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Child abuse prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919242/reducing-child-abuse-amongst-adolescents-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-pre-post-trial-in-south-africa
#1
Lucie Cluver, Franziska Meinck, Alexa Yakubovich, Jenny Doubt, Alice Redfern, Catherine Ward, Nasteha Salah, Sachin De Stone, Tshiamo Petersen, Phelisa Mpimpilashe, Rocio Herrero Romero, Lulu Ncobo, Jamie Lachman, Sibongile Tsoanyane, Yulia Shenderovich, Heidi Loening, Jasmina Byrne, Lorraine Sherr, Lauren Kaplan, Frances Gardner
BACKGROUND: No known studies have tested the effectiveness of child abuse prevention programmes for adolescents in low- or middle-income countries. 'Parenting for Lifelong Health' ( http://tiny.cc/whoPLH ) is a collaborative project to develop and rigorously test abuse-prevention parenting programmes for free use in low-resource contexts. Research aims of this first pre-post trial in South Africa were: i) to identify indicative effects of the programme on child abuse and related outcomes; ii) to investigate programme safety for testing in a future randomised trial, and iii) to identify potential adaptations...
July 13, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893581/the-effect-of-socioeconomic-status-and-parental-demographics-on-activation-of-department-of-child-and-family-services-in-pediatric-burn-injury
#2
Jessica K Campos, Yee M Wong, Brittany N Hasty, Kelly A McElligott, Michael J Mosier
Burns resulting from child maltreatment are tragic causes of significant morbidity and mortality, most commonly affecting children under 3 years of age. More than one third of nonaccidental burns occur in single-parent homes or have parents with history of mental illness, substance abuse, incarceration, or Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS) involvement. The authors sought to profile pediatric burn injuries associated with DCFS investigations. They performed a retrospective chart review of pediatric burn patients, admitted between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2014...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890344/community-level-moderators-of-a-school-based-childhood-sexual-assault-prevention-program
#3
Matthew C Morris, Chrystyna D Kouros, Kim Janecek, Rachel Freeman, Alyssa Mielock, Judy Garber
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is highly prevalent and associated with a wide variety of negative mental and physical health outcomes. School-based CSA education and prevention programs have shown promise, but it is unclear to what extent community-level characteristics are related to their effectiveness. The present cluster randomized controlled trial evaluated community-level moderators of the Safe@Lastprogramcomparedtoawaitlistcontrolcondition.(*) Knowledge gains from pre- to post-intervention were assessed in 5 domains: safe versus unsafe people; safe choices; problem-solving; clear disclosure; and assertiveness...
November 24, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889563/parent-and-peer-pathways-linking-childhood-experiences-of-abuse-with-marijuana-use-in-adolescence-and-adulthood
#4
W Alex Mason, M Jean Russo, Mary B Chmelka, Roy C Herrenkohl, Todd I Herrenkohl
INTRODUCTION: The social developmental processes by which child maltreatment increases risk for marijuana use are understudied. This study examined hypothesized parent and peer pathways linking preschool abuse and sexual abuse with adolescent and adult marijuana use. METHODS: Analyses used data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study. Measures included child abuse (physical abuse, emotional abuse, domestic violence, and neglect) in preschool, sexual abuse up to age 18, adolescent (average age=18years) parental attachment and peer marijuana approval/use, as well as adolescent and adult (average age=36years) marijuana use...
November 17, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878826/a-multifaceted-risk-analysis-of-fathers-self-reported-physical-violence-toward-their-children
#5
Noora Ellonen, Kirsi Peltonen, Tarja Pösö, Staffan Janson
Existing research has shown that child maltreatment is carried out by both mothers and fathers. There is also an extensive body of literature analyzing reasons for mothers' violent behavior. Among fathers, reasons are less well studied, resulting in the lack of a comprehensive picture of paternal child abuse. In this study, 20 child-, parent-, and family-related factors have been included in a combined analysis to assess which of these may pose a risk for fathers' severe violent behavior toward their children...
November 23, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874728/child-sexual-abuse-in-zimbabwe
#6
Fennie Mantula, Haroon Saloojee
Although child sexual abuse is a significant public health problem globally, its incidence, prevention, and management is less well described in resource-poor settings. In poorer settings prevention initiatives assume even more importance since resources for managing abused children are severely limited. This article examines the current status of policy and practice related to the prevention of child sexual abuse in Zimbabwe. It identifies implementation challenges and highlights opportunities that could be embraced to reduce CSA in Zimbabwe, based on evidence synthesized from recent work...
November 2016: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874725/impact-of-perpetrator-type-on-attributions-of-mother-fault-in-child-sexual-abuse
#7
Jessica L Zagrodney, Jorden A Cummings
Blaming nonoffending mothers for child sexual abuse has substantial negative consequences for both the mother and child victim. Although perpetrator type has been shown to influence how much blame and responsibility is placed on nonoffending mothers in child sexual abuse cases, research to date has focused primarily on perpetrators who are strangers to the child or the child's biological father, ignoring the effect of other father-figure perpetrators. The current study examined how differences in perpetrator's relationship to the mother impacted blame, responsibility, cause, and prevention as separate constructs...
November 2016: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868422/correction-to-dennison-et-al-2016
#8
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Neurobehavioral markers of resilience to depression amongst adolescents exposed to child abuse" by Meg J. Dennison, Margaret A. Sheridan, Daniel S. Busso, Jessica L. Jenness, Matthew Peverill, Maya L. Rosen and Katie A. McLaughlin (Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2016[Nov], Vol 125[8], 1201-1212). In the original record, there was an error in the title. The word "Adolescents" was singular. The online version of this article has been corrected.(The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-52992-014...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858867/child-protection-medical-service-demonstration-centers-in-approaching-child-abuse-and-neglect-in-taiwan
#9
Yu-Ching Chang, Jing-Long Huang, Shao-Hsuan Hsia, Kuang-Lin Lin, En-Pei Lee, I-Jun Chou, Yi-Chen Hsin, Fu-Song Lo, Chang-Teng Wu, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Han-Ping Wu
Child abuse includes all forms of physical and emotional ill treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and exploitation that results in actual or potential harm to the child's health, development, or dignity. In Taiwan, the Child Protection Medical Service Demonstration Center (CPMSDC) was established to protect children from abuse and neglect. We further analyzed and compared the trends and clinical characteristics of cases reported by CPMSDC to evaluate the function of CPMSDC in approaching child abuse and neglect in Taiwan...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854286/-english-disease-historical-notes-on-rickets-the-bone-lung-link-and-child-neglect-issues
#10
REVIEW
Mingyong Zhang, Fan Shen, Anna Petryk, Jingfeng Tang, Xingzhen Chen, Consolato Sergi
Nutritional or classical rickets (here labeled as "rickets") is a worldwide disease involving mostly infants and young children having inadequate sunlight exposure, often associated with a low dietary intake of Vitamin D. Rickets targets all layers of society independently of economic status with historical information spanning more than two millennia. Vitamin D is critical for the absorption of calcium and prevention of rickets in children as well as osteomalacia in adults. The initial and misleading paradigm of the 19th and 20th centuries that rickets may have been the consequence of infection has been, indeed, reversed following the identification of the Vitamin D molecule's important role in the function of the immune system...
November 15, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832341/non-accidental-trauma-the-role-of-radiology
#11
Cory M Pfeifer, Matthew R Hammer, Kate L Mangona, Timothy N Booth
Non-accidental trauma is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. Given the vulnerable state of the child, the radiologist can often provide valuable diagnostic information in the setting of suspected abuse. This review focuses on common findings of abusive trauma and serves as a guide to aid in clinical decision-making for providers of emergency medicine and pediatrics. Amid this discussion is an assessment of modern controversies regarding reported mimicking pathologies, recapitulation of the current state of evidence with respect to radiologic findings of abuse, and examination of the contribution that spine imaging may add to the diagnosis of possible abusive head trauma in the acutely injured child...
November 10, 2016: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821497/pediatric-abusive-head-trauma-prevention-initiatives-a-literature-review
#12
Nahara Rodrigues Laterza Lopes, Lúcia Cavalcanti de Albuquerque Williams
Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a serious form of child maltreatment that needs to be prevented. The aim of this study was to summarize the main AHT prevention strategies described in literature, aiming to identify evidence of their efficiency, as well as strengths and limitations. International databases were reviewed from 2005 to 2015 using the key words Shaken Baby Syndrome or abusive head trauma or nonaccidental head trauma or abusive head injury or nonaccidental head injury and prevention A total of 1,215 articles were found and 34 complete articles were selected for this study...
November 6, 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819477/neurobehavioral-markers-of-resilience-to-depression-amongst-adolescent-exposed-to-child-abuse
#13
Meg J Dennison, Margaret A Sheridan, Daniel S Busso, Jessica L Jenness, Matthew Peverill, Maya L Rosen, Katie A McLaughlin
Childhood maltreatment is strongly associated with depression, which is characterized by reduced reactivity to reward. Identifying factors that mitigate risk for depression in maltreated children is important for understanding etiological links between maltreatment and depression as well as improving early intervention and prevention. We examine whether high reward reactivity at behavioral and neurobiological levels is a marker of resilience to depressive symptomology in adolescence following childhood maltreatment...
November 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810636/interactions-with-community-members-and-institutions-preventive-pathways-for-child-maltreatment
#14
Yiwen Cao, Kathryn Maguire-Jack
Parents interact with their environment in important ways that may impact their ability to parent their children positively. The current study uses data from the age 3 wave of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study to investigate whether neighborhood processes and community participation relate to internal control, and whether these three variables are associated with child maltreatment behaviors. Using structural equation modeling, the direct and indirect effects of the environment (neighborhood disorder, social control, and social cohesion) and community participation on child maltreatment are tested...
December 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794243/growing-up-with-adversity-from-juvenile-justice-involvement-to-criminal-persistence-and-psychosocial-problems-in-young-adulthood
#15
Miguel Basto-Pereira, Ana Miranda, Sofia Ribeiro, Ângela Maia
Several studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of child maltreatment on juvenile justice involvement and future criminal life. However, little is known about the impact of other forms of adversity, beyond abuse and neglect, on juvenile delinquency and criminal persistence. The effect of early adversity on psychosocial problems is underexplored, particularly in juvenile delinquents. This study, using the Childhood Adverse Experiences (ACE) questionnaire, a tool accessing the exposure to different types of abuse, neglect and serious household dysfunction, explored the role of each adverse experience on juvenile justice involvement, persistence in crime and psychosocial problems during young adulthood...
December 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789611/reviewing-the-focus-a-summary-and-critique-of-child-focused-sexual-abuse-prevention
#16
Julia Rudolph, Melanie J Zimmer-Gembeck
Due to the high incidence, and widespread detrimental health consequences, of child sexual abuse (CSA), effective prevention remains at the forefront of public and mental health research, prevention and intervention agendas. To date much of the focus of prevention has been on school-based education programs designed to teach children skills to evade adult sexual advances, and disclose past or ongoing abuse. Evaluation of sexual abuse prevention programs demonstrate their effectiveness in increasing children's knowledge of CSA concepts and protection skills, but little is known about their effects on children's capacity to prevent abuse...
October 26, 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781327/developing-tailored-positive-parenting-messages-for-a-clinic-based-communication-programme
#17
N L Weaver, T L Weaver, S E Nicks, K A Jupka, H Sallee, H Jacobsen, W Henley, M Jaques
BACKGROUND: Health care providers fill a central role in the prevention of both child abuse and neglect (CA/N) and unintentional childhood injury. Health communication interventions hold promise for promoting attitudes and behaviours among parents that increase positive parenting practices, which may be linked to decreased rates of intentional and unintentional childhood injuries. This manuscript describes the development of 'RISE Up', an ambulatory clinic-based childhood injury prevention programme that provides tailored, injury prevention print materials to parents of children ages 0-5...
October 25, 2016: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760709/child-discipline-in-qatar-and-palestine-a-comparative-study-of-icast-r
#18
Nehal Eldeeb, Samia Halileh, Khalid A Alyafei, Rula Ghandour, Soha Dargham, Rita Giacaman, Madeeha Kamal, Sawsan Imseeh, Mona Korayem, Shiraz Nasr, Ziyad Mahfoud, Niveen Abu-Rmeileh, Mohamed H Mahmoud, Hassan Tawfik, Margaret A Lynch, Marcellina Mian
To compare the nature and determinants of child discipline in Qatar and Palestine among young adults through retrospective survey to develop legislation, policies and interventions for effective prevention of child maltreatment, and educational materials to promote positive discipline among parents and caregivers. Cross-sectional random household surveys were conducted in each country (Qataris N=697, Palestinians N=2064) using ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Retrospective (ICAST-R) for young adults (18-24 years), to investigate child discipline methods into the maltreatment range...
October 16, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753563/exploring-the-prevalence-of-adverse-childhood-experiences-in-soldiers-seeking-behavioral-health-care-during-a-combat-deployment
#19
Larry Applewhite, Derrick Arincorayan, Barry Adams
This exploratory study examines the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in soldiers who sought behavioral health support during a combat deployment. We conducted a secondary analysis of data extracted from two studies on the basis of retrospective reviews of behavioral health records of soldiers deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Of 162 clinical samples, 135 (83%) reported at least one type of childhood adversity. ACE scores ranged from 0 to 9 with a mean of 3 (standard deviation = 2.4) and mode of 0...
October 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749806/prevalence-of-abuse-among-young-children-with-rib-fractures-a-systematic-review
#20
Christine Weirich Paine, Oludolapo Fakeye, Cindy W Christian, Joanne N Wood
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate the prevalence of abuse in young children presenting with rib fractures and to identify demographic, injury, and presentation-related characteristics that affect the probability that rib fractures are secondary to abuse. METHODS: We searched PubMed/MEDLINE and CINAHL databases for articles published in English between January 1, 1990, and June 30, 2014 on rib fracture etiology in children 5 years or younger. Two reviewers independently extracted predefined data elements and assigned quality ratings to included studies...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
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