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Dpp-4 glp-1

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094469/immunohistochemical-assessment-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-glp-1r-expression-in-the-pancreas-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#1
Rikke Kaae Kirk, Charles Pyke, Matthias G von Herrath, Jane Preuss Hasselby, Lars Pedersen, Pia Gottrup Mortensen, Lotte Bjerre Knudsen, Ken Coppieters
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone which stimulates insulin release and inhibits glucagon secretion from the pancreas in a glucose-dependent manner. Incretin-based therapies, consisting of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, are used for the treatment of T2D. Immunohistochemical studies for GLP-1R expression have previously been hampered by the use of unspecific polyclonal antibodies. This study used a new monoclonal antibody to assess GLP-1R expression in pancreatic tissue from 23 patients with T2D, including 7 with a DPP-4 inhibitor and 1 with a GLP-1R agonist treatment history...
January 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036112/protocol-of-glucose-control-safety-and-efficacy-in-type-2-diabetes-a-network-meta-analysis-glucose-dinet-protocol-rational-and-design
#2
REVIEW
Guillaume Grenet, Audrey Lajoinie, Shams Ribault, Gia Bao Nguyen, Thomas Linet, Augustin Metge, Catherine Cornu, Michel Cucherat, Philippe Moulin, François Gueyffier
The aim of this study is to propose a ranking of the currently available antidiabetic drugs, regarding vascular clinical outcomes, in type 2 diabetic patients, through a network meta-analysis approach. Randomized clinical trials, regardless of the blinding design, testing contemporary antidiabetic drugs and considering clinically relevant outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus will be included. The primary outcomes of this analysis will be overall mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and major cardiovascular events...
December 30, 2016: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019064/novel-antidiabetic-medications-for-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-with-type-2-diabetes
#3
REVIEW
Yoshio Sumida, Yuya Seko, Masashi Yoneda
Liver related diseases are the leading causes of death in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Japan. T2DM is closely associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which is the most prevalent chronic liver disease worldwide. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a severe form of NAFLD, can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatic failure. NASH can be called "diabetic hepatopathy". There are no established pharmacotherapies for NAFLD/NASH patients with T2DM. Although metformin is established as the first-line therapy for T2DM, given its relative safety and beneficial effects on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), weight, and cardiovascular mortality, this agent is not recommended as specific therapy for NASH/NAFLD due to no clinical evidences...
December 26, 2016: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998910/pancreatic-effects-of-liraglutide-or-sitagliptin-in-overweight-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-12-week-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#4
Mark M Smits, Lennart Tonneijck, Marcel H A Muskiet, Mark H H Kramer, Indra C Pieters-van den Bos, Karuna E W Vendrik, Trynke Hoekstra, Marco J Bruno, Michaela Diamant, Daniël H van Raalte, Djuna L Cahen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the mechanistic effects of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist liraglutide and the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor sitagliptin on (exocrine) pancreatic physiology and morphology. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: For this randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial, 55 patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and/or sulfonylurea agents were included. Participants received liraglutide 1.8 mg (n = 19), sitagliptin 100 mg (n = 19), or matching placebos (n = 17) once daily for 12 weeks...
December 20, 2016: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997588/protective-effects-of-vildagliptin-against-pioglitazone-induced-bone-loss-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#5
Young Sil Eom, A-Ryeong Gwon, Kyung Min Kwak, Ju-Young Kim, Seung Hee Yu, Sihoon Lee, Yeun Sun Kim, Ie Byung Park, Kwang-Won Kim, Kiyoung Lee, Byung-Joon Kim
Long-term use of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) is associated with bone loss and an increased risk of fracture in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Incretin-based drugs (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists and dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors) have several benefits in many systems in addition to glycemic control. In a previous study, we reported that exendin-4 might increase bone mineral density (BMD) by decreasing the expression of SOST/sclerostin in osteocytes in a T2DM animal model. In this study, we investigated the effects of a DPP-4 inhibitor on TZD-induced bone loss in a T2DM animal model...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986341/incretin-related-drugs-and-cardiovascular-events-a-comparison-of-glp-1-analogue-and-dpp-4-inhibitor
#6
EDITORIAL
Yukihito Higashi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2016: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976813/evaluation-of-drug-efficacy-of-dpp-4-inhibitors-based-on-theoretical-analysis-with-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics
#7
Risa Takayanagi, Takumi Uchida, Koji Kimura, Yasuhiko Yamada
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are used clinically as therapeutic agents for treatment of diabetes. To determine the rate of DPP-4 inhibition induced by these inhibitors, we used pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters to theoretically examine the relationship between the rate of DPP-4 inhibition and clinical efficacy following administration of 4 different DPP-4 inhibitors (sitagliptin, vildagliptin, alogliptin, linagliptin) by focusing on the increase in level of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) induced by their administration...
December 15, 2016: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933334/improved-glycaemia-in-high-fat-fed-neprilysin-deficient-mice-is-associated-with-reduced-dpp-4-activity-and-increased-active-glp-1-levels
#8
Joshua R Willard, Breanne M Barrow, Sakeneh Zraika
AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Neprilysin, a widely expressed peptidase, is upregulated in metabolically altered states such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Like dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), neprilysin can degrade and inactivate the insulinotropic peptide glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Thus, we investigated whether neprilysin deficiency enhances active GLP-1 levels and improves glycaemia in a mouse model of high fat feeding. METHODS: Nep (+/+) and Nep (-/-) mice were fed a 60% fat diet for 16 weeks, after which active GLP-1 and DPP-4 activity levels were measured, as were glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels during an OGTT...
December 8, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898108/monotreme-glucagon-like-peptide-1-in-venom-and-gut-one-gene-two-very-different-functions
#9
Enkhjargal Tsend-Ayush, Chuan He, Mark A Myers, Sof Andrikopoulos, Nicole Wong, Patrick M Sexton, Denise Wootten, Briony E Forbes, Frank Grutzner
The importance of Glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) for metabolic control and insulin release sparked the evolution of genes mimicking GLP-1 action in venomous species (e.g. Exendin-4 in Heloderma suspectum (gila monster)). We discovered that platypus and echidna express a single GLP-1 peptide in both intestine and venom. Specific changes in GLP-1 of monotreme mammals result in resistance to DPP-4 cleavage which is also observed in the GLP-1 like Exendin-4 expressed in Heloderma venom. Remarkably we discovered that monotremes evolved an alternative mechanism to degrade GLP-1...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881129/impact-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-on-serum-adiponectin-a-meta-analysis
#10
Xin Liu, Peng Men, Yuhui Wang, Suodi Zhai, George Liu
BACKGROUND: Adiponectin, an adipose-specific protein, is negatively correlated with pro-atherogenic low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance. Therefore, low levels of adiponectin are associated with a higher risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i) have been used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as reversible inhibitors through interacting with DPP4 substrate and increase serum incretins such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)...
November 23, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862902/cardiovascular-events-and-all-cause-mortality-associated-with-sulphonylureas-compared-with-other-antihyperglycaemic-drugs-a-bayesian-meta-analysis-of-survival-data
#11
Steve Bain, Eric Druyts, Chakrapani Balijepalli, Carl A Baxter, Craig J Currie, Romita Das, Richard Donnelly, Kamlesh Khunti, Haya Langerman, Paul Leigh, Gaye Siliman, Kristian Thorlund, Kabirraaj Toor, Jiten Vora, Edward J Mills
AIM: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality associated with sulphonylureas (SUs) vs other glucose lowering drugs in patients with T2DM (T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of Medline, Embase, Cochrane and clinicaltrials.gov was conducted for studies comparing SUs with placebo or other antihyperglycaemic drugs in patients with T2DM. A cloglog model was used in the Bayesian framework to obtain comparative hazard ratios (HRs) for the different interventions...
November 14, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858848/a-genetic-variant-in-glp1r-is-associated-with-response-to-dpp-4-inhibitors-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#12
Eugene Han, Hye Sun Park, Obin Kwon, Eun Yeong Choe, Hye Jin Wang, Yong-Ho Lee, Sang-Hak Lee, Chul Hoon Kim, Lee-Kyung Kim, Soo Heon Kwak, Kyong Soo Park, Chul Sik Kim, Eun Seok Kang
Incretin hormone-based therapy in type 2 diabetes has been widely used, and dipepdityl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, which prevent incretin degradation, have become popular oral hypoglycemic agents. The efficacy of DPP-4 inhibitors varies from individuals, and factors determining responses to DPP-4 inhibitors have not been fully established. We aimed to investigate whether genetic variations in glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) receptor are associated with responses to DPP-4 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844335/cardiovascular-safety-of-incretin-based-therapies-in-type-2-diabetes-systematic-review-of-integrated-analyses-and-randomized-controlled-trials
#13
REVIEW
Edoardo Mannucci, Matteo Monami
INTRODUCTION: Regulatory requirements mandate that new drugs for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, are evaluated to show that they do not increase cardiovascular (CV) risk. METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken to evaluate the association between DPP-4 inhibitor and GLP-1 receptor agonist use and major adverse cardiac events (MACE)...
January 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835045/cardiovascular-outcomes-of-new-medications-for-type-2-diabetes
#14
Jennifer M Trujillo, Sara A Wettergreen, Wesley A Nuffer, Samuel L Ellis, Michael T McDermott
Cardiovascular (CV) disease remains the leading cause of death in people with diabetes, highlighting the importance of using treatment options that do not increase CV risk or possibly decrease CV outcomes. Since 2008, the Food and Drug Administration has required demonstration of CV safety for all new medications developed for the glycemic management of diabetes. Seven trials have been published that have established CV safety for three DPP-4 inhibitors (alogliptin, saxagliptin, and sitagliptin), three GLP-1 receptor agonists (liraglutide, lixisenatide, and semaglutide), and one sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor (empagliflozin)...
December 2016: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819769/cardiovascular-outcome-trials-of-the-incretin-based-therapies-what-do-we-know-so-far
#15
Pablo F Mora, Eric L Johnson
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is a well-established pro-inflammatory state with an increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) diseases. In recent years, the number of different classes of agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes has increased substantially, and while glycemic control is the major focus of these medications, CV safety has become of interest. Two incretin based therapies are currently available, glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (RAs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors...
November 7, 2016: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817160/novel-anti-glycemic-drugs-and-reduction-of-cardiovascular-risk-in-diabetes-expectations-realized-promises-unmet
#16
REVIEW
James H Flory, Jenny K Ukena, James S Floyd
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to review evidence on cardiovascular risks and benefits of new treatments for type 2 diabetes mellitus. RECENT FINDINGS: In response to guidance issued by the Food and Drug Administration, thousands of patients have been enrolled in large randomized trials evaluating the cardiovascular effects of the three newest diabetes drug classes: glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors...
December 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809608/an-update-on-dpp-4-inhibitors-in-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes
#17
Avivit Cahn, Simona Cernea, Itamar Raz
DPP-4 inhibitors are a class of compounds used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The drugs inhibit the degradation of GLP-1, thus amplifying the incretin effect. They have moderate glycemic efficacy, a low propensity of causing hypoglycaemia and are weight neutral. The drugs are often used as second line therapy after metformin. Areas covered: This review summarizes the available compounds in the market and discusses the novel compounds that are currently under development. Several large cardiovascular outcome trials with some of the compounds have been completed, and their results and implications are considered...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800649/effects-of-dpp-4-inhibitor-linagliptin-and-glp-1-receptor-agonist-liraglutide-on-physiological-response-to-hypoglycemia-in-japanese-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-open-label-2-arm-parallel-comparative-exploratory-trial
#18
Daisuke Yabe, Takashi Eto, Masanari Shiramoto, Shin Irie, Kenta Murotani, Yusuke Seino, Hitoshi Kuwata, Takeshi Kurose, Susumu Seino, Bo Ahren, Yutaka Seino
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors reduces the risk of hypoglycemia, possibly through augmentation of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) action but not that of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on glucagon secretion. To examine this model in Japanese individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D), the effects of the DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin on glucagon and other counterregulatory hormone responses to hypoglycemia were evaluated and compared with those of the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide in a multi-center, randomized, open-label, 2 arm parallel comparative, exploratory trial...
November 1, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797785/glucagon-like-peptide-1-analogues-and-risk-of-breast-cancer-in-women-with-type-2-diabetes-population-based-cohort-study-using-the-uk-clinical-practice-research-datalink
#19
Blánaid M Hicks, Hui Yin, Oriana H Y Yu, Michael N Pollak, Robert W Platt, Laurent Azoulay
OBJECTIVE:  To determine whether the use of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues, compared with the use of dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, is associated with an increased risk of incident breast cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN:  Population based cohort study. SETTING:  Clinical Practice Research Datalink, UK. PARTICIPANTS:  44 984 women aged at least 40 years, who were newly treated with glucose lowering drugs between 1 January 2007 and 31 March 2015, with follow-up until 31 March 2016...
October 20, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780736/add-on-therapy-with-anagliptin-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-treated-with-metformin-and-miglitol-can-maintain-higher-concentrations-of-biologically-active-glp-1-total-gip-and-a-lower-concentration-of-leptin
#20
Takeshi Osonoi, Miyoko Saito, Natsuyo Hariya, Moritaka Goto, Kazuki Mochizuki
Metformin, α-glucosidase inhibitors (α-GIs), and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP-4Is) reduce hyperglycemia without excessive insulin secretion, and enhance postprandial plasma concentration of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. We assessed add-on therapeutic effects of DPP-4I anagliptin in Japanese T2DM patients treated with metformin, an α-GI miglitol, or both drugs on postprandial responses of GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and on plasma concentration of the appetite-suppressing hormone leptin...
December 2016: Peptides
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