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Child abuse prevention

Sören Kliem, Malte Sandner, Anna Lohmann, Susan Sierau, Verena Dähne, Annette M Klein, Tanja Jungmann
BACKGROUND: Pro Kind is a German adaptation of the US Nurse Family Partnership program. It is an intervention based on home visits targeting first-time mothers from disadvantaged populations. Pro Kind was implemented as a randomized control trial from 2006 to 2012 with N = 755 first-time mothers (TG n = 394, CG n = 391). The 7-8-year follow-up aims to assess the mid-term effects of the program. METHODS/DESIGN: Mid-term outcomes are being assessed by trained assessors...
June 20, 2018: Trials
Dipika Neupane, Parash Mani Bhandari, Kiran Thapa, Shristi Bhochhibhoya, Shristi Rijal, Ramjee Prasad Pathak
OBJECTIVES: To explore the prevalence, perpetrator characteristics and the correlates of child abuse in Kathmandu, Nepal. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, we translated the internationally validated questionnaire developed by the International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect, Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child Home into Nepali. We added questions on descriptive information about students and their family to the questionnaire. We recruited students from 20 schools selected randomly-2 from each of the 10 electoral constituencies of Kathmandu district...
June 19, 2018: BMJ Open
Nobutoshi Nawa, Aya Isumi, Takeo Fujiwara
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between community-level social capital and physical abuse towards children, and the mediating effect of parental psychological distress by multilevel mediation analyses. METHODS: We analyzed data from a population-based study of first-grade elementary school children (6-7 years old) in Adachi City, Tokyo, Japan. The caregivers of first-grade students from all elementary schools in Adachi City (N = 5355) were asked to respond to a questionnaire assessing parents' self-reported physical abuse (beating and hitting) and neighborhood social capital...
June 18, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Rocio Herrero Romero, James Hall, Lucie Cluver, Franziska Meinck, Eleanor Hinde
To date, little is known about the effects of violence on the educational outcomes of adolescents in disadvantaged communities in South Africa. In response, self-report data were collected from a socioeconomically disadvantaged sample of 503 adolescents aged 10 to 18 participating in a child abuse prevention trial in the Eastern Cape. Adolescents were purposively selected in the trial. This study applies Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) to examine relationships between past-month exposure to violence, school delay, and academic motivation...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Kirsten Bechtel
Simulation is a technique that creates a situation or environment to allow persons to experience a representation of a real event for the purpose of practice, learning, evaluation, testing, or to gain understanding of systems or human actions. We will first provide an introduction to simulation in healthcare and describe the two types of simulation-based research (SBR) in the pediatric population. We will then provide an overview of the use of SBR to improve health outcomes for infants in health care settings and to improve parent-child interactions using the infant simulator...
June 11, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Peace Mamle Tetteh, Ummu Markwei
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a prevalent problem in many societies across the globe. There have been several discussions of the subject and attempts have been made to explain its incidence and find ways to prevent and/or control it. However, despite these efforts, the problem seems to persist in developing countries like Ghana with dire consequences for the children and society at large. This paper sought to glean insights about the persistence of the problem by focusing on the discourse surrounding the subject...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Sarah B Epstein, Beth R Crisp
It has been claimed that effective responses to child sexual abuse (CSA) must engage with the specific cultural, social, and religious contexts of the target communities. For Jewish communities in Australia, the program J-Safe was established to raise awareness, create cultural change, and empower the Jewish community to be able to prevent, recognize, and address child sexual assault within the school setting. This paper reports on the experiences of teachers in two Jewish-day schools who had participated in the J-Safe Project's protective behaviors teacher training program...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Elizabeth Crouch, Elizabeth Radcliff, Joni Nelson, Melissa Strompolis, Amy Martin
OBJECTIVES: Routine preventive dental care is important to overall child health and well-being. However, the experience of adversity in childhood may prevent children from getting adequate preventive care. This study seeks to explore how the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the role of a protective adult may be associated with dental care utilization in childhood. METHODS: Data from the 2016 South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (SC BRFSS), which interviews adults eighteen year of age and older, were used in this study...
June 6, 2018: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
Anna E Austin, Jared W Parrish, Meghan E Shanahan
We examined preconception and prenatal predictors of time to first child protective services (CPS) contact among Alaska children. Data were from the Alaska Longitudinal Child Abuse and Neglect Linkage (ALCANLink) project, a population-representative data source linking 2009-2011 Alaska Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data with administrative data sources through 2015. We examined the incidence CPS contact using the Kaplan-Meier method and predictors of CPS contact using Cox proportional hazards regression...
June 2, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Klaus M Beier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 31, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Franziska Meinck, Mark E Boyes, Lucie Cluver, Catherine L Ward, Peter Schmidt, Sachin DeStone, Michael P Dunne
Child abuse prevention research has been hampered by a lack of validated multi-dimensional non-proprietary instruments, sensitive enough to measure change in abuse victimization or behavior. This study aimed to adapt the ICAST child abuse self-report measure (parent and child) for use in intervention studies and to investigate the psychometric properties of this substantially modified tool in a South African sample. First, cross-cultural and sensitivity adaptation of the original ICAST tools resulted in two preliminary measures (ICAST-Trial adolescents: 27 items, ICAST-Trial caregivers: 19 items)...
May 31, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Naomi N Duke, Iris W Borowsky
Primary efforts to screen for adverse childhood experiences (ACE/ACEs) are often focused on the well child/adolescent visit. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between ACEs and youth likelihood of receiving preventive care. Data are from 126,868 students in the 8th, 9th, and 11th grades who participated in the 2016 Minnesota Student Survey, an anonymous, self-report questionnaire examining youth behaviors, experiences, and perceptions. Logistic regression models were used to determine if 10 types of ACEs, including abuse, household dysfunction, and food and housing insecurity were associated with receipt of recommended preventive medical and dental care after adjustment for demographic covariates and self-reported health...
May 23, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Joanna J Garstang, Peter Sidebotham
OBJECTIVE: To develop a detailed understanding of the circumstances of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) cases subject to serious case review (SCR). DESIGN: This was a thematic analysis of SCRs relating to cases of SUDI in England. SCRs were obtained for SUDI cases dying between 1 April 2011 and 31 March 2014. These were cases (aged 0-2 years) that presented as a SUDI and for which no clear medical or forensic cause of death was found. RESULTS: SCRs were held for 30 SUDI cases, published reports were available for 27/30...
May 25, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Arturo Roizblatt S, Valentina M Leiva F, Ana Margarita Maida S
When divorce or separation of a couple occurs, children will no longer live with both parents at the same time. There may be multiple causes for divorce, and both literature and our own experien ce as child mental health providers, report some short- and long-term consequences for children, especially where the divorce has been conflictive. In these cases, increased risk of developing be havioral disorders, poor school performance, and substance abuse has been documented as well as consequences in adult life with higher risk of psychiatric pathologies or difficulties in interpersonal relationships, if an intervention that addresses some potentially traumatic situations for children is not done...
April 2018: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Melinda Gushwa, Jetta Bernier, David Robinson
Child sexual abuse (CSA) in schools and educator misconduct represents a threat to the safety and well-being of our children. The Enough! Preventing Child Sexual Abuse in My School program is a 1-hour online training course developed to address the problem of sexual misconduct and CSA in K-12 education via the use of two avatars/teachers who are navigating CSA and misconduct in their schools. One hundred and thirty-four teachers from three school districts participated in a study to examine the effectiveness of the program in terms of knowledge awareness, including prevalence rates, types of CSA behaviors, impact of CSA on children, signs and symptoms, reporting responsibilities and responses to suspected abuse...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Rebecca Shoaf Kozak, Melinda Gushwa, Tamara J Cadet
Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a major public health issue with significant short- and long-term consequences. However, little contemporary research has examined the relationship between CSA and delinquent and violent behavior in adolescence. Children who have been sexually abused experience a unique form of victimization compared to children who have endured other forms of maltreatment, as CSA can result in feelings of shame, powerlessness and boundary violations. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of CSA on delinquent and violent behavior in adolescence...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Joseph N Roscoe, Bridgette Lery, Jaclyn E Chambers
Among children investigated for maltreatment, those with parents experiencing mental illness or substance abuse are more likely to be placed out-of-home; however, little is known about why these children are at greater risk. Using a sample of 2488 Structured Decision Making® assessments administered in San Francisco county from 2011 to 2015, we identified a profile of safety threats that accounts for why workers are more likely to determine children of parents with mental illness and/or substance abuse unsafe in the home...
May 14, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Fiona Danaher, Andrea Vandeven, Aine Blanchard, Alice W Newton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite an increasing understanding of the impact of emotional trauma and physical abuse on children, clinicians and hospitals still sometimes miss the diagnosis of abuse. The literature in 2017 focused on creating standardized approaches to recognition and diagnosis of physical abuse and occult injury, including using the electronic medical record to provide triggers for consultation of the hospital Child Protection Program. The American College of Radiology updated their standardized approach to the evaluation of physical abuse in the child, and other authors gave us screening tools for commercial exploitation, as well as guidance about how to recognize risks for emotional abuse in families...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Marieke Beckerman, Sheila R van Berkel, Judi Mesman, Lenneke R A Alink
The primary goal of the current study was to replicate our previous study in which was found that negative maternal attributions mediate the association between parenting stress and harsh and abusive discipline. In addition, we investigated this association in fathers, and added observational parenting data. During two home visits mothers and fathers were observed with their children (age 1.5-6.0 years), filled in questionnaires, and completed the Parental Attributions of Child behavior Task (PACT; a computerized attribution task)...
May 12, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Rebecca D Trupe, Jenny Macfie, Rebecca M Skadberg, Gretchen Kurdziel
Emotional availability (EA) characterizes a warm, close relationship between caregiver and child. We compared patterns (clusters) of EA on risk factors, including those for borderline personality disorder (BPD). We sampled 70 children aged 4 to 7 years from low-socioeconomic backgrounds, 51% of whose mothers had BPD. We coded filmed interactions for EA: mothers' sensitivity, structuring, non-intrusiveness, non-hostility, and children's responsiveness to, and involvement of, mothers. We additionally coded children's over -responsiveness and over -involvement...
January 2018: Infant and Child Development
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