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Dpp-4 glp-1

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437648/cardiovascular-outcomes-associated-with-canagliflozin-versus-other-non-gliflozin-antidiabetic-drugs-population-based-cohort-study
#1
Elisabetta Patorno, Allison B Goldfine, Sebastian Schneeweiss, Brendan M Everett, Robert J Glynn, Jun Liu, Seoyoung C Kim
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cardiovascular safety of canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, in direct comparisons with DPP-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i), GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA), or sulfonylureas, as used in routine practice. DESIGN: Population based retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Nationwide sample of patients with type 2 diabetes from a large de-identified US commercial healthcare database (Optum Clinformatics Datamart)...
February 6, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412816/tissue-expression-of-dpp-iv-in-obesity-diabetes-and-modulatory-effects-on-peptide-regulation-of-insulin-secretion
#2
Aine M McKillop, Claire L Stevenson, Brian M Moran, Yasser H A Abdel-Wahab, Peter R Flatt
Dipeptidyl peptidase type 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors represent an important class of glucose-lowering drug for type 2 diabetes. DPP-4 enzyme activity has been observed to be significantly altered in type 2 diabetes. Here, the role of DPP-4 was examined in a high fat fed (HFF) mouse model of insulin resistance. HFF mice had an increased bodyweight (p < .01), were hyperglycaemic (p < .01) and hyperinsulinaemic (p < .05). Compared to normal diet, HFF mice exhibited increased plasma DPP-4 activity (p < ...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412814/peptide-degradation-and-the-role-of-dpp-4-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#3
Carolyn F Deacon
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are now a widely used, safe and efficacious class of antidiabetic drugs, which were developed prospectively using a rational drug design approach based on a thorough understanding of the endocrinology and degradation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). GLP-1 is an intestinal hormone with potent insulinotropic and glucagonostatic effects and can normalise blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes, but the native peptide is not therapeutically useful because of its inherent metabolic instability...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411931/neuroprotective-mechanisms-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-based-therapies-in-ischaemic-stroke-a-systematic-review-based-on-pre-clinical-studies
#4
Ida R Marlet, Joakim N E Ölmestig, Tina Vilsbøll, Jørgen Rungby, Christina Kruuse
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-based therapies, GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs), and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4Is) are widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Increasing evidence suggests that they may provide neuroprotection. The aim of this MiniReview was to systematically evaluate the proposed mechanism of action for GLP-1-based therapies in ischaemic brain damage in animals. We performed a literature search using Medline, Embase and The Cochrane Library. GLP-1-based therapies administered before, during or after experimental stroke in diabetic and non-diabetic animals were evaluated...
February 7, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411291/post-liver-transplantation-diabetes-mellitus-a-review-of-relevance-and-approach-to-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Maria J Peláez-Jaramillo, Allison A Cárdenas-Mojica, Paula V Gaete, Carlos O Mendivil
Post-liver transplantation diabetes mellitus (PLTDM) develops in up to 30% of liver transplant recipients and is associated with increased risk of mortality and multiple morbid outcomes. PLTDM is a multicausal disorder, but the main risk factor is the use of immunosuppressive agents of the calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) family (tacrolimus and cyclosporine). Additional factors, such as pre-transplant overweight, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatitis C virus infection, may further increase risk of developing PLTDM...
February 6, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409957/dpp-4-is-expressed-in-human-pancreatic-beta-cells-and-its-direct-inhibition-improves-beta-cell-function-and-survival-in-type-2-diabetes
#6
Marco Bugliani, Farooq Syed, Flavia M M Paula, Bilal A Omar, Mara Suleiman, Sandra Mossuto, Francesca Grano, Francesco Cardarelli, Ugo Boggi, Fabio Vistoli, Franco Filipponi, Paolo De Simone, Lorella Marselli, Vincenzo De Tata, Bo Ahren, Decio L Eizirik, Piero Marchetti
It has been reported that the incretin system, including regulated GLP-1 secretion and locally expressed DPP-4, is present in pancreatic islets. In this study we comprehensively evaluated the expression and role of DPP-4 in islet alpha and beta cells from non-diabetic (ND) and type 2 diabetic (T2D) individuals, including the effects of its inhibition on beta cell function and survival. Isolated islets were prepared from 25 ND and 18 T2D organ donors; studies were also performed with the human insulin-producing EndoC-βH1 cells...
January 31, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403151/new-insights-into-the-pharmacological-treatment-of-pediatric-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#7
Tatsuhiko Urakami
The principal treatment for children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes is dietary and exercise management. However, the blood glucose levels of some patients receiving this treatment fail to improve; thus, pharmacological treatment is eventually required. The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes in pediatric patients appears to be similar to that in adults; thus, the range of antidiabetic drugs used in adults is likely to be effective in pediatric patients as well. However, in the majority of countries, including Japan, only metformin, glimepiride, and insulin have been approved for use in pediatric patients...
2018: Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology: Case Reports and Clinical Investigations: Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402981/clinical-features-and-therapeutic-perspectives-on-hypertension-in-diabetics
#8
REVIEW
Shigehiro Katayama, Masako Hatano, Masashi Issiki
Over 50% of patients with diabetes mellitus, either type 1 or 2, ultimately develop hypertension as a complication. In diabetics, this further increases the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) by 2- to 3-fold and accelerates the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Arteriosclerosis, a clinical feature of hypertension in diabetics, develops and advances from a young age. Therefore, in providing treatment, it is necessary to evaluate the degree of arteriosclerosis. Diabetic patients are encouraged to strictly control their blood glucose levels...
February 5, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386477/evaluation-of-drug-efficacy-of-glp-1-receptor-agonists-and-dpp-4-inhibitors-based-on-target-molecular-binding-occupancy
#9
Risa Takayanagi, Takumi Uchida, Koji Kimura, Yasuhiko Yamada
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (liraglutide, exenatide, lixisenatide) have recently been used as anti-diabetes drugs. We examined relationships of the binding occupancy of GLP-1 receptors (Φ) and their clinical efficacy after administration of GLP-1 receptor agonists. Next, by focusing on changes of GLP-1 concentration after administration of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (vildagliptin, alogliptin, sitagliptin, linagliptin), we analyzed the relationship between Φ and clinical efficacy...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386249/precision-medicine-in-type-2-diabetes-clinical-markers-of-insulin-resistance-are-associated-with-altered-short-and-long-term-glycemic-response-to-dpp-4-inhibitor-therapy
#10
John M Dennis, Beverley M Shields, Anita V Hill, Bridget A Knight, Timothy J McDonald, Lauren R Rodgers, Michael N Weedon, William E Henley, Naveed Sattar, Rury R Holman, Ewan R Pearson, Andrew T Hattersley, Angus G Jones
OBJECTIVE: A precision approach to type 2 diabetes therapy would aim to target treatment according to patient characteristics. We examined if measures of insulin resistance and secretion were associated with glycemic response to dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor therapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We evaluated whether markers of insulin resistance and insulin secretion were associated with 6-month glycemic response in a prospective study of noninsulin-treated participants starting DPP-4 inhibitor therapy (Predicting Response to Incretin Based Agents [PRIBA] study; n = 254), with replication for routinely available markers in U...
January 31, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378454/possible-role-of-dpp4-inhibitors-to-promote-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Nehru Sai Suresh Chalichem, Pindiprolu S S Sai Kiran, Duraiswamy Basavan
As well-known to the scientific community that Alzheimer`s disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative disease that ends up with impairment of memory and cognition. Patient quality of life can be enhanced by targeting neurogenesis as a therapeutic paradigm. Preserving functional activity of SDF-1α and GLP-1 by DPPIV inhibition will enhance the homing of stem cells and modulates cell signaling pathways. The non-invasive approach presented in this article is a major advantage for managing AD, as regular/conventional stem-cell therapy necessarily relies on the application of regenerative stem cells exogenously...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376760/comparison-of-costs-and-outcomes-of-dapagliflozin-with-other-glucose-lowering-therapy-classes-added-to-metformin-using-a-short-term-cost-effectiveness-model-in-the-us-setting
#12
Abhiroop Chakravarty, Mohini Rastogi, Praveen Dhankhar, Kelly Bell
OBJECTIVE: To compare 1-year costs and benefits of dapagliflozin (DAPA), a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, with those of other treatments for type 2 diabetes (T2D), such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs), sulfonylureas (SUs), thiazolidinediones (TZDs), and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i), all combined with metformin. METHODS: A short-term decision-analytic model with a 1-year time horizon was developed from a payer's perspective in the United States (US) setting...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364588/incretin-hormones-their-role-in-health-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Michael A Nauck, Juris J Meier
Incretin hormones are gut peptides that are secreted after nutrient intake and stimulate insulin secretion together with hyperglycaemia. GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) und GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) are the known incretin hormones from the upper (GIP, K cells) and lower (GLP-1, L cells) gut. Together, they are responsible for the incretin effect: a two- to three-fold higher insulin secretory response to oral as compared to intravenous glucose administration. In subjects with type 2 diabetes, this incretin effect is diminished or no longer present...
February 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364587/efficacy-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-compared-to-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-for-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#14
REVIEW
Susan Tran, Ravi Retnakaran, Bernard Zinman, Caroline K Kramer
AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are both incretin-based therapies for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) but have distinct efficacy and side effect profiles. We thus performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effects of GLP-1 agonists to DPP-4 inhibitors on glycaemic control, weight and incidence of adverse events in adults with T2DM. We also sought to determine whether there was any additional effect in switching from DPP-4 inhibitor to GLP-1 agonist...
February 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359260/clinical-impact-of-oral-antidiabetic-medications-in-heart-failure-patients
#15
REVIEW
Alberto Palazzuoli, Elena Ceccarelli, Gaetano Ruocco, Ranuccio Nuti
Heart failure (HF) is a common complication in patients with type 2 diabetes and it is closely associated with high morbidity and mortality rate. The incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes is related to high levels of glycemia, expressed by increase of HbA1c levels. However, there is little evidence to indicate that glycemic control can reduce the incidence of HF events in this population. Recently, several new antidiabetic drugs have been proposed although the exact clinical impact on heart failure occurrence and deterioration is under debate...
January 23, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341370/real-world-clinical-outcomes-and-predictors-of-glycaemic-and-weight-response-to-exenatide-once-weekly-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-the-cibeles-project
#16
Juan José Gorgojo-Martínez, Manuel Angel Gargallo-Fernández, Miguel Brito-Sanfiel, Arturo Lisbona-Catalán
AIMS: To evaluate in a real-world setting the effectiveness of exenatide once-weekly (ExQW) in patients with T2D and to determine predictors of glycaemic and weight response to this drug at 6 months. METHODS: Observational, retrospective, multicenter study in adult patients with T2D and BMI ≥30 kg/m2 from 4 tertiary Spanish hospitals who started ExQW therapy at least 6 months before the inclusion and had not achieved adequate glycaemic control on oral therapies or other GLP-1 receptor agonists...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320889/the-cardiovascular-effect-of-incretin-based-therapies-among-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#17
Shanshan Wu, Andrea Cipriani, Zhirong Yang, Jun Yang, Ting Cai, Yang Xu, Xiaochi Quan, Yuan Zhang, Sanbao Chai, Feng Sun, Siyan Zhan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the comparative cardiovascular safety of incretin-based therapies in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library and www.clinicaltrials.gov were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with duration≥12 weeks. Network meta-analysis was performed, followed by subgroup analysis and meta-regression. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system was used to assess the quality of evidence...
January 10, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310647/have-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-ameliorated-the-vascular-complications-of-type-2-diabetes-in-large-scale-trials-the-potential-confounding-effect-of-stem-cell-chemokines
#18
REVIEW
Milton Packer
Drugs that inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) are conventionally regarded as incretin-based agents that signal through the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor. However, inhibition of DPP-4 also potentiates the stem cell chemokine, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), which can promote inflammation, proliferative responses and neovascularization. In large-scale cardiovascular outcome trials, enhanced GLP-1 signaling has reduced the risk of atherosclerotic ischemic events, potentially because GLP-1 retards the growth and increases the stability of atherosclerotic plaques...
January 8, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283894/incretin-based-drugs-and-the-incidence-of-colorectal-cancer-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#19
Devin Abrahami, Hui Yin, Oriana H Y Yu, Michael N Pollak, Laurent Azoulay
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the safety of the incretin-based drugs (glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1] analogues and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 [DPP-4] inhibitors) with respect to colorectal cancer is contradictory. The objective of this study was to determine whether use of incretin-based drugs is associated with risk of incident colorectal cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Using data from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we identified a cohort of 112,040 patients newly treated with antidiabetic drugs between 1 January 2007 and 31 March 2015...
December 26, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277321/network-meta-analysis-of-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-randomized-controlled-trials-of-new-antidiabetic-drugs
#20
Yue Fei, Man-Fung Tsoi, Cyrus Rustam Kumana, Tommy Tsang Cheung, Bernard Man Yung Cheung
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) directly comparing cardiovascular outcomes of new antidiabetic drugs are lacking. We used network meta-analysis to compare new antidiabetic drug classes with respect to major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and mortality. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane database, and ClinicalTrials.gov up to 30 December 2016 for RCTs involving SGLT-2 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors in diabetic patients that reported MACE and deaths...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
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