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Protein kinase G

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944928/hydrogen-inhibits-isoproterenol%C3%A2-induced-autophagy-in-cardiomyocytes-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#1
Yaxing Zhang, Zhiyuan Long, Jingting Xu, Sihua Tan, Nan Zhang, Anfei Li, Ling Wang, Tinghuai Wang
A previous study from our group has demonstrated that hydrogen administration can attenuate cardiovascular hypertrophy in vivo by targeting reactive oxygen species‑dependent mitogen‑activated protein kinase signaling. The aim of the present study is to determine the effect of hydrogen on cardiomyocyte autophagy during β‑adrenoceptor activation in vivo and in vitro. We prepared hydrogen‑rich medium, and the concentration of hydrogen was measured by using the MB‑Pt reagent method. For the in vitro study, H9c2 cardiomyocytes were stimulated with isoproterenol (ISO; 10 µM) for 5, 15 and 30 min, and then the protein expression levels of the autophagy marker microtubule‑associated protein 1 light chain 3β II (LC3B II) were examined by western blotting...
September 25, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944853/kisspeptin-inhibits-cancer-growth-and-metastasis-via-activation-of-eif2ak2
#2
Tae-Hun Kim, Sung-Gook Cho
Kisspeptin is a protein encoded by the KISS1 gene, which has been reported to suppress the metastatic capabilities of various types of cancer cells, through the activation of its G‑protein coupled receptor GPR54. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the involvement of kisspeptin‑mediated signaling in the inhibition of cancer cell migration and invasion have yet to be elucidated. The present in vitro cell proliferation, migration and invasion assays and in vivo experimental metastasis studies demonstrated that kisspeptin‑induced eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α kinase 2 (EIF2AK2) activation suppressed the metastatic capabilities of several types of cancer cells...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943242/csnk1a1-regulates-prmt1-to-maintain-the-progenitor-state-in-self-renewing-somatic-tissue
#3
Xiaomin Bao, Zurab Siprashvili, Brian J Zarnegar, Rajani M Shenoy, Eon J Rios, Natalie Nady, Kun Qu, Angela Mah, Daniel E Webster, Adam J Rubin, Glenn G Wozniak, Shiying Tao, Joanna Wysocka, Paul A Khavari
Somatic progenitors sustain tissue self-renewal while suppressing premature differentiation. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) affect many processes; however, their role in progenitor function is incompletely understood. PRMT1 was found to be the most highly expressed PRMT in epidermal progenitors and the most downregulated PRMT during differentiation. In targeted mouse knockouts and in long-term regenerated human mosaic epidermis in vivo, epidermal PRMT1 loss abolished progenitor self-renewal and led to premature differentiation...
September 18, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942351/sphingosine-1-phosphate-and-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Nigel J Pyne, Ashref El Buri, David R Adams, Susan Pyne
The bioactive lipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is produced by phosphorylation of sphingosine and this is catalysed by two sphingosine kinase isoforms (SK1 and SK2). Here we discuss structural functional aspects of SK1 (which is a dimeric quaternary enzyme) that relate to coordinated coupling of membrane association with phosphorylation of Ser225 in the 'so-called' R-loop, catalytic activity and protein-protein interactions (e.g. TRAF2, PP2A and Gq). S1P formed by SK1 at the plasma-membrane is released from cells via S1P transporters to act on S1P receptors to promote tumorigenesis...
September 15, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942144/microgravity-influences-maintenance-of-the-human-muscle-stem-progenitor-cell-pool
#5
Tohru Hosoyama, Shunji Ichida, Masatsugu Kanno, Reiichi Ishihara, Toshikatsu Hatashima, Koji Ueno, Kimikazu Hamano
Microgravity induces skeletal muscle atrophy; however, the underlying mechanism is not clarified. In particular, the influence of microgravity on human skeletal muscle stem/progenitor cells (SMPCs) is not well understood. In this study, we used induced pluripotent stem cell-derived human SMPCs to investigate the effect of microgravity on maintenance of the stem/progenitor cell pool. Human SMPCs were induced by free-floating spherical aggregation culture, and derivatized-SMPC spheres were maintained in a microgravity condition (10(-3) G) for 2 weeks using a clinostat rotation system...
September 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941685/gsk-3-mediates-no-cgmp-induced-isoflavone-production-in-soybean-sprouts
#6
Caifeng Jiao, Liangliang Zhu, Zhenxin Gu
The role of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) in the nitric oxide-guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (NO-cGMP)-induced isoflavone production in soybean sprouts was examined. Inhibitors and donors of NO, cGMP, and GSK-3 inhibitor were added to UV-B irradiated sprouts. Results showed that NO, with cGMP, induced the expression of GSK-3 under UV-B radiation. Protein kinase G (PKG) was shown to be involved in NO-cGMP-induced GSK-3 activation. GSK-3 elevated activity and expression levels of chalcone synthase (CHS) and isoflavone synthase (IFS), and increased isoflavone accumulation...
November 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941588/cysteine-desulfurase-is-regulated-by-phosphorylation-of-nfs1-in-yeast-mitochondria
#7
Agostinho G Rocha, Simon A B Knight, Alok Pandey, Heeyong Yoon, Jayashree Pain, Debkumar Pain, Andrew Dancis
The cysteine desulfurase Nfs1/Isd11 uses the amino acid cysteine as the substrate and its activity is absolutely required for contributing persulfide sulfur to the essential process of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster assembly in mitochondria. Here we describe a novel regulatory process involving phosphorylation of Nfs1 in mitochondria. Phosphorylation enhanced cysteine desulfurase activity, while dephosphorylation decreased its activity. Nfs1 phosphopeptides were identified, and the corresponding phosphosite mutants showed impaired persulfide formation...
September 20, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941256/distinct-protein-kinase-c-isoenzyme-mediates-inhibitory-effects-of-different-g-protein-coupled-receptors-on-cardiac-rapidly-activating-delayed-rectifier-k-current
#8
Xueli Liu, Yuhong Wang, Hua Zhang, Li Shen, Yanfang Xu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Elevated angiotensin II (Ang II) and sympathetic activity contributes to high risk of ventricular arrhythmias in heart diseases. The rapidly activating delayed rectifier K(+) current (IKr ) carried by the hERG protein plays a critical role in cardiac repolarization; and a reduction of IKr is involved in increased cardiac arrhythmogenicity. Studies have shown that stimulation of α1A -adrenoreceptors (α1A AR) or Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1 R) inhibits IKr via protein kinase C (PKC)...
September 23, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941230/effects-of-rumen-protected-pantothenate-supplementation-on-lactation-performance-ruminal-fermentation-nutrient-digestion-and-blood-metabolites-in-dairy-cows
#9
Wang Cong, Liu Qiang, Li He Qiong, Wu Xiao Xu, Gang Guo, Wen Jie Huo, Pei Cai Xia, Zhang Yan Li, Zhang Shuan Lin
BACKGROUND: Lactation performance of dairy cow has considerably increased with animal breeding and management improvement in recent years. Ruminal net synthesized pantothenic acid is insufficient to meet the requirement of high producing dairy cows. The objective was to investigate the effects of rumen-protected pantothenate (RPP) on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestion and blood metabolites in dairy cows. RESULTS: Dry matter (DM) intake tended to increase, whereas milk yields, milk fat percentage and yield, body condition score (BCS) changes and net energy output except for maintance increased linearly with increasing RPP supplementation...
September 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941148/mk5-a-novel-regulator-of-cardiac-fibroblast-function
#10
REVIEW
Pramod Sahadevan, Bruce G Allen
MAP kinase-activated protein kinases (MKs), protein serine/threonine kinases downstream of the MAPKs, regulate a number of biological functions. MK5 was initially identified as a substrate for p38 MAPK but subsequent studies revealed that MK5 activity is regulated by atypical MAPKs ERK3 and ERK4. However, the roles of these MAPKs in activating MK5 remain controversial. The interactome and physiological function of MK5 are just beginning to be understood. Here, we provide an overview of the structure-function of MK5 including recent progress in determining its role in cardiac structure and function...
October 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940879/phosphorylation-of-calcium-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-ii-in-the-rat-dorsal-medial-prefrontal-cortex-is-associated-with-alcohol-induced-cognitive-inflexibility
#11
Luis A Natividad, Michael Q Steinman, Sarah A Laredo, Cristina Irimia, Ilham Y Polis, Robert Lintz, Matthew W Buczynski, Rémi Martin-Fardon, Marisa Roberto, Loren H Parsons
Repeated cycles of alcohol [ethanol (EtOH)] intoxication and withdrawal dysregulate excitatory glutamatergic systems in the brain and induce neuroadaptations in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that contribute to cognitive dysfunction. The mPFC is composed of subdivisions that are functionally distinct, with dorsal regions facilitating drug-cue associations and ventral regions modulating new learning in the absence of drug. A key modulator of glutamatergic activity is the holoenzyme calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) that phosphorylates ionotropic glutamate receptors...
September 22, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940304/the-foxa2-transcription-factor-is-frequently-somatically-mutated-in-uterine-carcinosarcomas-and-carcinomas
#12
Matthieu Le Gallo, Meghan L Rudd, Mary Ellen Urick, Nancy F Hansen, Maria J Merino, David G Mutch, Paul J Goodfellow, James C Mullikin, Daphne W Bell
BACKGROUND: Uterine carcinosarcomas (UCSs) are a rare but clinically aggressive form of cancer. They are biphasic tumors consisting of both epithelial and sarcomatous components. The majority of uterine carcinosarcomas are clonal, with the carcinomatous cells undergoing metaplasia to give rise to the sarcomatous component. The objective of the current study was to identify novel somatically mutated genes in UCSs. METHODS: We whole exome sequenced paired tumor and nontumor DNAs from 14 UCSs and orthogonally validated 464 somatic variants using Sanger sequencing...
September 21, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939643/role-of-g-protein-coupled-receptor-kinase-6-in-escherichia-coli-lung-infection-model-in-mice
#13
Taehyung Lee, Nandakumar Packiriswamy, Eunhee Lee, Peter C Lucas, Laura R McCabe, Narayanan Parameswaran
G protein-coupled receptor kinase-6 (GRK6) is a serine/threonine kinase that is important in inflammatory processes. In this study, we examined the role of GRK6 in Escherichia coli (E. coli)-induced lung infection and inflammation using GRK6 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice. Intratracheal instillation of E. coli significantly enhanced bacterial load in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of KO compared to WT mice. Reduced bacterial clearance in the KO mice was not due to an intrinsic defect in neutrophil phagocytosis or killing but as a result of reduced neutrophil numbers in the KO BAL...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939530/towards-the-modulation-of-oxidative-damage-apoptosis-and-tight-junction-protein-in-response-to-dietary-leucine-deficiency-a-likely-cause-of-ros-induced-gill-structural-integrity-impairment
#14
Wei-Dan Jiang, Yu-Ping Deng, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Pei Wu, Yong-An Zhang, Lin Feng
The current study explored the protective effect of leucine on antioxidant status, apoptosis and tight junction damage in the gill of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.). The trial was conducted by feeding grass carp with six graded level of leucine (7.1, 8.9, 11.0, 13.3, 15.2 and 17.1 g kg(-1) diet) for 8 weeks. The fish were fed to apparent satiation 4 times per day. The results indicated that compared with the leucine deficiency group, 8.9-11.3 g leucine kg(-1) diet supplementations decreased protein carbonyl (PC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS contents, which may be partially attributed to the improvement of antioxidant status in the gill by increasing hydroxyl radical capacity and anti-superoxide radicals, glutathione contents and the activities and mRNA levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR), that referring to the up-regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA expression...
September 19, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938534/targeting-of-the-mapk-and-akt-pathways-in-conjunctival-melanoma-shows-potential-synergy
#15
Jinfeng Cao, Renier C Heijkants, Aart G Jochemsen, Mehmet Dogrusöz, Mark J de Lange, Pieter A van der Velden, Sjoerd H van der Burg, Martine J Jager, Robert M Verdijk
PURPOSE: Conjunctival melanoma (CM) is a rare but lethal form of cancer. Similar to cutaneous melanoma, CM frequently carries activating mutations in BRAF and NRAS. We studied whether CM as well as conjunctival benign and premalignant melanocytic lesions express targets in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and AKT pathways, and whether specific inhibitors can suppress CM growth in vitro. METHODS: 131 conjunctival lesions obtained from 129 patients were collected...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937978/a-new-discrete-dynamic-model-of-aba-induced-stomatal-closure-predicts-key-feedback-loops
#16
Réka Albert, Biswa R Acharya, Byeong Wook Jeon, Jorge G T Zañudo, Mengmeng Zhu, Karim Osman, Sarah M Assmann
Stomata, microscopic pores in leaf surfaces through which water loss and carbon dioxide uptake occur, are closed in response to drought by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). This process is vital for drought tolerance and has been the topic of extensive experimental investigation in the last decades. Although a core signaling chain has been elucidated consisting of ABA binding to receptors, which alleviates negative regulation by protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs) of the protein kinase OPEN STOMATA 1 (OST1) and ultimately results in activation of anion channels, osmotic water loss, and stomatal closure, over 70 additional components have been identified, yet their relationships with each other and the core components are poorly elucidated...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935982/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-inhibition-links-mitochondrial-dysfunction-extracellular-matrix-remodelling-and-terminal-differentiation-in-chondrocytes
#17
S Guidotti, M Minguzzi, D Platano, S Santi, G Trisolino, G Filardo, E Mariani, R M Borzì
Following inflammatory stimuli, GSK3 inhibition functions as a hub with pleiotropic effects leading to cartilage degradation. However, little is known about the effects triggered by its direct inhibition as well as the effects on mitochondrial pathology, that contributes to osteoarthritis pathogenesis. To this aim we assessed the molecular mechanisms triggered by GSK3β inactivating stimuli on 3-D (micromass) cultures of human articular chondrocytes. Stimuli were delivered either at micromass seeding (long term) or after maturation (short term) to explore "late" effects on terminal differentiation or "early" mitochondrial effects, respectively...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935770/crystal-structure-of-the-human-lysosomal-mtorc1-scaffold-complex-and-its-impact-on-signaling
#18
Mariana E G de Araujo, Andreas Naschberger, Barbara G Fürnrohr, Taras Stasyk, Theresia Dunzendorfer-Matt, Stefan Lechner, Stefan Welti, Leopold Kremser, Giridhar Shivalingaiah, Martin Offterdinger, Herbert H Lindner, Lukas A Huber, Klaus Scheffzek
LAMTOR (Late endosomal and lysosomal adaptor and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) activator) also known as "Ragulator," controls the activity of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) on the lysosome. The crystal structure of LAMTOR consists of two roadblock/LC7 domain folded heterodimers wrapped and apparently held together by LAMTOR1, which assembles the complex on lysosomes. In addition, the Rag GTPases associated with the pentamer through their C-terminal domains, predefining the orientation for interaction with mTORC1...
September 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934276/enhanced-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-activity-improves-cardiac-outcomes-in-a-murine-model-of-cardiac-arrest
#19
Lin Piao, Yong-Hu Fang, Manfred M Kubler, Michael W Donnino, Willard W Sharp
RATIONALE: Post-ischemic changes in cellular metabolism alter myocardial and neurological function. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), the limiting step in mitochondrial glucose oxidation, is inhibited by increased expression of PDH kinase (PDK) during ischemia/reperfusion injury. This results in decreased utilization of glucose to generate cellular ATP. Post-cardiac arrest (CA) hypothermia improves outcomes and alters metabolism, but its influence on PDH and PDK activity following CA are unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934193/oxidative-stress-prefrontal-cortex-hypomyelination-and-cognitive-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#20
REVIEW
D A Maas, A Vallès, G J M Martens
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a broad symptomatology, including cognitive symptoms that are thought to arise from the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The neurobiological aetiology of these symptoms remains elusive, yet both impaired redox control and PFC dysconnectivity have been recently implicated. PFC dysconnectivity has been linked to white matter, oligodendrocyte (OL) and myelin abnormalities in SZ patients. Myelin is produced by mature OLs, and OL precursor cells (OPCs) are exceptionally susceptible to oxidative stress...
July 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
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