher, Kirsten Bechtel, Kathryn H Pade
Emergency clinicians are likely to encounter physical abuse in children, and they must be prepared to recognize its many manifestations and take swift action. Pediatric nonaccidental injury causes considerable morbidity and mortality that can often be prevented by early recognition. Nonaccidental injuries present with a wide array of symptoms that may appear to be medically inconsequential (such as bruising in a premobile infant), but are actually sentinel injuries indicative of child abuse. This issue provides guidance regarding factors that contribute to abuse in children, key findings on history and physical examination that should trigger an evaluation for physical abuse, and laboratory and radiologic tests to perform when child abuse is suspected...
July 21, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736884/direct-and-indirect-pathways-from-adverse-childhood-experiences-to-high-school-dropout-among-high-risk-adolescents
#15
Anne S Morrow, Miguel T Villodas
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with an increased risk for school dropout. This study examined pathways from childhood adversity to school dropout through academic, behavioral, emotional, and social pathways. Data were collected prospectively from 728 adolescents and their caregivers who participated in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect and from child protective services records. Path analyses revealed a direct association between ACEs and dropout, as well as indirect effects through poor reading achievement and elevated externalizing problems...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735447/cost-benefit-analysis-of-two-child-abuse-and-neglect-primary-prevention-programs-for-us-states
#16
Cora Peterson, Curtis Florence, Robert Thomas, Joanne Klevens
We assessed the US state-level budget and societal impact of implementing two child abuse and neglect (CAN) primary prevention programs. CAN cost estimates and data from two prevention programs (Child-Parent Centers and Nurse-Family Partnership) were combined with current population, cost, and CAN incidence data by US state. A cost-benefit mathematical model for each program by US state compared program costs with the future monetary value of benefits from reduced CAN. The models used a lifetime time horizon from government payer and societal perspectives...
July 22, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735166/fidelity-in-school-based-child-sexual-abuse-prevention-programs-a-systematic-review
#17
Jenny Lynas, Russell Hawkins
The aim of this study was to systematically review and evaluate the quality of the school-based child sexual abuse prevention education research in terms of implementation fidelity. A comprehensive literature search in PsycINFO, Medline, Education Resource Information Centre (ERIC) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was conducted. Articles included peer-reviewed, primary research studies related to the delivery of child sexual abuse prevention education programs within school settings published since 1996...
July 20, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718707/child-sexual-abuse-and-adult-mental-health-sexual-risk-behaviors-and-drinking-patterns-among-latino-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#18
Ethan Czuy Levine, Omar Martinez, Brian Mattera, Elwin Wu, Sonya Arreola, Scott Edward Rutledge, Bernie Newman, Larry Icard, Miguel Muñoz-Laboy, Carolina Hausmann-Stabile, Seth Welles, Scott D Rhodes, Brian M Dodge, Sarah Alfonso, M Isabel Fernandez, Alex Carballo-Diéguez
One in five Latino men who have sex with men has experienced child sexual abuse. Although concerning in itself, child sexual abuse may increase an individuals' likelihood of depression and risk-taking in adult life, including engagement in HIV risk behaviors and alcohol and substance use. It is therefore urgent that researchers and practitioners better understand the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. We utilized logistic and linear regression to assess associations between child sexual abuse (operationalized as forced or coerced sexual activity before age 17) and depression, sexual behaviors, and drinking patterns in a sample of 176 adult Latino men who have sex with men from New York City...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715275/twice-silenced-the-underreporting-of-child-sexual-abuse-in-orthodox-jewish-communities
#19
David Katzenstein, Lisa Aronson Fontes
Child sexual abuse remains an underreported crime throughout the world, despite extensive research and resources dedicated both to improving investigative techniques and helping children disclose their experiences. The discovery of rampant cover-ups within the Catholic Church has exposed some of the ways religious and cultural issues can impede reporting to authorities. This article examines specific factors that contribute to the underreporting of child sexual abuse within Orthodox Jewish communities. It also explores ways in which these communities have handled child sexual abuse reporting in the past and describes recent progress...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711745/child-maltreatment-and-age-of-alcohol-and-marijuana-initiation-in-high-risk-youth
#20
Laura J Proctor, Terri Lewis, Scott Roesch, Richard Thompson, Alan J Litrownik, Diana English, Amelia M Arria, Patricia Isbell, Howard Dubowitz
INTRODUCTION: Youth with a history of child maltreatment use substances and develop substance use disorders at rates above national averages. Thus far, no research has examined pathways from maltreatment to age of substance use initiation for maltreated youth. We examined the longitudinal impact of maltreatment in early childhood on age of alcohol and marijuana use initiation, and whether internalizing and externalizing behaviors at age 8 mediates the link between maltreatment and age of substance use initiation...
June 30, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
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