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Dpp-4 glp-1

Gunter Laux, Sarah Berger, Joachim Szecsenyi, Petra Kaufmann-Kolle, Rüdiger Leutgeb
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to analyze prescription decisions for family practice (FP) patients with Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) using the case of the incretin mimetics Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DDP-4) inhibitors and Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists dependent on patients' health insurance status (statutory or private) in Germany. This study is important since the scientific debate is still open with regard to DPP-4-inhibitors and GLP-1-agonists, where some critics are raising questions on potential long-term risks for patients...
October 19, 2016: BMC Family Practice
Alexandre Baptista, Inês Teixeira, Sónia Romano, António Vaz Carneiro, Julian Perelman
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, and cost-benefit studies of DPP-4 inhibitors for diabetes treatment versus other antidiabetics. METHODS: Three investigators searched the CRD York, Tufts CEA Registry, and MEDLINE databases through 2015. We reviewed all potentially relevant titles and abstracts, and screened full-text articles, according to inclusion criteria. We established a quality score for each study based on a 35-item list...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
Michael A Nauck, Melanie Kahle, Oleg Baranov, Carolyn F Deacon, Jens J Holst
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors both stimulate GLP-1 receptors. Our objective was to determine, whether the addition of sitagliptin to pre-existing therapy with liraglutide changes glycaemic excursions after a mixed meal. METHODS: 16 subjects with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and liraglutide (1.2 mg/d for ≥ 2 weeks) were randomized (sealed envelopes), within a cross-over design, to be studied on two occasions, after an overnight fast, with (a) sitagliptin (100 mg p...
October 6, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Andrea Egger, Marius E Kraenzlin, Christian Meier
Anti-diabetic drugs are widely used and are essential for adequate glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Recently, marketed anti-diabetic drugs include incretin-based therapies (GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors) and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. In contrast to well-known detrimental effects of thiazolidinediones on bone metabolism and fracture risk, clinical data on the safety of incretin-based therapies is limited. Based on meta-analyses of trials investigating the glycemic-lowering effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP4 inhibitors, it seems that incretin-based therapies are not associated with an increase in fracture risk...
October 5, 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Soe Naing, Anapuma Poliyedath, Stutee Khandelwal, Teresa Sigala
Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the leading cause of death in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Most published trials of glucose-lowering agents have shown no significant CV benefit or increased risk of death or heart failure, with the exception of metformin. Three novel classes of glucose-lowering agents, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, and sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of T2DM in the United States and other parts of the world in the last decade...
October 4, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Jayasankar Kosaraju, R M Damian Holsinger, Lixia Guo, Kin Yip Tam
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone shown to be active in the treatment of type-2 diabetes (T2D) and has also been shown as efficacious in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), an enzyme that is expressed in numerous cells, rapidly inactivates endogenous GLP-1. Therefore, DPP-4 inhibition is employed as a therapeutic avenue to increase GLP-1 levels in the management of T2D. The effectiveness of DPP-4 inhibitors in the treatment of AD has been reported in various animal models of AD...
October 3, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Hitesh Soni
Diabesity is a new term for obesity-dependent diabetes, which is also associated with cardiovascular and other comorbidities with rising epidemic. Traditional treatments (sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones) of diabetes are associated with weight gain, except metformin. Newer agents such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) and Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are causing a modest weight reduction, whereas dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) are weight neutral...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
David H Fitchett, Jacob A Udell, Silvio E Inzucchi
Diabetes is a major risk factor for heart failure (HF). Patients with diabetes have a high incidence of both clinical HF and subclinical LV dysfunction. Although intensive glucose lowering does not appear to impact on HF outcomes, the choice of glucose-lowering agents plays an important role in the development of HF and related cardiovascular outcomes. Whilst metformin and insulin appear to have little impact on HF progression, the role of sulphonylurea agents in this patient population remains uncertain. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are associated with a significant risk of HF progression and are best avoided in patients at risk...
September 21, 2016: European Journal of Heart Failure
Puneet Gupta, William B White
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are relatively new therapies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Given the high prevalence of cardiovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes and recent concerns questioning CV safety of newer antidiabetic medications, cardiovascular safety of these medications requires evaluation. Areas covered: Cardiovascular effects of these drug classes from preclinical and clinical data as well as non-cardiovascular safety issues are delineated from literature searches covering the last decade and up to June 2016...
September 21, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Jazyra Zynat, Yuyu Guo, Yingli Lu, Dongping Lin
Objectives. This study aimed to explore the expression of GLP-1 receptor in hypothalamus and gastrointestinal tissues after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery in diabetic rats. Methods. Male 12-week-old Wistar rats (control) and Goto-Kakizaki rats (diabetic) were randomly divided into two groups, respectively: control sham surgery group (C), control RYGB group (C + R), diabetic sham surgery group (D), and diabetic RYGB group (D + R). Body weight and blood glucose were monitored before and after surgery every week...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Ehab Mudher Mikhael
Hypoglycemia is the most common side effects for most glucose-lowering therapies. It constitutes a serious risk that faces diabetic patients who fast during Ramadan (the 9th month in the Islamic calendar). New glucose-lowering classes like dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA), and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are efficacious in controlling blood glucose level with less tendency to induce hypoglycemia and thus may constitute a good choice for diabetic patients during Ramadan...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Mark M Smits, Lennart Tonneijck, Marcel H A Muskiet, Mark H H Kramer, Petra J W Pouwels, Indra C Pieters-van den Bos, Trynke Hoekstra, Michaela Diamant, Daniël H van Raalte, Djuna L Cahen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1-based therapies have been suggested to improve hepatic steatosis. We assessed the effects of the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide and the dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor sitagliptin on hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this 12 week, parallel, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, performed at the VU University Medical Center between July 2013 and August 2015, 52 overweight patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and/or sulphonylurea agent ([mean ± SD] age 62...
September 15, 2016: Diabetologia
David Karásek
UNLABELLED: Despite a normal or higher bone mass, type 2 diabetes is associated with a higher risk of osteoporotic fractures. Besides a higher falls frequency the lower quality of diabetics bone plays the crucial role in this case. One of the factors affecting their fracture risk is a choice of antidiabetic treatment. So far, professional societies have warned before the thiazolidinediones use only, but gliflozines can be harmful for bone too. Metformin, sulfonylureas, GLP-1 agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors belong to the drugs without a negative effect on the fracture risk...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Helene Bihan, Winda L Ng, Dianna J Magliano, Jonathan E Shaw
AIMS: To identify the determinants of efficacy of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1A) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4I). METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched between 01/01/2011 and 15/08/2014 for randomized controlled trials of 12-52weeks' duration, which reported the change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) from baseline as the primary end point, and reported data about predictors of efficacy of incretins. RESULTS: Among 4172 studies found, 77 studies reported data on baseline HbA1c, age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), and history of diabetes in relation to change in HbA1c...
August 26, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Tongzhi Wu, Xiang Zhang, Laurence G Trahair, Michelle J Bound, Tanya J Little, Carolyn F Deacon, Michael Horowitz, Karen L Jones, Christopher K Rayner
CONTEXT: The rate of gastric emptying is an important determinant of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion, and may influence the magnitude of glucose-lowering by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of the DPP-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, during intraduodenal (ID) glucose infusion at two different rates within the physiological range of gastric emptying, in type 2 diabetes...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Yosuke Kanno, Akane Sakai, Mei Miyashita, Kaho Tsuchida, Osamu Matsuo
Plasminogen (Plg), which is the inactive form of plasmin, deficiency enhanced insulin secretion, and was associated with improved oral glucose tolerance in mice. Additionally, Plg deficiency was associated with lower dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) activity, and enhanced glucagons-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) expression. Plg may regulate the DPP-4 activity and the glucose metabolism.
October 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Lennart Tonneijck, Mark M Smits, Marcel H A Muskiet, Trynke Hoekstra, Mark H H Kramer, A H Jan Danser, Piet M Ter Wee, Michaela Diamant, Jaap A Joles, Daniël H van Raalte
OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4I) sitagliptin or glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist liraglutide treatment on renal hemodynamics, tubular functions, and markers of renal damage in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes without chronic kidney disease (CKD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this 12-week, randomized, double-blind trial, 55 insulin-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes (mean ± SEM: age 63 ± 7 years, BMI 31...
September 1, 2016: Diabetes Care
Alok Sharma, Geetanjali Paliwal, Nisha Upadhyay, Archana Tiwari
[This retracts the article DOI: 10.1186/s40200-015-0143-4.].
2015: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
Hiroyuki Sato, Naoto Kubota, Tetsuya Kubota, Iseki Takamoto, Kaito Iwayama, Kumpei Tokuyama, Masao Moroi, Kaoru Sugi, Keizo Nakaya, Moritaka Goto, Takahito Jomori, Takashi Kadowaki
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Recently, incretin-related agents have been reported to attenuate insulin resistance in animal models, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether anagliptin, the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, attenuates skeletal muscle insulin resistance through endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation in the endothelial cells. We used endothelium-specific Irs2-knockout (ETIrs2KO) mice, which show skeletal muscle insulin resistance resulting from a reduction of insulin-induced skeletal muscle capillary recruitment as a consequence of impaired eNOS activation...
November 2016: Diabetologia
Angelo Avogaro, Gian Paolo Fadini, Giorgio Sesti, Enzo Bonora, Stefano Del Prato
Diabetic patients suffer from a high rate of cardiovascular events and such risk increases with HbA1c. However, lowering HbA1c does not appear to yield the same benefit on macrovascular endpoints, as observed for microvascular endpoints. As the number of glucose-lowering medications increases, clinicians have to consider several open questions in the management of type 2 diabetes, one of which is the cardiovascular risk profile of each regimen. Recent placebo-controlled cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) have responded to some of these questions, but careful interpretation is needed...
2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
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